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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - December 30, 1916, Lethbridge, Alberta PAGE EIGHT HIE LKTHIWIIHili UYULY' 1II5KA14J DliCKMHKH MO. THE CARE OF DAIRY COWS AND PRODUCTION OF MILK ByProf.E.H.Fur- rington, University of Wisconsin, Col- lege of Agriculture Agriculture Ef ten- sion Service There are at least five important factors whii-li imisl "onsldored in the production of clean mill; and cream. The stable, the cows, the milker, the utensils, and tlic roolor must, eaoli receive tho careful attention of the dairyman it the milk is to lie produced. Milk, whsa pure and clean, is one of the most healthful and nutritious of human' foods. Contrary to a more or less common belief, it does not require expensive equipment, lu'sli priced cows, or much. extra work to produce clean milk. With a healthy herd and a stable and yard which can be kept clean with but little labor, careful attention to details is all that is required to produce a mill; which at once is highly nutritious mid exceedingly whole- sonie. THE DAIRY BARN MUST BE CLEAN Tlie proteiiti6ii of dirt.and disease serms is.W easy or a hard matter, according to (lie conditions under which it is produced. Ifj COTVS are milked in a dark sti.ble where Hie floor is satnraled with manure, j flushed with solder. Seamless pails and cans have been placed on tho market. When washing tinware, first the film of milk.on the surface with cold water. Ihea wash thoroughly with warm water and cleansing soda, a brush, and finally rinse with scalding hot water and plnuo in the sun or some place free from dust to dry. (3) After scalding, do not wipe milk tinware with a cloth, but let the rinsing water be so hot that there is no further need of drying. (4) Milk strainers.should be made of stsvsrr.l thicknesses ot, cheese cloth or one thickness of ilannel. These should be boiled each time after washing. THE COOLER IMPROVES THE PRODUCT Milk should be removed from the stable immediately after milking, and j not poured directly into cans-strindluK behind tho cows. Cooling the milk; after milkiuK improves the ilavor and checks the growth of any bacteria! that may be present. i (1) Warm milk, fresh from the cow. should be cooled at once to about j Bakers C ocoa stands all tests of laboratory and home. It is pure, it is delicious, it is healthful. Walter Baker Co. Limited ESTABLISHED I78O MONTREAL. CANADA DORCHESTER, MASS. ese. Ini i" ll tn'n lityer over metal surface which is cooled with j j well or ice water. THie same material may be used in. binldimjL a clean cow s'a' constructing a-dirty one. By giving-the :matler a Htilr study it will be i found, that the arrangements and conveniences needed for keeping cows Jl Minph of uinmiis healthy and-'the-milk dean are-not expensive luxuries: they are common, everyday necessities that .far exceed in satisfaction tlie.Oost of installing them.. harrei water Skimming a rich cream is beneficial to farmer because: U) He keeps more skim milk on the fu'nu. Suppose he sells 100 not available, a lank or i-mmrts of luitterfat in cream, testing 20 per cent, fat, ami receives HO cents of water with ice in it may be placed near the cooler and Ihe running j pound fat for His check will be and he will need six 10-gallon siphoned through. :it from "the tank Milk coolers, if not crowded in j rans to ship the 500 pounds of cream. The 500. pounds of thin cream will .ft contain about 400 pounds of skim milk, which is worth to him at least ?1.00. If, on the other hand, he sold the same 100 pounds of bntterfat as cream Le.ss labor and fewer utensils are required to handle rich than thin a-e a e-is wt" "V> The'manure" be six to eight Inches imct, the i In cert aiiaro sliould.be removed from the stable at least once a day and stored I''need for t THE MILK SEDIMENT TEST sections of this state a considerable amount ot" milk he city retail dealer. This milk is now bought not only on the or" taken ut'oiice to the field. basis of its richness but on the sanitary condition of the farm and the milk The stanchions should bo comfortable and adjusted to make the; which is shown by ihe score and the sediment test. -rows stand where 'he- manure will (Iron into ihe gutter instead of on the j milk sediment test consists m strammg about one pint, of the floor under the mixed milk from each farm through a cotton disc about one inch m diameter. (9) Nothing but. dean. drv. odorless, and absorbed bedding should I The sediment or. dirt collected on this piece of whiic cotton gives an indica-., be used, such as clean straw, sawdust, or shavings. tlon faretulness with which the cows have been milked and the milk; (10) A