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Lethbridge Herald (Newspaper) - June 23, 1917, Lethbridge, Alberta SATURDAY, JUNE 23, 1917 TUF, LKTimniDfiF. DAILY HERALD The Water Supply of Southern Alberta Tlip following vory vftlualilo paper wub given by I). H. Dowllug, Dominion Clculogtat. a I. the wntor supply conference, yuHtordiiy: In n general (liHciwuInn of water' supply It mny be profitable fo cn.U to mind wime of the gonoral prlnr.lpleB BovomluK tlio cliHtiilmtlon no that from them, or mic.h as enn be brought before uh, wo may gain profitable sub-JnetH for (llscusmlon. The first to present itself 1h that for a continental area the source of supply is the condensation of the moisture derived from the evaporation from the Ben. Tills is distributed unnvonly commencing with � greater rainfall near the coasts and on the highlands and less on the Interior lowlands. ' The greater fall on the highlands is to a large extent distributed by various channels over the lowlands, (lathered into lakes or exposed on the surface it is largely again ovaporntod and distrlbu* ed by rain clouds to other areas s>) that oven for comparatively small areas the wafer supply may be considered as being largely depondent on the rainfall, reinforced by the run-off from adjacent areas (streams, etc)., and partly on the general humidity of the air. That Is the area of light rainfall Is under greater loss by evaporation into the dry atrnosphnre than is the area in which the rainfall Is more abundant. Amount of Rainfall: In the nroa represented by the southern plains the condition deems to be that of a general light rainfall and a period of dry winds in the summer months. That the evaporation from (his area is very great can lie shown by n careful measurement of the streams, showing the amount of water leaving the nrea in comparison with the recorded amount of precipitation. The figures may be available and it Is merely an impression that the amount evaporated is !)-IO or more of the amount frilling on the surface. This Iobs in a country not overly supplied suggests one very pertinent enquiry, what, can he done to restrain or retard that loss? The evaporation through growing plants or animals Is the form most desired, but to do that it must be stored. The storing or saving of the rainfall is then submitted as one of the principal items for discussion and the following brief notes are submitted: Evaporation and Run-off-Before the prairie surface has been broken the run-off from the closely compacted sod would seem to have been at Its maximum. Over much of the prairie areas this run-off did not at once reach the streams, but. gathered in all the hollows and formed the great series of sloughs that were so common a feature. These were generally shallow basins and formed great evaporating pans whose areas wore constantly changing. The water hold thus for short periods was absorbed by a limited area surrounding these basins and but a small part of the rainfall seemed to have been utilized. The cultivation of the soli must affect tlio amount of run-off by a great absorption and would be shown in the decrease in the sloughs. Whether this preliminary soaking of the soil prevents or retards evaporation would bo dependent a great deal on the question of the preparation of the surface. Before the grain or grass became long enough to form a shade and break for the drying winds, the evaporation would be vory great, but 1he practice of dry farming methods aims at not only preparing the soil for rcroiving this moisture, but by compacting the surface prevent the evaporation. It would seom that if this could be perfectly done the sub-� soii should gradually become more moist. The storago of rainwater should be made in view of this possible loss in the air and cisterns and ar!ificfal ponds made deep rather than broad. Kmi-off-As the amount which does not penetrate into the soil is at first a very large per cent, of the rainfall, and rapidly evaporates, tho catching nnd storing of it does not moan tho robbing of tho streams to the extent that at first glance might be supposed. Tho prevention of evaporation Is tlio principal consideration and ns said be-foro should Indicate deep cisterns rather than wido shallow troughs. The deep cuts made by our streams bur-. gost. the easier points at which to establish reservoirs by damming nnd should form ono of the principal subjects of discussion. Surface Wells-Whero tho rainfall is absorbed to any great extent in the soil, that Is enough to accumulate In the porous layers beneath, wells are readily found at comparatively shallow dopths, but ns has beon found In this portion of Alberta this condition Is not tlio prevalent one; we must assume that tho most of tho rainfall either runs off or evaporates. Tho consideration then of tho character of tho subsoil must