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The Philanthropist (Newspaper) - December 11, 1838, Cincinnati, OhioGaa Tallal , jr., . 47. Mew series. The philanthropist of a Bill Sligo weekly by the anti-8la\xry society a a. W. Corp ice of main sixth streets Cincinnati Ohio. Jakes Boyl a publishing agent. Dolours and fifty cent in three Dot tars if not paid till the expiration of the year. Ocl lera on Ini wet a hold be directed to the put Tishu a ent those relating to the editorial department to the pm to a. In Alt Bot l Wirf. A my Dir of slavery. Tai before a a it uth Calina society for the Jii Hance it of learning by Jodok Harper of 80clh Carolina. Continue from . 143. In moral investigations ambiguity is often occasioned by confounding the intrinsic nature of an action As determined by its consequences wit i the in tires of the actor ii Woking moral guilt or innocence. If Poison be Given with a View to Poison another and it cures him of disease the poisoner is pity but the Apt is Beneficent in its results i Medicine be Given with a View to heal and it happens to kill he who administered it is innocent but the act is a noxious one. If they who begun and prosecuted the slave Trade Practised horrible cruelties and inflicted Muchisu flaring a As doubt Bev did though these have been much exaggerated for merely selfish purposes and with View Sci future Good they were morally most guilty. So far As cruelly was Practised the motive and the act were alike bad. But if we could be sure that the entire effect of the Trade has been to produce More happiness than would otherwise have existed we must pronounce it Good and that it has happened in the ordering of gods Providence to whom evil cannot be imputed. Moral guilt has not been imputed to Las Casas and if the importation of african slaves into America had Ahe effect of preventing More suffering to iii it inflicted it was Good boil in the motive and the result. I freely admit that it is hardly possible to justify morally those who begun and carried on the slave Trade. No speculation of future go Oil to be sought Abotsi could compensate the enormous amount of evil it occasioned. If we should refer to the common moral sense of Mankind As determined by their conduct in All Ages and countries for a Standard of morality it would seem to be in favor of slavery. In he will of god As Dei engined by Utility would be an infallible Standard if we had Aii unerring measure of Utility. The unit italian Philosoph Yas it is commonly understood re err iii Only to the animal wants and Emijo ments and physical condition of Man is utterly false and degrading. If a sufficiently extended def Anition be Given to Utility As to include every tiling that May be a source of enjoyment or suffering it is for the most part allow can you compare the pleasures resulting from the exercise of the understanding the taste and the imagination with animal enjoyments of the senses the gratification derived from a Flatic poem with that from a Rich banquet How Are. We to weigh the and enjoy in edits of one Man highly cultivated and of great sensibility. Against those of Many men of blunter capacity for enjoy ment or stiffening and if we could determine with certainty in what Utility consists we Are Short Sigli ted with respect to consequences the Remote results of our Best considered actions Are often wide of our anticipations or contrary to them that we should still be very much in the but though we cannot arrive at absolute certainty with respect to the Utility of act on it is always matter of argument. Tho High an i i perfect stand Quot Ard it is the Best we have and perhaps the Grea tor did not intend that we Sli Ould arrive at perfect certainty wit i regard to the morality of Many actions. If after the most careful examination of consequences Ilia we Are Able to make with due distrust of ourselves we impartially and in Good Faith decide for that which appears Likely to produce the greatest Good we Are free from moral guilt. And i would impress most earnestly that with our imperfect and limited faculties and shortsighted a a we Are to the future we can rarely very rarely indeed by justified in producing considerable present evil or suffering in the expectation of Remote future Good if indeed this can Ever be justified. A in considering this subject i shall not regard it in the first instance in reference to the present position of the slave holding slates or the difficulties which lie in the Way of their emancipating their slaves but As a naked abstract questions whether nation of labor is necessary. In Early stages of society when people Are Ali Only scattered Over an extensive territory the labor necessary to extensive works cannot be commanded. Men Are inc pendent of each other. Having the command of abundance of land one will submit to be employed int lie service of his neighbor. No one therefore can employ More capital than he can use with his own hands or those of his family nor have an i ii com e m 0 Ell Bey Ond i he necessaries of i i be. The re can therefore be Little Leisure for Inte Lect Ial pursuits or Means the comforts or ele Gauches of life. It is Hanley necessary to say however that if a Dian has the command of slaves he May Combine labor and use capital to required extent and therefore accumulate wealth. He shows that colonies have been successfully planted without some sort of slavery. So we find the fact to be. It is Only in the