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Canberra Times (Newspaper) - September 21, 1957, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory National Library of Australia pm Jyh Tom in the distance cafes if wrong tort Mui fat Fermo for cams the Itofe gift to 4ul Taco Good that w can do he mama be trans saturday september 21, 1p57. Drastic increase in Bank rate the drastic character of the increase in the Bank of England discount rate to 7 per cent. Is itself a measure of the Gravity of the situation against which the highest rate in 37 years is being applied. It is of course intended to have a Sharp effect and if it has caught the Money Market by Surprise that is preferable to the copious doses of soothing syrup that have been handed out in the last month or two. The july bulletin of information of the United kingdom Treasury appears to have been accepted As a ground for optimism Only by those who wanted to regard it so. It May have been All very Well to show How the Adverse Trade Gap of �571,000,000 represented Only a visible deficit of �59,000,000 on the balance of payments and that this in turn was converted into a current surplus of �210,000,000 when net invisible earnings were taken into account but that was not the full Story. The compari son of United kingdom exports of manufactures for 1955 and 1956 with those of other manufacturing countries showed that there were few cases in which the British percentage increase or an actual de Cline in exports was not inferior to the performance of Germany the United states or the european economic bloc countries and the England Bank Dis count rate was the highest of the american and european manufacturing countries thereby testifying to the Money squeeze due to the rate of in vestment. The United kingdom situation was reflected in the loss during August of 10 per cent of the Gold and Dollar reserves. While right Wing industrialists have been emphasising that an Exchange crisis was avoidable Only by an increase in Man hour production at the same time there has been tin intensification of the speculative flight of capital. For a considerable period australian Stock exchanges have been accustomed to increases in the prices of shares due to buying from London and Many of the investment counters have been distinctly speculative. \ it is not surprising therefore that contemporaneous with the increase of the discount rate restrictions have been imposed on Bank lending and on investment overseas. The intention is to reverse the flow so that funds will be attracted Back to the United kingdom. The extent of the increase injects an imperative note into requirements. The investment programme both in Home industries such As Coal steel nuclear Power and other Basic Indus tries will have to be reviewed and the credit squeeze eased by clamping Down on the High rate of in vestment abroad. At stake is the stability of the Pound Sterling for failure of the present measure could bring devaluation closer and that would adversely affect not Only Britain but also Australia. Australia s eur Calept in 5# countries Australia s eur Calept now grows in More than50 countries it was revealed yesterday at the seventh British Commonwealth forestry conference in ses Sion at Canberra. Details were Given by the conference chairman or. G. J. Rodger director general of the forestry and Timber Bureau can Berra. The countries Are new zealand . California and Florida belgian Congo Uganda Tanganyika Kenya Nyasa land Northern and Southern Rhodesia Bechuanaland South Africa Mauritius Madagascar Ghana nig Eria cameroons Sierra Leone Algeria Tunisia French Morocco Sudan Ethiopia Cyprus Israel Spain Portugal Italy tur key Greece Iraq Iran Syria Ceylon India Pakistan Burma British North Borneo Malaya Indonesia Viet Nam thai land Fiji West indies British Guiana Argentine Brazil Chile Bolivia ecu ador Mexico Uruguay Cuba Central America. The eucalyptus playing a significant part in the econ Omic life of these countries it was stated. In Israel it is extremely important while Spain and Portugal have big plants for paper manufacture from pulp. Italy is making Viscose Rayon from pulp. The Bluegum and red gum Are the Only ones to be grown commercially in Spain. Portugal and Italy. However because the Euca Lytt has a tremendous Range climatically varieties planted elsewhere Are numerous. The delegates will tour capital territory forestry areas on sunday. The min ister for tie Interior or. Allen Fairhall will enter Tain them at & dinner at parliament House on Mon Day night. Vice regal yesterday morning his excellency the governor general Field marshal sir William slim received his excellency the ambassador of the United states of America and general o. P. Weyland commander of 1 the United states tactical air Force at government House Canberra. Subsequently his Excel Lency attended by Mem Bers of the personal stall left for Melbourne. Yesterday evening his excellency was present at an evening function of the 1/14 battalion 4th brigade and 2/14 battalion association in Melbourne. Lieutenant