Bluefield Daily Telegraph (Newspaper) - August 4, 1954, Bluefield, West Virginia
PAGE FOUR—BLUEFIELD DAILY TELEGRAPH, BLUEFIELD, W. VA.
Saiiu CEcle^rapb I Ray Tucker
Wednesday Morning, August 4, 195^
1866 — HUGH IKE SHOTT — 1953
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Toepbvn* I1TJGcx)d Morning
“Let your light so shin* before men.”
Msttbeu 5:16 ^NCE on s bleak and rocky coast.. .1 climbed a lighthouse that could boast . . .
Of Its bright, strong, far-reaching beam , . . that could be seen for miles to gleam ... I wa* surprised to see the power . . . That came from one bulb m that tower . . . Twas small but this they said was why . . .
"The lens directs its beams and by . . . Their prisms multiply us might” ... So can your life reflect Gods light.
01Sutton Vs. KefauverToo Much Coffee
Just as some other countries are do* ing, Brazil is discovering that government support of prices is not without its headaches. The observation comes to mind because of a report from Rio de Janeiro that coffee exporters are deeply disturbed by a growing surplus of their product in consequence of the government’s determination to keep prices at a level eight times as high as those of 20 years ago.
Although there has been no organized buyers’ strike, it is a fact that the high cost of coffee has caused people in many nations, including the United States and Canada, to turn to milk, tea, or what have you. The result is that Brazil’s exports of the beverage bean have dropped sharply and her dollar holdings have deteriorated.
In spite of concern voiced by businessmen, the government gives no indication of a willingness to .change its price policy. So the time may come, as it has com* in the f ast, when over-production will force a coffee-burning spree.
Right-wing reactionary, tariff protectionist, favorite of racketeers; that’s what Sen. Estes Kefauver has been calling Rep. Pat (James Patton) Sutton. Left-winger, internationalist, favorite of the Reds; that's what Sutton has been calling Kefauver. The two are fighting for the Democratic nomination for Senator from Tennessee, in the primary on Thursday. August 5.
The Senator, of course, has the greater eminence, as a result of presiding over the televised hearings of his Senate crime inevstlgating subcommittee in 1950-51, and of campaigning formidably for the 1952 Democratic presidential nomination. A graduate of the Yale law school, now 51, he served ten years In the House before being elected to the Senate six years ago by almost a two to one vote
The Representative, a businessman and farm operator, attended colleges in Tennessee, emerged from more than five years In the Navy with the DSC. Though only 38, he is serving his third term in the House; he had no Republican opponent in 1952.
Kefauver voted for. Sutton against statehood for Hawaii, admission of 214,-000 non-quota refugees over three years, sustaining the Truman veto of the Mc-Carran subversive activities control bill. On many other key issues their votes cannot be compared—partly because the Issues came up differently in the two houses, partly because Sutton missed a great many Yea-and-Nay votes, especially In the biennial election years. As a result of his intensive campaign against Kefauver, he was not recorded on 53 of the 61 such votes in the House this year up to July 29.How To Get Water
Municipalities and whole areas in the United States are faced by the problem of slowly decreasing underground water tables, and some resolute measures, including the Impounding of surface water, are being taken to make up the difference.
The borough of Brooklyn. N. Y., is unique because its problem is the*oppo-site- a rising water table -and some resolute measures are being taken there, too. The first inkling of this almost unheard of circumstance came when the boiler rooms of two housing projects began to be flooded, and the floor of a subway station four blocks away away began to heave and crack.
Engineers who planned the foundation work on the housing projects checked their figures and verified that underpinnings were well above the water level when the houses were completed in 1949. The buildings hadn’t sunk, so obviously the water tables must have risen. This was a reversal of a 44-year downward trend.
Engineers have now pinpointed the starting date of the rising water table —1947. At that time the last of the privately - owned water companies in Brooklyn went out of business and quit pumping from deep wells.
It is thus obvious that the water table can be raised if no water is used. This is a charmingly simple solution, but impracticable. With the population increasing, with industry gobbling more water than ever, and with the per capita usage climbing steadily, it is, in fact, no solution at all.