slave holding states of our confederacy that wealth can be acquired by agriculture which is the getheral employment of our whole country. Among us we know Llinat there is one however Humble his beginning who with persevering Industry intelligence and orderly and virtuous habits May not attain to Cen Siiter Able opulence. So far As wealth has been accumulated in the slates which do not possess slaves it has been in cities by the pursuits of Commerce or lately by manufactures. But the products or slave labor furnish More than two thirds of the materials of our foreign Commerce which the Industry of those Stales is employed in transporting and Cecli Angius and am orig the slave holding Sta tes is to be found the great Market for All the productions of their Industry of whatever the Prosperity of those states therefore and the civilization of their cities have been for the most part created by the existence of slavery. Even iii cities but for a class of population which our institutions have marked As Servile it would be scarcely possible to preserve the Ordinary Habitude of civilized life by commanding the necessary menial and Domestic service it every stage of human society from the roast bar Idarmis to the most refilled has i to own Peculiar evils to Mark it As the condition of mortality. And perhaps there is none but omnipotence who can say in which the scale of Gootel or evil most preponderates. We need say nothing of the evils of Savage life. There is a state of society somewhat elevated above it which is to be found in some of the More thinly peopled portions of our own country the rudest agricultural state which is thus characterized by the author to whom i have a the american of the Backwoods has often been de.8cri.bed to the As grossly , dirty unsocial delighting in Runi and tobacco attach eel to ii oiling hut his Rifle adventurous restless a dec than half of social enjoyments he has recourse to those of Savage life and becomes for in this respect the americans degenerate unfit for this is very inviting picture which though exaggerated we know not to be without likeness. The evils of such a slate i suppose will hardly be thought compensated by unbounded Freedom perfect Equality and ample Means of subsistence. But let us take another stage iii Llie Progress Praed tal and do a not exist in it is better that the insist Upton of Mes tic slavery should or shoo i v ill Zed y. A and. Thou Gli some of m y re in a res May seem to have such a tepid ency let me not be understood As taking upon myself to determine that it is better that it should exist god forbid that the responsibility of deciding such a question should Ever be thrown on me or my countrymen. But Liis i will say and not without Confidence that it is in the Power of human intellect to establish the that it should not exist this is probably known but to one being and concealed from human sagacity. There have existed in various Ages and we now Sec ,g. In the world people in cd a by stage of civilization from the most barbarous to the most refined. Man As i have said is not born to civilization. He is born rude and ignorant. But it will be i suppose admitted that it is the design of the creator that he should attain to civilization that religion should be known that the comforts and elegance of life Shoukal be enjoyed that letters and arts should be cultivated in Short that there should be tie greatest possible development of a Al and of intellectual excellence. It ran hardly be necessary to say thing of those who have extolled the Superior Virtues and Cojo ments of Savage life a life of physical wants and sufferings of continual insecurity of furious passions and depraved vices. Those who have praised Savage Ife Are those who have known nothing of it or who have become . But As 1 have said far As reason or Universal experience instruct us the of slavery is an essential process in emerging from Savage life. It must then produce Good and promote the designs of the creator. I will furrier itt my Mery Muhi Patel the atm Jite e/ci.fi7izfl�> to i and retarded he evil Odwith nation. V the former part of Iliin proposition has been 80 fully established by a writer of great Power of thought thou Gli i fear iii practical conclusions will be found of Little value hat it is hardly necessary to urge it. Properly the Acrum Iila Tion of capital a it is commonly called is the element of civilization. But to accumulate or to use capital to considerable extent the combi which i to Many will appear to offer All that is desirable in existence and realize another let us suppose a slate of society in which All shall have property and Liere shall be great inequality of property in which society shall be much condensed As to afford the Means of social Intercourse without being crowded As to create difficulty in obtaining the Means of subsistence in which every family lha chooses May have As much and As will employ its of a lauds while others May employ to Weir Industry in forming such products As it b c desirable to Exchange with them. 8ciioolsjare generally established and the rudiments of Ducai iii universally diffused. Religion is taught and every Village has its Church neat though Humble lifting its spire to heaven. Here is a situation apparently the most favourable to happiness. 