dean, dry well sheltered from cold and rain, will! protected from dust and dirt of feed and barn. Breath- aid in keeping the cows clean and comfortable. A concrete barnyard) THE CARE OF THE CREAM helps "hi keeping the cou-s Drains-should he laid under the concrete.! When milk is separated at tho larm alter milkmg, the SomefimesVpart of cow yard is made concrete and enclosed by a cleanest and sweetest cream possible ought to be obtained. It this cream More starter can be used in ripening the cream and a better flavor obtained in the butter. (5) The pasteurization of the cream can be made more satisfactory. BODY ARMOR FOR TOMMY, NOW, army service driv- I ere and the wear no shields. war factories are making body urfnor for troops. Added to their.already c Sir Arthur Conan Doyle is-a lead ing advocate of the armored sol- dier. His suggestion to the'war do- partment. called for steel of sevcii- !OITlcatetl sixteenths of an thickness, n ow the dirt nbpr-tn be -used in -dry .weather. is cooled at once to near 50 degrees F. and provision is made ior keeping toYeoV the milking stool, brushes, forks' it cold until delivery to the buyer, an excellent quality of butter or ice cream and Either tools' used" in the cow stable: can made ?r.OIU u- uinw -rn PADP rnn TWF In some, cases, however, buUer made from farm skimmed cream does HUW iu OAKb run i ML. uuws thc {oi) mai.j-et price not. taken apart Much of the milk delivered to creameries and cheese factories will aot j and thoroughly cleaned after each skimming, or a suitable place for cooling keep sweet 4n.warm weather for more than one day. This is not the -fault; smi for holding the cream at the farm has not been provided. In some impediments, the Tommies will carry equipment to weigh not more into battle a metal protection against' F the deadly machine gun bullets. It is supposed the new armament will con- sist of highly tempered steel cover- ings for the heart, lungs ami abdo- lie success, of the new steel be demanded for the products. The reputation of many a farm.and factory uutterniaker at' the creamery always prefers" a "sweet'eream because he is is baaed-oh'the purity of its products, and everyone connected able to control the njre-niug process. enterprise is interested in maintaining high standards- Here are a few rules followed by careful dairymen in building up and. caring for their (1) buying cows, insist on getting a certificate of good7 health showing that, the animals are free from tuberculosis. (2) Dairy cows must- aud never hurried or .'worried. Rougfi treatment.'loud "talking, and chasing by dogs will diiniaish both the flow 'of milk and its richness, (3) Milk should not be five days after calving. As careful dairymen planjtp give their cows from .-four-to six weeks'-rest before calving, it is; needleas4o recommend that milk-should not he used for a-certain period of time to freshening. (4) Provide a place for keeping sick cows separate from the herd. (5) Wastefeed, especially silage, should be removed from the mangers and not thrown under the cows for bedding. 1C waste silage is left in the stable, the, air becomes contaminated with a silage odor, and this is absorbed ;the_milk after it is drawn from .the cows. No silage odor, will be noticed _ in tho mllknt fee is dean and l -ventilated and tjicusllage fed after m iking The same be cf winch give "a characteristic like' turnips or cabbage. These sh'suld-. belied after milking, and not in too large quantities at first. _ -.--._. The feeding of silage does not necessarily contaminate the milk. Sufficient proof of this is the fact .that silage is fed- to cows that, are pro- ducing some of the highest priced milk in. the country; milk which is recom- mended by physicians for the use of invalids and hospitals because of its purity and -wholesome flavor. Decayed or musty hay or grain should be fed to the cows. Wet brewers'' grains should be fed in a sweet condition. The manger be kept clean for the brewers' grain, decomposes; giving 'oft' a stronger 'odor. flanks and udder' of the -cow milking and stable. Tbe ihould be brushed- just before (fore the milk pails and other utensils are'brought'to the v's udder should be washed with a clean, damp sponge and then, wiped dry. A daily brushing of the cows during the winter months will be found profitable. v (7) Cows not in healthy condition should be removed from the herd -milk kept separate until "the animals are restored to normal health. Milk from .diseased cows should not be used for human food. Serious udder trouble, causing garget or bloody milk, must be cured before is_ usable (8) A herd should be tuberculin tested as often as is necessary, to keep