In a great measure bo expected to explain tho cause of the non-retention of this sur-faco water. This is a subject that has such a wide application, owing to the groat nrea and the 'lack of trained men, that a mere sketch of the general history of the formation of tills subsoil can be here attempted. We can carry our mental picture of tho sur-faco feature back in time to before the cold period fn which it Is generally recognized that tho granite boulders nnd much of tho surface clay was brought nnd spread over tho soft rocks that formerly formed the surface. At Lethbrldge tho old valley running eastward from tho mountains was not so steeply cut as at present. It, was many miles wido and had sloping hanks. Its bed was liberally strewn with pebbles brought from the mountains and formed a broad layor. Other wide valleys, no doubt, crossed the region, but are obliterated along with this ono by the material plastered over tho country by the advancing ice sheet and rearranged by the waters following its melting. As tho general slope Is to the northeast, the water from the melting ice was impounded in front of the ice and drained away over what is" now higher country. Thus imagine the Ice sheet to have beon at Lethbrldge and its front running off to the southeast. The old valley would form the lower part of a lake which would spread until it spilled out over the lowest outlet. Into this would ho poured all the silt and dirt brought In by the streams from tho mountains- eventually leveling up the surface. The first channel that tho water pouring out from this lnko adopted was in, front of the Milk river ridge and became the present Verdegris coulee. There was then no river here and the old valley was being filled up. Gradually the lake was lowered as Verdegris coulee was cut and the Ice molted back, and a lower outlet w�s formed along the ice'front by Etzikom coulee. We can trace the lowering of the water again to Chin coulee and again to Forty-mile. With this .lowering the drainage from the mountains began to re-cut "he valley; pa�t Lethbrldge through tho clays, boulders, sands and then the pebble bed which were in the old valley and finally into the rocks beneath, exposing the coal seams and shales beneath. Much of tho sands nnd clays thus dug out were spread In the part of the valley lying to the east forming the sand plains north of Purple Springs. This digression from the subject of water supply is to>suggest that the material deposited on the old rock surface may be of a. varied character. The presence of a lake front to the retreating ice suggests that the clay material deposited would not be the ordinary boulder clay, but would bo' sifted nnd the surface deposits would generally be of a finer grade, a better soil maker than might otherwise be expected. But the reassortment might also be expected to mean that ACLE OIL "The Gasoline Saver" A Boon to Motorists .ElintiiiateN carbon, gives more power, increases mileage, extends life of your engine. Unarantecil to give 2�% more mileage; 32 oz. equal to 40 gallons of gasoline. Analysis made liy Pecks of Cleveland, Ohio, guarantees absolutely no harmful results to your motor. Saves engine trouble and repair bills. For Sale CALL OR WRITE. OP*EN DAY AND NIGHT Schultz & Ritchie CITY VULCANIZING SHOP 817 THIRD AVE. S. CSS the surface material being flnov grained would also be more Impervious to water, and tho underlying hods while capable of receiving this water remain dry unless It. received it from tho nd-Jncont areas of coarser land. There is thus n Mold of study In the soils at the surface for tho more porous aroaB to which to direct the attempt at saturating tho soil beneath tho apparently dry areas. There Is ngnln tho quostlon of tho loss of water from the Biirface soil and oven the underlying rocks by tho very deep channels ncross the southern part of the country thnt havo been cut by streams no longer In existence and by tho present river channels. This Is very marked hero nt Lethbrldge. You may remember the old river valloy that was mentioned thnt had been filled up. This has been traced by a few well borings, but Ib not vory well do-lined as yet. In crossing the valley by the road you will notice that you are a long way down tho hill before you pass through the yellow grey clay probably a thickness of 300 foot. At places along the valley where slides have not intorfored with the display of tho section, tho pebble bod at its base will ho seen. This pebble bed extending back under tho banks and upward away from the river Is no doubt a drainage channel for the under surface wntor of a wide belt on both sides of tho river and must account to a large extent for the difficulty of obtaining shallow wells here. Sub-surface Wells-Tho channelling of the surface to depths of from 150 to liOO feet by such valleys as Milk