1 say apparently., for the greatest source of human misery is not in external circumstances hut ill men themselves in their depraved inclinations their wayward passions and perverse wills. Here is room for All the Petty Competition the envy hatred malice and dissimulation that torture the heart in what m, be supposed the most sophisticated states of society and though less and offensive there May be much of the licentiousness. But apart from this in such a condition of society if there is Little suffering there is Little High enjoyment. The even flow of life forbids the High excitement which is necessary for it. If there is Little vice there is Little place for the eminent Virtues which employ themselves in controlling the disorders and remedying the evils of society which like War and revolution Call Forth the highest Powers of Man whether for Good or for evil. If there is Little misery there is Little room for Benevolence. Useful Public institutions we May suppose to be created but not such As Are merely ornamental. Elegant arts can be Lite cultivated for there Are Means to Reward the artists nor the higher literature for one will have Leisure or Means to cultivate it for its own those who acquire what May he called Liberal education will do in order to employ it As the Means of their own subsistence or and Van Cement in a. P rofe3aion., i treat fire i to Sci will Par of the Sori lioness of Trade. In Short it is Pla in that ill such a stale of society the moral and in Tell actual faculties cannot be cultivated to their highest perfection. C but whether that which 1 have described be the most desirable slate of society or it is certain that it cannot continue. Mutation and Progress is the condition of human affairs. Though retarded for a time by extraneous or accidental circumstances the Roll on. The tendency popu Lalicin is to beco me crowded increasing the , of Laining seb Siste nce. There will be some without property except the capacity for labor. This Heyi must sell to Liliose who have the Means of employing Thena thereby swelling the amount of their capital and increasing inequality. The process Gilill goes on. The number of labourers increases until there is a difficulty in obtaining employment. Then Competition is established. The remuneration of the labourer becomes gradually less and less a larger and larger a Topo Rte o ii of the p to duct of Hli labor goes to swell the Fortune of the capitalist inequality he co ivies still greater Ami still More invidious until the process ends in the establish men t of such a stale of things As the same author describes As now existing in England. After a mos imposing picture of her greatness and resources of her super abounding capital and her All pervading Industry and Enterprise of her for Puisto ses of Art learning and Chenev Olerice her Public in pro Mem rails by Wlinich Intercourse is facilitated and the Roii vengence of Mao Subserve to Ilie conveniences and luxuries of life enjoyed by those who arc in the Possession of Fortune or have profitable employments of All in Short that places her it the head of modern civilization he proceeds to give the reverse of the picture. And Here i shall use his own words. The Labouring class compose the bulk of the people the great body of the people the vast majority of tie people these Are the terms by w Liili English writers and speakers usually describe Iti Oso whose Only property is their a of words the two most frequently used in English politics arc distress and pauperism. After these of expressions applied to the state of the poor the most common Are vice and misery wretchedness Sufle dogs Ign Osawe degradation discontent depravity drunkenness and the increase of crime with Many More of the like he goes on to give the details of this inequality and wretchedness in terms talc tilted to sicken and Appal one to Wiliom the picture is new. That he has painted strongly we May Sti pose but there is ample corroborating testimony if such were needed that the representation is substantially just. Where much misery exists there must of course be much discontent and Many have been disposed to Trace the sources the former in vicious legislation or the Structure of government and the author gives the various schemes sometimes contradictory some Iines ludicrous which projectors have devised As a Reid indy for All this Ovillo w Hichi flesh is Liei r. That ill judged legislation ii times a the general , that its May be mitigated by the Well directed efforts of the Wise and virtuous Liere can be doubt. One purpose for which it has been permitted to exist is that it May Call Forth such efforts and awaken Powers and Virtues which would otherwise have slumbered for want of object but remedy there is none unless it be to abandon their civilization. This inequality this vice til is misery this slavery is the Price of England a civilization i hey suffer the lot of humanity. Bui pc chaps we May be. Permitted Lumbly to Holie that , Inte Nso and widely spread As this misery undoubtedly is in reality it May yet be less than in appearance., we can estimate but very very imperfectly the Good and evil of individual condition As of different states of society. Some unexpected Solace arises to alleviate the severest calamity. Wonderful is the Power of custom in making the hardest condition tolerable the most generally wretched life has circumstances of i ligation. And moments of vivid enjoy m e iit., of w h in h Itie i Zigl y h a pay can scarcely Coue Eive to Ong the lives of India Idun is be shortened the aggregate existence is increased