The sole crumb of comfort is the evidence that there is nothing radically wTong with the internal workings of mother earth and that, given half a chance, natural forces will set things aright once again.United States Is Unpopular Through j Vast Arab World
• m 9
CAIRO. Egypt—The United States has become extremely unpopular throughout the vast Arab world, which constitutes very weak front line against Cbm-munist aggression, militarily and economically, but which owns the land on which the Western Allies need Army, Air and Navy bases.
! We also need their active support from a sen?¡mental and historical viewpoint. We cannot afford to have them favor the Russians in resentment.
The Arab peoples, according to their spokesmen in this ancient capital of Islamic belief, like us, personally and collectively. American business men and newspaper correspondents get along far better with the Arabians, from here through the Middle East and India, than do the representatives of any other nation.
But the officials and the people despise the U.S. foreign policy as conducted by both the Truman and Roosevelt Administrations. Thougn utterly anti-COmmunist, they are .skeptical of our attachment to such hated "colonial and imperialistic” power k as Britain and France.
Backing of Our AlUea
On the ground that we cannot afford a break in the solidarity of t.*e Anglo-French-American Alliance in Europe and the Far East, Washington backed the British in the Iranian oil dispute and also London’s now ended controversy with Egypt over future occupation of the great military and air base. 150 miles northeast of Cairo, which is regarded as essential to the protection of the Suez Canal against Russian invasion of the Middle East. We support also the unpopular French occupation of Tunisia and Morocco.
It is easy to sit in Washington and write about backward people*’ resentment of foreign occupation,
colonialism and imperialism. They are only words, words, words— theoretical terms. It requires a visit to this section of the world, and talks with people from officials to hotel door dragomans, to realize the bitterness which we are building for ourselves.
To support Anglo-French for-e gn policies, for instance, we refused to market Iranian ml after that country confiscated British holdings. The great international petroieum organisation clamped on a boycott at the request of the State Department under Truman, and Eisenhower continued it.
In backing the British in the Sue/ Canal and military base argument, the United States refused to sell arm* to tl* new Naguib-Nasser regime. So. Egypt bought from Spain, which is receiving American military assistance Finally, we voted against the demand of the Tunisians and Moroccans that their grievances aga;*.: Fiance be discussed before The United Nations.
Symbol of Imperialism
Washington*« siding with the Churchill Government in the Sue/ Canal controversy appears to be small cause for hurting Egyptian and Arabaaan friendship toward us But to the Egyptians, who are Imbued with the same spirit of nationalism that is sweeping what Truman called "backward and undeveloped countries.” it represented the last symbol of “Imperialism and colonialism."
' How would you Americans like It.” exploded a high official of the Nagiub-Nasser regime—just before the recent Anglo-Egyptian pact was signed- "If Canada insisted on occupying New England? How would you like it if Canada demanded that it be permitted to maintain a military base on Governors Island in New York Harbor, or at Fort Dix in New* Jersey? We are just as pround of our nation a.s you are. We have the same longing for complete independence and recognition.
"The British point out that they have given vou Americans many bases in England and in their possessions around the world. But that is quite different. They gave or leased them to you under a contract and freindly agreement —tn fact, for their own national Interest. But they have been on Egyptian .-»oil through the stain of conquest.”
Washington's policy on “col-onislism.” under Truman and Eisenhower, has been to force Iran. Egypt, Idno-Chma. Tunisia and Morocco to make concessions to their imperial masters. The time may have come for Ike and Dulles to demand that the great powers—our Allies—give more consideration to the little but lusty peoples of the world.
From One Bear Trap To Another
Robert RuarkDrive-In Traffic Court Is Being Contemplated
I see where they are thinking 85.” the second cop savs. atxmi starting a drive-in traffic "Whatva got to say'5'’ the iav-court near a particularly deadly pee asks.
highway la Westchester County, “Well, vour honor,” you say. “I New' York, which seems to me a thought I. . .” brilliant idea in this automotive “Guilty." the jaypee says. "You
age. This scheme has already are hereby directed to appear in oeen piumbed in a rough form in the General Sessions of next con-some of the more informal South- yening court on Shrove Tuesday of ern states, and it works fine. 1976.”