tms disease from getting established it, a qualified veterinarian should be called. conditions seem to require should be -supplied, with pure water and should not have access stagnant pools because of'cthe -insanitary condition of such a suppIy.V -Watering troughs- must be cleaned Tegularly and kept in good repair 'jind' .water .supplied idaily. (10) dry barnyard and the of the manure some distance from the stable will aid greatly in reducing the number of flies which annoy the and the milkeis i 'Milk each cow, dry at every milking.. If the cows are. not milked dry 'U not UR the cows, but it is found that loss of milk from such, if, practice, may amount to o'he-halt a pound or more at each milking By stripping a herd of ten rows after the regular milkers, the owner often obtain five pounds of milk at a single milking. THE MILKER SHOULD BE PARTICULAR who hanJtes milk remembei that a food product being produced and distributed, and 'that the milk will undoubtedly ;be placed on _the tables'uf many" people in the form if raw miik. Each, there- than 30 pounds. He contended that DO per cent of the losses in the Somme offensive could have been avoided if the. -soldiers had been .shielded in the armor. A ferry tboat that transports auto- mobiles across a river hi 'Washington is operated by jacking the real- wheels of a car. and connecting them by belts to machinery that drives the The great numbers the 'boat's paddle wheels and propeller. EDINBURGH'S STREET RAILWAY To Be Taken Over and Operated by City Edinburgh's town uo.uncil resolved some months ago to take over ami operate the ;street railway system, which consists of cable lines. It was built by ihe city in 1898 and leased for 21 years to a private company, at an annual rental of 7 per cent, on the invested capital of A committee of experts was appointed by the council to consider what methdd of traction should be adopted on the expiration of the lease to the private company- on June 'M, 1919. This commit lea has reported in favor of an overhead electric trolley sys- tem, reports Consul Fleming, from Edinburgh. The capital required for the instal- lation and equipment of an extended miles of existing double track, and nine miles estimated at compared with an estimated cost of for an electric conduit system, with no extension of The committee finds that it is prac- ticable to begin the installation of the overhead system immediately, and to have it ready for operation on the expiration of the present lease. The corporation's electric power station, now under construction, will supply ample current for the proposed new. electric tramways. Opinion in the town council, as well as public opinion, seems to he sharply divided between the conduit and overhead systems, and final action may be considerably delayed. An increase in parasitical.diseases among poultry and game birds in England is attributed, to the distribu- tion of. dust.through the. air by auto- mobiles. number of standards have been proposed for grading cream according to the quality and price nC the butter made from the different grades. In order that the value of tho cream of each grade may quickly be determined, these grades should be few and easily understood. Grade 1. Sweet cream must be sweet and have .a clean flavor. Graded. Sweet crenm foreign flavors, old "taste, or advanced acidity. l Grade 1. Sour cream is sour but lias a clean flavor. Grade 2. cream has" foreigii-flavors. is too old, or is curdy. HOW TO-PRODUCE FIRST GRADE CREAM Cream may easily be brought into the first grade and command the highest price if a few precautions are taken. Tlie following suggestions may be helpful in supplying tlie equipment: (1) Place the separator on a firm foundation in well ventilated room where it is free from all offensive odors. (2) Thoroughly clean the separator after each skimming; the bowl should be taken apart and washed, together with all the tinware, every tfme thel separator is used; if allowed to stand for even without cleaning and then used again there is danger of contaminating the cream from the' sour bowl. This applies to all kinds of-cream separators, (3) Wash the separator bowl and all tinware with cold water and then with warm water, using a'brush tc..polish the surface and clean out the! seams and cracks; finally scald with boiling water, leaving the parts of the! bowl and tinware to dry in some place where tb.ey will be protected from dust. Do not wipe the bowl and-tinare with a cloth or drying towel; heat them sufficiently with steam or boiling water so that wiping is unnecessary. (4) .Rinse the milk receiving can and separator bowl with a quart or two of hot water just, before running