even the various forms of death accelerated by want familiarized to to the contemplation like death to the Soldier on the Field of Battle May become scarcely More formidable than what we Are accustomed to regard As natures Ordinary outlet of existence. If we could perfectly Guvi Wyze the enjoyments and sufferings of the most Happy and the most ints Erable Man we Shoukal perhaps be startled to find the difference much less than our in is had. Led us to conceive. But it is not for us to assume the province of omniscience. The particular theory of the author quoted seems to be founded on an Assumption of this sort that there is a Ceru iii stage in the Progress when there is a certain balance Between the demand for labor and the Supply of it which is More desirable than other when the territory is thickly peopled that All cannot own land and cull Ivale the soil for items Etves but a portion will be compelled to sell their labor to others still leaving. Howe ver the of labor Hiigli and the labourer Independent. It is Plain however that this would in like manner partake of the Good and the evil of other states of society. There would be less of Equality and less rudeness than in the Early stages less civil nation and less suffering than in the latter. It is the Competition for employment which is the source of this misery of society that gives Rise to All excellence in Art and knowledge. When the demand for labor exceeds the Supply the services of the most ordinarily Tia lifted labourer will be eagerly remained. When the sup ply begins to exceed and Competition is established higher and higher will be required until at Engle when it becomes very intense none but the most Consu mately skillful can be sure to be employed. Nothing but necessity can drive men to the exertions which Are necessary to qualify themselves. But it is not in arts merely mechanical alone that this Superior excellence will be required. It will be extended to every intellectual employ meat and though this May not be the effect in the instance of every individual yet it w ill fix the habits a us character of the society and prescribe every where and in every department the highest possible Standard of attainment. But How is it that the existence of slavery As with us will retail the evils of civilization very obviously. It is the intense Competition of civilized life that gives Rise to the excessive cheapness of labor and the excessive cheapness of labor is the cause of the evils in question. Slave labor can never be cheap As what is called free political economist. Have established As the natural Standard of wages in. A fully peopled country the value of the labourer a subsist Tenee. I shall not Slop to enquire in to the precise truth of this proposition. It certainly approximates the we ire Competition is intense men will labor for a Bare subsistence and less than a competent subsistence. The employer of free labourers obtains their services during the time of their health and their vigor without the charge of rearing them from infancy or supporting them in sickness or old age. This Cha reels imposed on the employ or of slave labor who therefore pays higher wages and cute off the principal Urce of ,sery�? the wants and sufferings of infancy sickness and old age. Labourers too will be loss skill fail and perform less work enhancing that sort of the poor Laws of England Are an attempt but an awkward and empirical attempt to Supply the place of that which we should suppose the feelings of every human heart would declare to be a natural obligation that he who has received the Benefit of the Laborera a services during his health and vigor should maintain him when lie becomes unable to pro Vilc for his own support answer their purpose however very imperfect by and Are unjustly and Neq itally i in posed. Teie is attempt to apportion the Hii Den according to the Heoe Fil received and perhaps Liere could be none this is one of the evils of their condition. Be periods of commercial revulsion and distress like the present the distress in countries of free labor Falls principally on the labourers. In those of slave labor it Falls most Czeh sively on the pm Ployer. In the former a licit a business becomes unprofitable the employer dismisses his labourers or Lowers their wages. But with us it is the very period at which we Are least Able to dismiss our labourers and if we would not suffer a further loss we cannot reduce their wages. To receive the Benefit of the services of which they Are capable we must provide for Raniula Inibig their health and vigor. In Point of fact we know that this is accounted among the necessary cd Pei ses of Man age intent. If the income of every planter of the Southern Tate w Cre permanently reduced one half or even much More than that it would not take one Jot from the support and comforts of the slaves. And this can never be materially altered until they shall have become unprofitable that a a very uni Reidjr Tong Cessy Abaid Ohea. It is probable that the accumulation of individual wealth will never be carried to quite great an extent in a slave holding country As in one of free labor but a consequence will be that tie re w ill be iii a ii Al i to and Les u Efferi g. Serv Iuie is the Condi lion. Of civilization. It was decreed when the comm and was Given a be Frai Fol and multiply and replenish the Earth and subdue it a and when it was added a in the sweat of thy face Sliaut thou