You may or may not have had "But I got to be in Washington any contact with traffic-court pro- to appear in tHe summer replace-cedures m places such as Georgia ment of the McCarthy-Army or South Carolina, but I remember show.” vou say. “I can’t wait.” them a.s a marvel of efficiency.: ”Wal.” sezze. “it’s Jail or bail.”
What happens is that you will be You ask how much is the bail
booming along on those long.land he mentions a sum that might straight roads, at about 90 per. A have been demanded for Hitler’s couple of cops boil out from a release if the B'nai B’rith had speed trap, and herd you into a caught him. You say you will write county seat consisting of one a check. "Nope.” the man says, street and a feed store. ‘No check. How much cash you
The cops say null up yonder, and got0” indicate a comer Standing on the "Twenty-three dollars and sev-corner is a character in a hickory enty-three cents.” you say.
diirt and seersucker pants. He is formally introduced as the local jaypee, and court is convened.
How fast?” he says, assassinating a June bug with a high, swift stream of tobacco juice. “Eighty-two,” one cop says “I reckoned, it w a s more like
“Bail reduced to twenty-two dollars. extenuating circumstances.” he says. “Fork her over. If rou miss court, you forfeit bail. Case dismissed.”
I have never figured out who gets the money, but the chances are it changes hands in a crapF. C. Othman
McLEAN. Va. — My favorite kind of weather stogy to write concerns blizzards.
A fellow can sit by a steam radiator and pound out the details in comfort. A snowdrift is some-1 thing he can see and a line of traffic on any icy hill is funny for everybody except the ones wishing they had chains' No matter how blustery it gets, there’s! always at least one thing pleasant about a winter weather story.
This isn’t that kind of piece.
The drought that has been breaking records is playing hob with Fairfax County. Virginia, and also with my beaten-up acres. It isn’t doing me any good, either. I’ve almost had to- stop bathing.
My poor bride has been so worried over her new hemlock trees that she has been watering them early and also late. This wather comes from our well, where the pump seldom stops buzzing. Such continued use keeps j the pressure down to around 18 pounds in the pipes, and that isn’t j enough to bring anything but aj kind of reverse gurgle to my shower.
Stick your finger in the faucet i and the suction holds it there.1Blizzards Are Favorite Kind Of Weather Story
This is leaving me a little dusty around the edges, but the tree^ still are alive, though just barely. Hilda can water only one at a time and she fas 110 of them.
Our 14 acre: of grass we have forgotten. Th t w hole works is brown. I’ve done no mowing in weeks. Neither have my neighbors.! This has put a crimp in the lawn-mower repair business of my friend A. T. Gilbert, but he says! do not worry about him. So long as people refuse to put oil in their j putt-putt engines, he’ll have work to do.
In our pasture is a horse. We' cut hay there early in June and the grass has not grown since:! the field still looks new-mown. Through the edge of this runs a “burbling” brook. It hasn’t burbled since last April. I’m having to haul water to the horse, and this also has its effect on those hemlocks.
Many of rav neighbors are dairymen. producing milk for Washington, D. C. They, poor devils, are in a spot. There’s no chance now j for a second crop of hay, and their! barn lofts are half empty. One man who ordinarily has 2,000 bales’ of hay on hand at this time of
Elmer RoessnerReduction Of Operating Costs Major Problem
HOLLYWOOD - The last time Gordon MacRae was in Las Vegas he left a packet behind ai the tables—I hear it was acme where in the neighborhood of $40.000?
June Haver and Fred MacMur-rav continue to act very cosy and honeymoonish on the "Blue Horizons” location *\t Jackson Hole. Wyo. June washes Fred’s laundry and cooks everything he can fish cut of the river. If this marriage iails. Щ give up.
Listen to Elsa Lanchester. reminiscing of when she firs», came to Hollywood with Charles Laughton: “The tow'n then was full of Nouveau rich. Now. with television, it’s full of Nouveau poor.”. . Well, Paul Douglas isn’t leaving it to the movies to make him rich. Paul, with a New York Syndicate, has bought six constellation planes— but I dunno what for.
Robert Wagner is doing a switch in "White Feather ” the story of the Cheyenne Indians’ surrender to the white man. Robert plays a he-man, a frontiersman who practically makes the Indians surrender single-handedly—they think he’s j iuch a fine feller. Says Bob. “it’s time to grow up, time to change my picture roles and my publicity.”