milk into the separator. (5) Cool the cream as.it comes from the separator or immediately; after, to a temperature about 50 degrees F. and keep it cold until delivered. (6) Never mix warm and cold cream or sweet and slightly tainted i cream. (7) Provide a clean covered water tank for holding the cream the water frequently.in the tank so that the temperature doe's] not rise above 60 degrees F. A satisfactory arrangement may be made byj allowing running water to flow through the cream tank to the stock watering tank. (8) Skim the milk immediately after each milking. This will fake Jess! work and be more satisfactory than .to.hold-the milk, from one milking to the next When separated but once a da> the milk held has to be heated to the temperatuie of that fresLl> drawn t (9) A 11 eh cream testing 35 per fat 01 mora is the most sitis i factory to factory. -The best separators .will rich' as- efficiently as a thin cream and more skim milk'is left oa the farm rich cream is sold. (10) Cieam should be iiertectiv sweet containing: no lumps pr clots and delhered to the ha.uUrs or paities but Jug it There is a good demand for sweet cream and it can easily be supplied! byTceepjnj? the separator, tinware, strainer cloth, and tank clean and! cold. CAUSES OF VARIATIONS IN TEST OF CREAM of nearly any richness may be obtained by skimming the milk with on the farm. The users of separators have learned that1 of ihe cream may be changed by adjusting the cream screw of; the machine, they notice a variation in the test of the cream at! the 'cream cry'and know there has been no change in the cream screw of the! separator at tlie farm, they are likely to conclude that the cream is not j tested at the creamery. i "An explanation of the differences in test of cream from the same separator j fore, should be just as paiticulat and 355 caieful to supply his customers j or a factory as lie is when fining the pitcher he expects to' place on his t may. lie easily madCibecause these are due to other things besides the cream own table. acrew'QfUUe machine. observance of these-rules will help In the production of a high! The', test of the cream change's with any change in the way the sejiara j is rim. each time it is used for skimming milk. A, thitt. cream .comes from the separator when: The milk is excessively warm. (2) "The speed of the bowl is too low. 3111k is forced through'the-separator too rapidly. class jroduct (1) Always milk with clean, dry hands. required to wash their 'hands before milking. clothes. No lomU talking. should. -be pernfiited. and it. is best that the cows be milked by the same persons in. the same order ateach milking. Regularity TOvery milker should he They should wear clean in milking aids in developing a- tendency to prolong tbe period of lactation.! Dowl through skimming. An excessive amount of skim milk or wann water is used lo flush i (3) 'Covered milk pails are more necessary in a dirty than in a clean stable, "Such pails are 'designed to reduce t he size of the opening and thereby expose less milk to the an and the dust Fa some cases, layers of cotton and wire gauze are placed over the pail. Careful trials have demonstrated Umt no leas dirt anVTfrom to fli) per cent, fewer bacteria get into 'the milk'ivhen covered milking pails are used. (4) Wpo'den pails should not "be piey easily become sour and cannot be thoroughly clean.ed. (6) Never pom warm n1 V into eoltf milk 01 mix the morning's and it umformh the nights milk until both been coolrd neaih to the same temperature Milk should be removed from the, stable immediately after milking CLEAN, UTENSIUS ARE ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY All efforts to supply thtj 'consumers with sweet, clean milk are useless It'the. Milk1 caiis, and, other utensils are not thoroughly washed and' scalded before milk iV poured info them. Milk so quickly and it is-so difficult to sour odor from the utensils that these should be otter thej are used .t (1) Milk palls amt sltould be smooth iulh all cracks ana" seam (5) ,'A reduction ig made iu the richness of the milk skimmed. A rich' cream is obtained by: j Skimming cold milk. i Increasing'the speed of the bowl. -Uj 'Reducing the flow of milk into the separator bowl, i Keeping the bowl flushings out of the cream can, nu reisfng the of mill skimmed i 'he-most satisfactory work-with any separator IK obtained by running ADVANTAGES OF A RICH -CREAM Wlieii ci'eanv is sold from the seenrs be a tendency 16 skim a rather thin neim eten though it ih boUght tost, the farmei JB paid for the pounds of bittteifat it ront i only, The jinavnUinn movetcream thti sell the more iriofte1) f'ifjitult to tonvnue them Jhat i lifh