eat and what human being shall arrogate to himself the authority to pronounce that our form of it is worse in itself or More displeasing to god than that which exists elsewhere shall it be said that the Servil Nde of other countries grows out of the exigency of their Cir o a stances and therefore society is not responsible for i to Burt if we inc w that in Llie p Progress of things it is to come would it not seem the part of Wisdom and Foresi Glit to make provision for it and thereby if we can mitigate the severity of its evils but the fact is not . Let one who doubts read the Book to which i have several times referred and he May be satisfied that it was forced upon us by the extreme exigency of circumstances in a struggle for very existence. Without it it is Doii bigot whet Lior a Whiteman would now be existing on this continent certain that if there were they w Ould be in a Ste the of tie ii inst destitution., Ive Akness and Miae by. It was forced. On us by necessity., and further fastened upon is by the Superior authority of the Mother country. I for one neither deprecate nor resent the gift. Nor did we Institute slavery. The africans brought to us had been speaking in the general slaves in their own country and Only underwent a change of masters. In the countries of Europe and the states of on confederacy in which slavery has ceased to exist it was abolished by positive legislation. If the order of Nati ire Lias been Fie parted from and a forced and artificial state of things Intro Doccy ii has been As All the experience oif tie w orld declares by them and not by is. Raj notes by the a do tar of the a it will be perceived at a glance that Juige harpers ethical philosophy is precisely adapted to the support of slavery the creator did it in Filliat we a Liouta arrive at perfect certainty with regard to the morality of Many actions Utility is tie 6 lard of Many a own Esti foliate o f line consequences of an action is to him the sole Standard of its morality. These Are his principles. Of course the authority of the Bible As a system of ethics is denied and every Man is left at Liberty to fashion a moral code to suit his own imperfect views of things. On this principle the slave would manufacture a morality very different from that of Liis master and As it is assumed that there is fixed Standard of right and wrong we Sec not How they could Settle their differences of opinion except by recourse to hard Mocke. Fat judge Harper is not a Ina Tea of fact Man. Having on speculative grounds come to the conclusion that such things Nusl be he Liere Ripon affirms their existence without once taking counsel of his eyes and cars. We never met with a Man who could theorize with much Hardihood in the fare of facts. In accordance with the doctrines of his Avrile author he lakes Ilie position that Colony can be Success fully planted w Ishmit sort of slavery and that property or capital cannot be rapidly accumulated in newly settled countries without As with slave labor. One would have thought that the admitted superiority of the new England stale in which slavery never existed to such an extent As to impress of its cuu car characteristics on the social condition Over the slaves rates a incr ally i u wealth Enterprise sort general education and ,. Might ave started a few scruples in the mind of the complacent theorist As to the truth of his dogmas. How happens it too that slavery necessary to the rapid Prosperity of newly settled countries should have permitted Kentucky the elder to have lagged far behind Ohio the younger in every element that enters into the com position of social w Calls Power a lid Lippi Ness Ohio we settled by in ii independen i o f each , each one working with his own hands having of course Little Leisure for intellectual Kentucky was settled by men absolute masters of the labor of others Able to a a Combine it a to a a required extent and direct it in Way in the Possession of Large a a capital a not doomed to the Drudgery of toiling for themselves but left at a a Leisure for intellectual pursuits a and abounding in a the Means of acquiring the com forts and elegance of i and yet some How or odier these buckeyes they have been Cut off from the blessings of this successful colonizer this great View country settler have got the Start of their neighbors in agriculture manufactures Commerce wealth population Industry and education. Such examples ought to Lead the Over confident preacher of eternal slavery to distrust Liis wages Prii Ici pie. The truth is Liis theory with regard to labor in the Early stages of society is i , leaving Pill of View a number of important particulars. A country settled As he describes by a few capitalists All Independent of each other and of course each one having to labor for Hirsell will for that very reason be better cultivated and made to yield More weath. Tic individual wealth Liiva be less lint the aggregate will be fat greater. Each one working for himself More land will be cultivated and better cultivated too than if the labor of three fourths were under the combining Power and absolute control of one fourth just because god Hao made it impossible for a free agent like Man to put Forth his Best Powers under the pressure of unnatural coercion. But e in in a country settled combination of labor will not Long be impracticable. Judge Harper has forgo Etc that diff run pcs in skill Industry and providential arrangements would soon