Remember Butch Jenkins? The fcov movie monster, Uving with his folks in Dallas, is now a strapping six foot two. . . And if you want to know what happened to Jackie Coogan—the last I heard, he was Ш Copenhagen making a movie.
Porfirio Rubirosa is appealing to Washington to reverse the "n о work permit” decision. He’s letter perfect for hi.s role of the singing saloonkeeper in "Western Affair” with vou know who—\vho is crying nto her champagne because, she say«, "this is the first time a pic-sure was written for me, and/was right for me.” They’ll make the movie if they have to :o to the Dominican Republic to do u.
The Small Business Administration may have produced a two-page best-seller. It's a leaflet titled. "How to Reduce Your Operating Coats." and if that isn’t a hit in times like these—especially since it is free—then the SBA had better stop printing management aids and go in for sery novels.
The leaflet was prepared by Virgil M. Rotroff, New York management engineer, and copies can be obtained by writing the SBA, Washington 25. D. C„ and asking for Management Aid No. 51.
In its limited space. It cannot get around to specific advice, such as recommending the firing of all relatives, and it is therefore confined to theory. Some of the more important of the generalities are:
"Don't investigate a big complex' area of cost reduction in a single! unit even though it all comes under the responsibility of one individual. Instead, divide it into smaller areas and concentrate attention on, the solution of one problem at « time.
* Don’t try to find opportunities for savings by merely asking questions. You have to go deeper than that—into record« and 'ifurcs.
"Separate long-term from shortterm improvements and try to get results that are imi ledicte. Don’t lose time studying functions that wx>uld require a capital expenditure beyond your budget limitation.
"Prove to yourself that each job is really necessary. Knowing w’hy a job is necessary often leads to ideas for a better and lees costly method.
"Look for temporary procedures set up to meet a temporary condition in the past. These may have become permanent procedures of questionable value now.
"Separate the simple Johs from the more complex ones, and don’t load high-cost equipment with work that could b* performed equally
a • •
well on simpler and le«s costly machinery. Avoid the use of high-priced labor to perform lower-priced, unskilled-labor jobs.
"Question whether or not the job is being done in the proper place. Could it be performed better somewhere else, nearer the point where the preceding or following operations are performed? Look for opportunities to reduce material« handling costs by relocating the operation or combining it with another function.”
There are many more ideas. They are worth inve«ting a stamp.
Chamber of Commerce execu-! tives are not always the do-or-die-for-dear-old-home-town fellows that many persons believe. Dr. c. L. Lapp, of Washington University.’ told a recent meeting of C. of C. executives at Dallas that a survey had disclosed some shortcomings. Among the faults are that executive« are more hisotrians than pioneers; they fail to take positions on crucial issues; they lack needed in-1 formation too often; they fail to’ develop ideas into a workable plan: they all too often start off on the defensive; they use their jobs as stepping stones to something else; they emphasize minor projects and neglect major ones; they try to do $1,000 projects for $50. and they are afraid to ask the membership for support in timej and money.
Many executives, he said, were of excellent caliber, but greater care should be used in selecting and training others.
Companies organized outside of the District of Columbia will have to pull out of the District of Columbia by December 6 or "qualify” under the new' Business Corpora tion law enacted by Congress When they “qualify,” they will be subject to local lawsuits and services of processes, required to pay certain annual fee«, and to file papers showing home-state incor
poration and annual reports thereafter.
Shipments of gac-operated central heating equipment during the first six months of the year were 5.6 per cent ahead of last vear, the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association reports. Due in part to the extension of natural gae service through pipelines.
While there is another good year ahead, "the recovery does not promise to take on the properties of a major new advance.” V. Lewis Bassie, director of the Bureau of Economic and Business Research of the University of Illinois, writes in the current Illinois Business Review.
“There is hardly anything else in the picture that will lend important assistance to the forwa.^» movement.” he states. "Although the possibility cannot be ruled out that a new high in the gross national produot may temporarily be reached, the chances are that the recovery movement will regain more than half but not all of the lost ground.”
game or is swapped for five gallons of home-cooked whisky. All 1 know is that having the court right there on the comer is a powerful deterrent to swift driving.