river, Verdegris, Etzikom, Chin and Korty-mile coulees has allowed both the drainage and the possible saturation of the porous rocks beneath the surface. There are fortunately beds which ure capablo of carrying water thnt reach from the surface downward to about 300 feet. This reference is to tho central part of the areli. The thickness to east and west Is greater owing to tho large flat arch form assumed by tho underlying rocks. These beds contain porous layers which may contain water in the upper part, but they are not to be depended upon throughout a long period of drought, as they are losing their water through evaporation by capillary attraction toward the surface and by tho draining action of the deep cut coulees which cross the district. Tlio porous bods that are at from 300 to 350 feet beneath iho surface in tho country north of Etzikom coulee are found also to have a supply which probably is derived from a sub-channel drainage down the coulees. Induced probably from the spilled water at their heads from the irrigation canals. During the past year many farm wells In tho country between Chin coulee and tho Crown's Nest line of the C.P.R. have been reported as obtaining water at depths of between 350 and 400 feet, so that it seoms quite within reason to suppose that the spilling of irrigation water into tho coulees has had an effect. The fact that tho rocks have a general slope toward the north practically with the general slope of the country suggests that if it is possible to even In a small way to send water under the surface toward the north, the more definite flooding of these coulees would well repay the loss of bottom land or the added cost of road construction across them. It might even be assumed that were the supply maintained in these coulees some of the wells to the north might even flow at the surface or the water come to a much higher level than at present. Ono acknowledged drawback against tho water obtained in this manner from tho lower beds is that it contains tho soluble salts found in the beds, but it must be pointed out that continued passage of the water along the beds tends to a purification. That J is saturated beds from which no water iB drawn will bo found to be salty or alkaline at first, but tend to become less so with use. Artesian Wells-So far as known the dry belt of the southern part of the plains contains but one area in which tho structure seems favorable to the obtaining of water in any large amount by deep drilling. This has been outlined for depths less than 800 feet as being east of the head of Chin coulee and to tho hilly country south of Wlnnifred, but extending south eastward to Include Pakowkl lake. Under this country beneath' the water bearing beds which were discussed as affording* a somewhat constant supply at 350 to 400 feet, there lies a very close shale, in places a brown clay, through which water does not easily penetrate. It is abont 300 feet thick and overlies a fairly porous sandstone. The situation can be well understood when you consider that at Burdett this sand lies at about 750 feet beneath, but comes to the surface in the Milk rivor in ranges 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, and vory much above the surface at Burdett, that is nearly 500 feet, so that it dips northward in that distance 1200 feet. As it is quite porous the water of Milk river is no doubt keeping It filled with water and the cover of clay shale retains it so that there is developed a considerable pressure. By studying the surface elevation and allowing for a loss of pressure by friction through the sandstone it Is seen that there should be a large part of this area in which the water will flow at tho surface. The Btudy of the cause and source of supply was made necessary by the discovery of an artesian flow nt Etzikom coulee following one at Tuber.'The assurance of this supply led to the deepening of the well at Foremost and' of others in the district to tho west near Tabor. The lust one reported is at Niedpath at a depth of 7S4 feet. The central portion between Purple Springs and Bow Island having no published occurrences it was urged upon the Dominion government that test wells should be put down. The required funds were obtained late in the year, but drillers wore started in the fall on two wells on .tho.fond allowances, one south of Grassy Lake and unother south of Bow Island. These wo had hoped would bo completed during the winter, hut sovero weather and the lack of trained men euused a delay awl It will not be until .after, the meeting is ovor (hat, the announcement of their completion can bo made. In the meantime tho drilling of new gas wells at Burdett has shown that all tlie old woIIb and tho now ones as well, have passed through this water layer nnd thnt its presouco wns hot vory much desired by the drtlleis owing to thq grenl flow of wate'\ The wolls that bear out the theoretical placing of the wfttor stratum a', about 700 to 800 feet beneajli the surface are now about ten in number and nre given In the forthcoming report of the geological survey and from memory may bej summed up as: Niedpath, 784 feet. Tiilier, 670 feet. Dane Bros., boo. :ti>-R-15. over S00 foot. Well near Flncnstle on farm of Mr. Cook. Well near Purple Springs gradually Bitting up �B5 feet. Several nt Burdett; water found in about twenty wolls. CP ft. well nt Foremost, 725 feet. United No. 3 well In Etzikom couleo, BOO feet. 