disturb the balance of such a Community. Some would be 80 unskillful or As to encroach on their cd Paul and at the end of the year would find if More profitable to hire their labor to others than cultivate for themselves. Superior skill Industry or Fortune would favor others who finding Ihetu eapita.1 augmented would be a Lento buy Quot a k tid and make it an object to their less prosperous neighbors to work it for them. In this Way such a combination of labor would at length be secured As would be adequate to the most extensive works a a combination of labor however totally unlike that form of it called slavery being Quot based on the voluntary principle and harmonizing in All respects with the Laws of human nature. The subdivision of property multiplication of land holders and Equality of , the very circus instances which in judge Harper estimation Are a Sadvari Tage in the settlement of a new country have hitherto been regarded by philosophic minds As the great elements of the Peculiar Prosperity of new England. That they gave character to the political institutions of that Region and Laid the basis of its peculiarly pure republicanism is generally conceded. The first settlers of new England were in the language of Daniel webs the i a a either from their original Coli ditto nor from the necessity of to Weir common interest nearly on a general level in respect to property. Their situation demanded a Parce Liing out and division of the lands and it May be fairly said that this necessary act fixed the future Frame and form of their government after speaking of the abolition of the right of primogeniture and the simplicity of their forms of conveyance the same great states Nan. Says the consequence of All these causes has been a. Great sub division of the soil and a great Equality of condition the True basis most certainly of a popular a a a the history of other nations May teach us How favourable to Public Liti erty is Pic division of tie soil into Small Freehold Tartt h sell Mot Laws off which uie tendency is without violence or injustice to produce and. Top Reserve a degree of Equality of a let us see Wii at is the celebrated Man quoted above places on a state of society which judge Harper in his taste for a High excitement a would seem to revolt at. A a a let it not be supposed a says Webster a a Fiat this stale of things possesses too Strong tendencies towards the production of a dead and an in interest ing level in society. Such tendencies Are sufficiently counteracted by the infinite diversities in the characters and fortunes of India Idun is. Talent activity Industry and elite prize tend at All to p reduce inequality and distinct Iota and there is room still for tie accumulation of wealth with its great advantages to All reasonable and useful extent. It has been often urged against the slate of society in America that it furnishes class of men of Fortune and Leisure. This May be partly True but it is not entirely and the girl if it be one would affect rather the Progress of taste and literature than the general of the pc Ople. B us the pro us Olion of and. Literature cannot be primary objects of a political and if they co Natl it might be doubted whether in the Long course of things As much is not gained by a wide diffusion of Genera knowledge As is lost by abridging the number of those whom fori Ime and Leisure enable to devote Talieh Selvea exclusively to scientific and literary pursuits. However this May be it is to be consid Cre d that it is the spirit of our system to be equal and general and if there be particular disadvantages iii Piderit to this they Are far More than counterbalanced by the benefits which weigh against them. The important concerns of society Are generally conducted in Al countries by Pic men of business and practical ability and even in matters of taste and literature the advantages of Mere Leisure Are Apt to be overrated. Ii their exist adequate Means of education and the love of ichters be excited Quot Liat love will find its Way to the object of Ite desire through the crowd and pressure of the most Busy a a in addition to this we May remark that among the prominent attributes of the religion of Jesus Christ Are its tendencies to equalize human conditions diminish suffering and bring about a stale of Universal peace and purity. Now if High excitement and great suffering and disparity of conditions and rampant vice and blood , by necessary to the Ling lies perfection of the it Oral and i intellectual faculties it follows that christianity is the most formidable enemy human impure has to in compier. For it is that very agent which More than other tends to produce that peaceful slate of things which according to judge Harper is marked by Low enjoyments sordid motives mean Virtues and a shrivelled literature we need t say that the Cha Noel lord a theory of society finds Miore to u a tenancy in reason than religion. High excited agents Are not favourable to the perfection of human happiness. By Wasi tag the delicate sensibilities of the soul they diminish the capacity for a a High their influence too on character in the Kirin is far from being fax curable. Instead of promoting the growth of the human mind As a whole they disturb the balance of its Powers Aid and to gear rate monstrosities both intellectual my moral. In society excess of excitement in itself is always Ati evil. It is comparatively useful Only Isit Indk Cates the