We are in a drive-in age. and I un heartily in accord with it. There is no place to park any more, anywhere, so what I say is le$ business oome to you. There (are drive-in banks, where you can i bounce a check without leaving the front seat of the car the bank proo-’abl.v owns anyhow.
Drive-in movies, especially in the South, are the best excuses for necking and a little quiet boozing that ever were invented. There are drive-in laundries and drive-in groceries and drive-in this am! that and the other thing. The onlv thing I haven’t seen suggested yet for drive-in application is hospitals. If they could work out a way to drive into the delivery room leas babies would be born in taxicabs.
And the only thing I can think j of that won’t fit into the drive-iin scheme is funeral parlors. You i might possibly arrange to have the , customer deliver himself, but i
year now has 900.
Our country papers have a small advertising boom because of this - imported hay for sale at high prices, hay that’s been trucked down from New York State. What effect this will have on the price of milk for city folks I hate to predict.
Most irritating thing about this drought is how the skies turn in torren’s. This lasts usually for a minute and a half. Then the sun returns, and five minutes later the earth is as dry as ever.
We locals don’t even brag about our vegetable gardens, because w’e haven’t got ’em. My bride did produce a few squash before ail the moisture left the ground. And now the tomatoes are ripening. They’re the size of marbles and mostly they’ve already been half eaten by our local turtles in search of something wet.
The other vegetable plants, including the beans, simply have disappeared. Even the weeds are curled around the edges, while my trash pj> is growing higher and higher. I dare not put a match to it. The whole county would go up in flames.
Senator Soaper Says
The magazines are full of tips for home purchaser*, and two good ones to remember are that the ranch house should, if possible, be smaller than the lot. and the yard somewhat larger than the power mower.
It’s pretty hard for a giri to go around in a bathing suit and make it through the summer without getting sunburned, insulted or elected queen of something.Geo. Sokolsky • • •Politicians Learn To Use Phrases To Stir Imagination » • «
Politicians have long learned to ti«e a phrase to stir the popu'ar imagination. Such a phrase saves the people from the need for thinking. All they have to do is to .e-peat the pltrase over and over again and then they believe that it is true. Theodore Roosevelt invented the phrase. “The Square Deal,” w hich «actually had no precise political meaning The assumption was that most politic ans. w'hen playing the card game poker, then as popular as. brid^fc. or cants ta ia was generation, dealt the cards from the bottom as well as off the top of the deck, but that Teddy dealt straight.
Franklin D. Roosevelt improved upon his distant cousin’s phrase and made it "The New Deal, a rather confused adventure in ooli-tics and economics, having to do with doing at every political moment what came naturally without regard to the future. It was a most successful phrase because it gave Roosevelt four winning elections. . <
Winston Churchill came pack into the politics of Great Britain, when it seemed as though Hitler would win World War II. with the dramatic phrase, "Blood, Sweat and Tears’’—which is all that he could offer his people It electrified them into resistance to the enemy. It stirred them to an historic effort of the greatest magnitude. It was a wonder-working phrase.
Imagine my surprise when I came across a political poster of 1844, headed ‘Hurrah for Birney it Liberty I” Never having heard of Birney bui being a collector of anything that comes my way, I got a photostat of the poster from Larry Johnson who sells groceries in Syracuse and runs an old-'ash-ioned country store.
It would seem that back in 1839, the Abolitionists, organizing the Liberty Party, nominated James G. Birney for the presidency, ut he declined. In 1843, they repeated this nomination of James G. Birney who got 62,000 votes in the election of 1844 which was sufficient to upset the hopes of Henry Clay and resulted in the election to the presidency of James K. Polk.
The Birney poster contains the following paragraph: “Anti-Monopolists, come and lend your aid for the overthrow of a mountain monopoly, compared with which all the other monopolies in this land are but as the ‘small dust of the balance.’ A monopoly whose capital is Twelve Hundred Millions of Dollars, all ingested in human muscles and Done« and sinews: and which, in its results, not only extorts from its immediate victims their toil and sweat and tears and blood, but annually drains uncounted millions from the pockets of the :ree North, and renders American Republicanism a hissing and by-word on the lips of all the Despots’ of the Old World.”