'Heaver woll. Milk Rivor, 105 feet. Weill, drilling by geological survey between sec. 11 and 12-8-13 and between boo. in and 30-0-10. Several of tho wells are reported as decreasing in f!ow and this seems to be owing tc the silting up of the well by the fine sand. They are apparently not supplied with a propar strainer nt the bottom, n precaution thnt seems often to be overlooked In the proper comnlei'cti. Well Drilling-For shallow wells the prospecting sb.iuld not bo done by n boring machine using ns large a diameter as the finished well. Small diameter drill holes cost, much less and the area prospected may he greatly enlarged. The jetting tool can profitably be employed where the materlnl Is soft, but over a large area hero it is questionable whether it is of any advantage. We are trying a combination inachfne and have found tho groat dlffiiculty that thero Is owing to the very hard layers encountered. Our experience to indicate that a roary drill will eventually bo the solution of the drilling problem. For the benefit of all it Is one of the jnecessary things to con. sidcr that the experience gained by everv tost well sunk rhould be re- PARF.NINE .....'-- -.....- - corded and if pnsr.lble samples of the rockH passed thriuah kept. <'c"lr,iii aror.ts may thus become known as suitable for (lie use of one type of machine for economical work and the dnpfliH to water known. ITiicertnlnty about dopth nnd rhiirncter of drilling tends to keep up the price of the work. BECAU We can use the money to better advantage at our large home farm we will sell our New Dayton farms at the right price and terms. THE 8. W. i/4 5-6-18, W. 4th, is 1% miles from New Dayton, has a good houBo, barn, chicken house and granary; fenced and cross fenced; 70 acres seeded with barley and oats. THE SOUTH i/2 32-0-18, W. 4th, six miles north of Now Dayton. Fenced, large house, barn, large sned, granaries, etc. 200 acres seeded with wheat and oats. Pal-nnce to summerfallow. Well of good water. NORTH Vz 29 & PART EAST V2 32 4 PART WEST t/2 33-4-18, W. 4th. 880 acres, 5% miles bouHi of New Dayton; crook along north line; 540 acres plow land. Balance choice pasture. 400 acres seeded wheat, oats and barley. These are worth your consideration. This year's crop may easily pay the entire purchase price. For full particulars write or phone. The Felgcr Farming Co., Ltd. Box 940 ' Telephone R 4*11 An Efficient Executor Losses are often caused in an Estate through the carelessness or mismanagement of the individual Executor or Administrator. This can be avoided by appointing this Company. It acts on the advice, of counsel-is bonded to carry out the Instructions of the testator, and has experienced officers in charge of all Its departments. The TRUSTS and GUARANTEE Company Limited CALGARY AND LETHBR1DGE Public Administrator and Official Assignee for the Judicial Districts of Lethbridge, Macleod, Medicine Hat, Calgary, Red Deer, Stettler. asaaMAj Swift - Far Ranging I! on Your Indian Smooth and swift as the swallow's can be your travel on an Indian. Steady and tireless as an eagle, this powerful machine will carry you anywhere your pleasure calls. Why not get out and tour in an Indian? Spend an afternoon sending the red blood coursing through your veins. Come back refreshed, happy, exhil-irated. Ride an Indian and get a new idea of life at its best. %u&m Motocydj With. Pouierplus Motor The new 1917 models of Indian Motocjcle�, Sidecars, Parcel Cam, Ilicyclcs aro tho finest we have ever butlt. Lender of all Is the Slant Powerplue Twin. The Powerplui motor enters Its second year as the fastest, most powerful, strongest, most ncccssllile, cleanest, quietest stock motor ever put Into n motorcycle frame. Four blii smashlnft Improvements, nnd sixteen Important refinements mark the 1917 Powerplus. A smoother, better motor, developing 15 to IS h.p., simplified, with all movlnft parts enclosed. Motor llfo Increased 50%. The finest disc clutch ever supplied on a motorcycle. Absolutely positive under all conditions. Eicluslvo Inilan cradle aprlnp, frame, the greatest comfort feature In any motorcycle. N�w tilple stem fork, vanadium steel tuhlnU. webbed head. Goodyear niuestrcnk Tires. Wheelbase 59 Inches. Rear stand. New two