colonel Peter Sutton and lieutenant Peter James were in at a Tendance. I first woman . Newscaster Bristol Friday Reuter a 29-year-old actress is to become the British broadcasting corporation s first woman news announcer on television she is Armine Sandford who will begin her duties in London on september 30 in a new series of regional news bulletins. Letters to the editor chinese War i sir. A in your Issue of1 september id you print a message from . Under the dateline Formosa which states that the Vest pocket War Between nation Alist and red China opened its fourth year on septem Ber 3." chinese of either party will be surprised indeed to learn that the civil War Between the rival regime of which the hostilities in the Strait of Formosa Are but the last phase began on septem Ber 3, 1964. They in com Mon with foreign observers have always thought that the second civil War Between the nationalist and communist parties began in the Spring of 1947 with the collapse of the peace negotiations presided Over by general Marshall and the denunciation of the accompanying truce by the then president of China Genera Chiang Kai Shek. From that Date warfare has continued with vary ing phases of intensity Between the two regimes. After the expulsion of the last nationalist forces from the Mainland of China in the Early part of 1950 hostilities took the form of attacks upon the islands off tiie coast by the communist forces in which they took the Large Island of Hainan but failed to capture the smaller Island of Quemoy and air raids and an attempt at a naval blockade by the nationalist forces. The air activity against Shanghai and other cities was ended by the communist Side obtain ing modern fighter aircraft from Russia while the naval blockade by the nationalists degenerated into molestation of Neutral shipping mainly British engaged on peaceful Trade with China the greater number of incidents in the period 1951-54 were in fact encounters Between the nationalist chinese Navy and the Royal Navy which was engaged in protecting or rescuing British ships from chinese nation Alist attacks. The phase of the War your correspondent has found it convenient to forget. The More Active phase Waich opened with the communist chinese bombardment of Quemoy on september 3, 1954, was a development Spring ing from the use of the offshore islands by the nationalists As commando bases for Small raids on the chinese coast. This activity in turn resulted from the change in policy inaugurated by president Eisenhower after his election by which the . Seventh Fleet was no longer charged with the task of neutralising the Straits of Formosa . Preventing attacks by either Side which had been president Truman s directive but was now Only Given the duty of defend ing the nationalists against communist attacks while leaving the nationalists free to do what they could against the main land. A consequence of the crisis in late 1954 which followed upon the to Chen operations was that the . Required the nation Alist regime to give an undertaking not to attack the Mainland without prior consultation with the . Government. This meant in practice a return to the Truman policy and has subsequently brought about a further period of quies Cence marked by the chinese communist offer to negotiate with the . For a relaxation of ten Sion in the. Strait of Tai wan Formosa first made Public by Chou in Lai at. The Bandung Confer ence in april 1955. Negotiations upon this. And other matters in dispute Between China and Amer Ica opened in Geneva on August 1, 1955, and Al though they have not led to any Concrete agreement upon How to reduce ten Sion in. The Strait of Tai wan tension has in fact been reduced and. The negotiations still continue. Many people will i think i consider that this Diplo Matic Contact is the real cause of the Long Lull and also hold the View that were the Contact to be allowed to Ripen into full diplomatic relations ten Sion and the danger of War could be still further reduced perhaps removed altogether. C. P. Fitzgerald Acton. Telo pea High school Standard sir the abolition of the selective system for High schools in Canberra will be welcomed in this City and imy help to reduce the present snobbery. To Day 1 was very fortunate in having attended the Telo pea Park High school sports. To my re Gret their were few parents there to feel As 1 did Pride in the school its excellent Standard of discipline and its keenness. Or. Crawford his staff land his helpers May Well feel proud of the Way in which the Standard of the school a been raised Dur ing1 his term of office. I the March on after lunch was particularly Well done did closely contested by the four houses. The school Cadet band although Small in numbers was Well turned out and exceptionally Good for a band that has made few Public appear ances and no doubt a great Deal of the credit for this goes to or. Thornhill its . There can be no doubt that this particular Parade will encourage an interest in the Cadet band and one can Only wish them every Success. Perhaps at the next school sports there will be a greater number of parents to share with their children that Pride in the school. Proud Parent. Concert helps legacy More than 500 people at tended the concert Given last night by finalists in the Mobil quest at the Albert Hall. It is expected that about �100 will be raised for legacy by the concert. The singers who come from All parts of austra Lia included the first Sec Ond and third place getters and in lists in the Mobil quest the final of which was judged in Syd Ney on september 3. They Are Nance Grant Soprano of Victoria 1robert Bickerstaff Bass baritone of . 