There is no reason to believe that Winston Churchill ever heard of James G. Birney or his paster and we must assume that Churchill invented, "Blood, Sweat and Tears” out of his own head, he being very good at that sort of thing.
But this is an interesting historic fact. The Birney poster was for two mass meetings in Madison County, New York State. For years this particular poster hung In a country store in a town called can-esaraga in Madison County. Probably because nobody could pronounce Canesaraga. they changed the name to Sullivan which is what the town is now called to the everlasting joy of the Irish. Not many miles away is Pompey, a town in which, I am informed, lived a fine American girl, Jenny Jerome, who in due course became the mother of Winston Churchill.
Now, there it is. Winston Churchill got his wond r-w'orking phrase pre-natally by osmosis. If you Jo not believe that, you will not believe tliat Bacon wrote Shakespeare, that Sam Rosenman wrote Franklin D. Roosevelt’s speeches, that sometimes Haydn wrote Mozart and vice versa, that nobody ever rolled his own. You must wonder that Socrates never wrote a book or why the learned and wise and fat Dr. Johnson has come down to us through the gay and somewhat profligate Scotsman Boswell.
Well, I offer no explanation for these phenomena. But the Birney poster is real even if Birney is so forgotten that his nanie is hardly an historic memory as .t is with so many other candidates for the presidency. As for Winston chiirch-ill, he still holds forth in fine Georgian English, the master phrase-maker of our timeDaily Telegraph Said
FIFTY YEARS AGO
L. S. »Shirey returned from a visit to relatives and friends at Waynesboro, Va.
James McDowell Jr. and sister Ruth, left for a visit to Virginia Beach.
* * *
FORTY YEARS AGO
Rebel force« were reported marching on Mexico City
France and Germany were at war without any declaration of hostiliti«, after German troops invaded French territory.
* * *
THIRTY YEARS AGO
Germans insisted on evacuation of military from Ruhr before launching of Dawes Plan.
Damage to plane forced abandonment of round-the-world flight by British soldiers, led by Major A. Stuart MacLaren. at Nikolski Kemanderski Island. Siberia * * *
TWENTY YEARS AGO
Pocahontas-Tug River District Council of the Joseph A. Helmes Safety Association was organized.
Mr. and Mrs J. H. Tabor and family moved rom Yards, Va. to RFD Princeton.
* * *
TEN YEARS AGO
Brittany's capital of Rennes fell to Americans.
U.S. seized Philadelphia’s transportation network ending three-day work stoppage.
A midwest editor complains that modern ashtrays are no help at all to the pipe smoker. The onlv ashtray that would really suit a pipe smoker would be one i big enough for him to «it is,
Christian Science Monitor: Color television will have come too late for one of the gaudiest and grandest pictures in grandfather’s memory—the old bandstand on the green in front of the town hall decorated for the Fourth of July.
I • • •Another Filibuster On Atomic Energy Measure Is Seen In Senate • • •
WASHINGTON -- Chances are that Congress has not seen the last of the lecord making 13-day fitlbuster over the future control of atomic energy. Another filibus e may be just around the corner.
Despite the hot weather and the hot air however, nothing could be more important to you and your children. For this bill spells out a pattern for the energy tha-win turn the factory wheels and power plants of the nation beginning perhan* in less than 25 years.
‘Reason for a possible new filibuster is that Congressional conferees are now h'e?u mg to adjust the differences between the house bill and the senate bill - especially the important amendments which the Senate put into the a-bill thanks to the harassing force of the 13-day filibuster.
The House conferees are determined to knock these out. Furthermore, the predominant majority of the senate conferees are old school reactionaries whose neck-bristles are already up over the senata amendments.
To understand what the haggling and filibustering is all about,, here is a thumbnail sketch of the more important disputed amendments and what they mean to you and the future economy of the nation.
Water power sites and atomic energy-One vital amendment introduced by SenaJor Humphrey. Minnesota Democrat, apple» to rules of the Federal Power Commission to the leasing of federal fissionable materials.
What this means is that since falling water which generates water pow>er is regulated by the government, the neutrons which have been developed by the government at a cost of twelve billion likewise are to be regulated under the same rules as the leasing of water power aites.