compartment gasoline tank of 5 Imperial ftallons capacity. Then there Is the newest sensation In motorcycle circles-the Indlcn Utthtwln, the new light two-cylinder machine with opposed motor. Up to all Indian standards, and with a new and wonderfully vtbratlonless motor. HENDEE MANUFACTURING 12 Mercer Street ... CO. LTD. Toronto E. MacDONALD Fourth Avenue Opposite Alexandra Hotel MB High Quality of Material Used Sufficient to Close Sales We have many splendid sales records to support the contention that Saxon "Six" should be sold without a demonstration. It is the component parts of the car which produce day in and day out reliability and not what one car "tuned to the minute" can produce In a demonstration. It is the material and workmanship composing the vitals of the car which produce reliability and which explains the reason Saxon "Six" can be sold without being taken off the show room floor. Starting right from radiator and working back through the car to the rear axle, there Is no better material than is contained in the various parts, nor any part which Is surpassed by more improved or modern design. Saxon Radiators is a Fedders. It it riot only the original and distinctive design and the acknowledged quality of material and workmanship which makes this such a satisfactory radiator. It is because it operates on a system of Thermo-Syphon water circulation which eliminates the old fashioned water pump and gives far superior cooling system. There never has been known a case of water boiling in a Saxon car where proper precautions have been taken. The Saxon "Six" Continental Motor Is of our own design and built under our own supervision. If we knew where to have better motors built than in the Continental plant, we would build them there. We have a motor which for smoothness and evenness of powerflow and economy is probably as near perfect as has ever been attained. Do you know of any better axles or bearings than Timkens? The impression of absolute dependability which has been established by these axles among automobile'owners and the trade has been created by their .splendid ability to stand stress and strain.  Our starting and lighting system Is a Wagner and Is as silent and sure and enduring as present manufacturing methods can produce. Our carburetor Is a Stromberg and is a product of years of experimentation In gasoline carburetlon. Properly adjusted It performs with an absolutely satisfactory economy and thoroughness. Included with these features should be the vanadium steel Cantilever springs which are another precaution for the riding comfort and safety of the passengers. So when we say that Saxon "8lx" should be sold simply on the strength of Its physical make-up we. believe we arc right. Saxon "Six" Economy Saxon "Six" Is economical primarily because of Its light weight. It has no-excess. Superfluous weight in an automobile is as expensive and undesirable as In the Individual. It rlelea free without contribution and extracts it,* toll from the tires and gasoline. It costs money-to provide energy for dead weight Saxon "Six" weight Is scientifically reduced until it Is the lightest among light sixes. There is still the same riding comfort because of the roomy design and full Cantilever spring;*. And there is still the same security of .construction because light weight has been obtained by the scientific elimination of excess parts. Also those units which require a heavy construction, such as the frame are not reduced. It is the skill of Saxon engineers in co-operation with Continental Motors' engineers who have established Saxon "Six" as the greatest of light sixes and made it possible to average over 20 miles to the gallon of'gasoline , and 10,000 miles to the set of tires. Think what It means to you to own a car equipped with a Saxon "Six" Continental Motor-Stromberg Carburetor-Tlmken Axles and Bearings--Wagner Starting and lighting System-Vanadium Steel Cantilever Springs-Fedders Radiator-and Dry Plate Multiple Disc Clutch. Think what It means to own a car beyond all question the most economical on the market to operate. Think what it means to drive a car that is not only distinctively beautiful but is as good as it looks because it Is bulit for long uervice. Think what It means to have power-power for speed- power for hills-power when and where you need it with never a fear that you will reach its limit when you need It most. Those are the things worth thinking about. Just roll them around In your mind a little and we feel sure you will have no difficulty in coming to the conclusion that Saxon "Six" offers more real car value than any other car on the market. Five Passenger Touring Car $1410.00 Roadster - $1400.00 F. O. B. Lethbridge SAXON MOTOR CAR CORP. DETRIOT. The H. T. Henderson Garage Phone 58&-Corner Sixth Avenue and Sixth Street South ;