2richard Bromley Tenor of . Tie 3marie Bates i Lyric Soprano of South Australia and Russell Cooper Bass baritone of . The singers who Are on tour have already visited Brisbane Newcastle and Sydney. Selections from Mozart Bizet Verdi Leoncavallo Giordano Meyerbeer and Falla were Sung last night. The official accompanist was Verdon Williams. The compere was Ken Canham a radio announcer from 2ca, which broadcast part of the pro gramme. Quick Rise in French . Paris Friday a.. Heuter the Cost of living in prance has Trone up 63 per cent in the last 10 years according to figures published by the Paris evening newspaper. Prances in to Day. Yass people 9s gift to bereaved parents a new aluminium caravan a gift from the people of Yass District to or. And mrs Victor reardon9 of Bowling arrived in Yass yesterday afternoon. Or. And mrs. Reardon s three Young children died in the night of last wednesday week in a lire which destroyed their Home. The caravan Cost �630 and with registration and insurance �734. The Money was raised by Public subscription in an Appeal organised by the Xmas Tribune. The caravan is fully fitted out with bed Ding wireless set and kit Chen utensils. Or. And mrs. Reardon propose to take a Long trip in it. Their first Call will be on mrs. Reardon b Sla ter at broken Hill. It is hoped that if mrs. Reardon gets away from Yass for some time the effect of her tragic experience will be lessened and in this Way she and her husband will be Able to rehabilitate themselves. In addition to the Tri Bune Appeal a civic Appeal organised by the mayor of Yass Alderman w. T. Walker and the president of Goodrau Bigbee Shire councillor a. P. Julian has been opened to help in meeting or. And mrs. Reardon s immediate needs and in providing a new Home for them. All the Money needed for the caravan was received in four Days this week. A feature of this Appeal was the number of Small donations from wage earners and even from at pensioners. Delinquency now world problem by James Devlin new York a social cd pre a policeman s Eon caught in the Middle of a youth gang War outside a tavern i beaten and kicked to death. Three youths flirting with two girls think that two other boys Are laugh ing at them. They Stab one to death and Tae other flees. A crippled boy unable to run from a gang Young hoodlums is stabbed fatally. One of the attack ers a 14-year-old. Boy said i wanted to get the feeling of a knife going through these eruptions of teen age terror All occurred within one recent week in new York City. The Sud Den unexpected outbreak focussed new attention on the youth crime problem in new York As other Juv Enile crimes broke surface All Over the Globe. An associated press sur vey of youth gangsterism in the United states and abroad shows a general increase in juvenile Delin Quency and in Many places an upswing in serious viol ence some cities like Boston Detroit Paris and Rome seem to be holding their own or improving. Here Are some of t be re ports j los Angeles arrests up 22 per cent Over last year. Chicago about the same number of arrests but the nature of the crimes is becoming More serious. New York a steady increase in arrests by in creased police patrols. Philadelphia a 12 per cent increase in arrests. Tokyo a steady in crease for the past three years in juvenile crime. London a sudden up swing in juvenile Barbar ism. West Berlin about the same As last year. France gangs on the american order Are virtually non existent and juvenile crime is not a problem. Rome the first danger signs have appeared in the past six months and Juven court authorities Are watching. However organised youth gang crime As such has not reached Italy yet. The three new York slayings raised to 22 t be number of homicides attributed to youngsters under 21 in the City since the year began. There were 29 such cases in All of 1956. To meet the danger the City threw in 536 recruit patrolmen from its police Academy to patrol danger areas on foot from 6 . To Midnight. Incidents declined immediately. Parents the mayor Robert f. Wagner called for an educational Campaign aimed at parents who let their children run wag Ner said that a hard Core of 3 per cent of the City s youth was the heart of t be problem. What leads this minor Ity into gang action and or me Milton Willner director of clinical services of new York s Berkshire Industrial farms said boys who join gangs feel unwanted by their parents or Foater parents. He described them As