The Federal Power Commission has built up through the years a tried-and-tested set of rules for leasing dam sites to priva’e utilities. Power rates are based on cosu. and the power commission has a set of rules to prevent the padding of cost*.
Such padding is even more important regarding atomic power, since the priva'a atom plants will sell plutonium back to the government, and the price they can charge the government is all-important.
If they are permitted to charge a high price they can pay for the entire cost of their plant in a few years, meanwhile using a government-developed patent.
House conferees and some Senator* would like to knock out this Humphrey amendment applying Federal Power Commission rules to atomic energy. They don’t want the big business firms which will general* atomic power tied down by the rules of the Federal Power Commission.
Government construction of a t о m i a reactors-An amendment introduced br Senator Ed Johnson, Colorado Democrat, permits the government to build an atomia reactor, in other words, a plant for generating peacetime atomic power.
In contrast, Congressman Sterling Cola of New' York introduced an amendment providing that the government cannot build an atomic reactor. Cole wants no competition »with private A-planta.
Senator Johnson, on tha other hand, argued, and the Senate finally agreed, that just as the government built Boulder Dam. Grand Coulee, Bonneville, etc., to serve as a competitive yardstick to private power companies, so the government ahould also build its own atomic energy plant to serve as a similar yardstick.
Senator Hickenlooper, Iowa Republican, in charge of the senate bill for Eisenhower, at first introduced an amendment directly contrary to Johnson, providing that the government could not build a reactor. Then he withdrew it. when senate in-fighting got tough. He will undoubtedly vote in the conference committee, however, to knock out Johnson’s safeguards.
Anti-monopoly -Senator Langer of North Dakota, the only Republican successfully introducing a modifying amendment, tacked onto the bill a safeguard against violation of the Sherman antitrust act. If any company producing atomic energy shall be convicted of violating the antitrust law«, Langer specified, it* license automatically reverts to the United State*, which shall license it royalty free.
When this proposal came up for debate, Hickenlooper was inclined to favor soma kind of anti-monopoly safeguards, but observed: "perhaps this is too important to act on in a hurry. Perhaps we should hold hearings on this provision.”
"That’s exactly the point we’ve beea making.” replied Langer. “We’ve been trying to tell you that this whole bill was toe important to be rushed through congress in record time.”
What Langer referred to was the fact that the Senate received committee prints of the atom bill only one day before debate started, it was obviously impossible to study such an important bill in one day; on top of which Senator Knowland expected to pass it in one additional day of debate. Opponents of the bill suspected that it had been purposely saved until the last minute in order to ram it through in the hot and hectic closing day* of Congress without too5 many senators realizing it* significance.
Patent protection-One of the Most important amendments of all, though a complicated one, was introduced by Senator Bob Kerr, Oklahoma Democrat, providing for the compulsory licensing of patents for a period of 10 days.
The Eisenhower administration had recognized that new patents developed by private enterprise must be made available to other private concerns to a period of five years. Kerr extended the period to 10 years.
Theory behind this is the same as that existing in the automobile industry, where auto patents are pooled and each company has a right to the patent of his competitor. This is one reason the auto industry has made such progress.
Likewise, atomic patents so far have been pooled, with Uncle Sam owning all the patients. In the past eight years, the U.S. Government has filed 606 patents on atomic energy, and this pooling of patents, in turn, is why atomic energy also has jumped ahead with such amazing rapidity in the past eight years. There has been no strangulation of new processes.
However, with the turning over of these patents to private industry, Eisenhower draftees of the new bill recognized that some of the big companies whiqh have been working with the U.S. Government miglit be nursing new secrets up their sleeves, ready to bring them out after the passage of the bill.
Several big private firms-Monsanto Chemical, Babcock and Wilcox. Union Carbon. Dow Chemical, Wes ting house, and General Electric-have been working with the government. So it was argued that they should not get any advantage or head start o\ er other firms in developing peacetime atomic enfergy. • *
That was why Ike-advisers specified a five-year patent, pool.
• *°"«ver’ Was considered too “soc-laustie by som* House Republicans, particularly Congressman Sterling Cole, chair-man of the joint Atomic Energy Committee. He m oduced an amendment in a secret closed door committee meeting
(Тит* t* paft 9)