working of a regenerating impulse said is necessary to exact the a cities of society to Saab a pitch As May be suffice edit for throwing off Tome Oppre Sije evil. It is is such cases As certain of sym Tomelic of dangerous disorder As fever if i h. The . No o Neimag de that fever is the natural i the of the body or that it i farther useful than Asil a serve under a Mam ement to Rennie High Szepi is favourable to the Poi Wotli fms us Tek Liisu society the same sense in which Sevdi ii Idi air Only. Pro Marci the Way for the restoration of he it do go i it other. A continued state of High Date has a would be Fatali it is not from a nation in. P3 re Tual wars or compelled to direct its w energies for the suppression of incur sect Ion we Are to expect Liberal cont fat Illions to the tre by of knowledge philosophy and tease avoid tumult and commotion Anteau be cultivated with signal Success Only where peace reigns. War pestilence and slavery generate great excitements but what Are their results that we should Admire them ? what is there in the skill and courage of the Warrior to reconcile us to the blood and Eaf Naf a the broken hearts blasted Homes wasted Fields sacked cities the Licea Liou Ness robbery rape murder and Universal corruption of morals which have signalized his triumphs what is there in the Noble self Devotion of a few select spirits we exalted by the very terrors of the dark pestilence haste to and fro through deserted streets minister ing help and Consolation to its victims a what if there in such self Devotion that should make be wis h to sit always in the Shadow of death or Cen compensate in degree for the brutal depravity tie ferocious licentiousness tie Marble lie arted Solis Hesness which at such periods Spring up every where like rank weeds and what is there in slavery in the Lazy Leisure of the slave Holder in his ostentatious hospitality Etc affected chivalry his haunting of High spirit and generosity in the pleasures of absolute Des it Poti iii to set off against the pangs of a gnawing con science the dark dread of i n., the feel ing that he is hated by the victims of his wrongs and is an object of biting sarcasm and rebuke to an emancipated world and against the Caprice Pas Sion arrogance depravity and murderous dispose Tibbs engendered by irresponsible rules. What to there in the a of a fee roof Aff Van Lages of fit Alave Hauler w said to possess for the cultivation of literature advantage if real hitherto unimproved to com the intellectual and moral death of Mil Lions of human beings As m Uchen lived to the pleasures and Pursuit of a Rowledge As himself i the truth is War must cease oppression come to an end unequal Laws be abolished and High excitements prevented by the regeneration of human society Ere Man May Hope to make great advances towards that perfection of which he is capable. A we have already commented on his to Rel ump Tiona that slavery Anuci pates the benefits of civilization let us now attend to the remaining position that slavery Riff arcs the evils of nearly the whole of that part of the Memoir published to Day is devoted to the elaboration of an argument which stripped of Ite non essentials May be stated in very Brief Ternate. He sets out by of Sartnig that Mutt ton and pro Ress Are the condition of Huma i affairs frenc i process of Lime Popula Tio increases the level of society to broken up and two distinct Iff Asseo Are revealed the labourers and capita list. Popu action still augmenting the former class in Hiple new rapidly and subsistence becomes More diff Cantu intense Competition ensues the Price of labor decreases a larger and larger portion of its products goes to swell the already disproportion red capital of the employer and the comforts of the labourer Are curtailed. This is the of ginning of that Tate of thing w High ultimately terminates i not such a condition of society As is now England the Labouring class compelled to toil for a Bare sustenance becoming ignorant impoverished degraded wretched and vicious. This is t the exaggerated picture we Are Eal Leci to item v plate and these terrible evils arc a stated to be a Quot the Price of England a greatness her hts Ufi Civili-5% Patron. A but How docs slavery retard these evils by very process. It prevents ?fron, the source the mischief by securing to the a Borer continual employment uniform Viii Ges e provision for his offspring and care for himself during sickness mid Oil age and by shielding film from the disastrous effects or cd rate a Al revulsion is and i less a wlm sch to Fremo Immis tries fall with crushing weight on the working classes. We live slated the argument stripped of Al disguise but have stated it we believe wide min lire fairness. Nevils it comment look at it. Slavery retards the evils of excessive com Petite i such if the indefinite reduction of wages Ibe necessity which forces the labourer to work Ftp to r Bare subsistence grinding poverty of eroding Cero ignorance and corruption of morals a by vaulting Over All tie intermediate stiffle Between my and Low we s., and by a process More mum Emif that we have traced redoing thin at Oleate bin condition which he might not have ret Elied in k Century it retards Iba ayls by bbtteipaii4 theml dreading that at Oaie period i Rity the working classes May become i vicious degraded paupers and Eiger to Eszell a a terrible a catastrophe it mercifully

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