those who have never been Able to establish positive ties to an adult writing in child Wel fare a monthly Magazine of the child welfare league of America win Ner said the does offer some secondary satisfaction of dubious value. Boys who feel unwanted can get companionship person Al grievances can be aired and accepted at face value escapism boys find temporary escape from the realities of an outer world into a world of their own making where infantile fancies and de sires Are in los Angeles capt. James Glavas head of the police juvenile division said there Are organised gangs Here a the sense that they identify them selves with groups frequently Wear distinctive clothing such As motor Cycle boots and Black leather jackets. There should be no As sumption however that these groups Are banded together for the specific purpose of committing crimes. They frequently become involved in Crim Inal acts because whenever youngsters get together without proper supervision the threshold for misconduct is in his City Glavas said juvenile arrests totalled 14,392 for the fiscal year ended july 1. Of 104 homicides in the City during the year juveniles commit Ted 15. While the youth crime rate has held nearly steady in Chicago police note there Are More Strong Arm burglary and rape cases. Police files list such gangs As the rebels apaches red River Rati hell s Angels and Royal hoodlums. Police it Michael Del any said that most youth gangs were organised originally As social clubs and Many hold to this Pur pose. Most groups Wear uni form windbreakers or Jack ets and copy dress hair styles and mannerisms. Ill Franco the Low youth crime rate in France attracted the attention of new York police commissioner step Hen Kennedy during his visit there this month. After talking with French police Kennedy said they told me that Juv Enile crime is not an Issue in France. I think Tae Strong family integration and religious feelings in French families work a Jaimot juvenile crime in this a murder of a train pass Enger last year by two teenagers Bent on robbery was so rare that the press till comments at length on the Case from time to time. In Rome police recently rounded up 70 children and said they had smashed three gangs of automobile thieves and Emall time burglars. Juvenile court authorities insist the Case was not they fid they had seen Little evidence of Organ ised gangs and that most youth crime was individual land in the Field of Small thefts. London in London Scotland Yard reported that the teenage Teddy boy with the frock coat Boot lace tie and a razor in his Vest pocket looms largely behind the upsurge in Juven crime. Statistics show 10,833 persons under 21 were arrested during 1956 for virtually every crime except murder. In Tokyo 16,218 crimes were charged against juveniles last year an in crease of More than 5,000 in three years. Almost 10,000 juvenile crimes have been counted in the first half of 1957. Isao Kimoto the police juvenile research Section chief said almost All of the crimes were theft extor Tion and rape. Japan has some youth gangs most of them loosely organised. West Berlin police arrested 10,810 juveniles last year and expects the figure this year will be about the same. Of this number Only 80 cases involved groups of teenagers the rest being individuals. Police said most of the groups formed spontaneously after meeting at the movies motor Cycle out Ings or at entertainment Parks. Afters path the most recent Case several months ago involved a gang calling itself the lizards headed by a 16-year-old no wore a military Type uniform. The gang members Wear ing a Lizard Emblem on their clothes met in a world War n. Ruin and carried out Etty robber ies. Many psychologists Trace the roots of the juvenile problem to Day to world War ii. Calling it a per Iod when families became fatherless and sometimes Motherless and family life i was disorganised f if this is True it would appear that the lizards Are not the Only gang meeting in the ruins of a War to plan their sorties against society. In most cities where Suc Cess is being won against the juvenile problem the courts Are digging into family life and ensuring that youngsters in family ruins come under the supervision of mature adults who can match discipline with understanding. Symposium on use of a Energy a major symposium on. The peaceful uses of atomic Energy will be held in Syd Ney from june 2 to june 6 next minister for nation Al development senator Spooner who announced this yesterday said papers would be presented to the symposium. By Many Over seas and australian scientists. Representatives of uni. Versi Les professional institutes Industrial firms Power authorities com Mon wealth and state departments and the austra Man atomic Energy com Mission were sponsoring the symposium. It would be forum forthe discussion of technical and scientific aspects of j the peaceful uses of atomic Energy. Particular attention would be Given to the part atomic Energy would play in the development of Australia

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