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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - December 14, 1916, Lethbridge, Alberta PAGE SIX 'I I IK LKTHUKIlHiK 1MILJ.' i pViXA THURSDAY. DECEMBER.1-1, Anti-Toxin for Canadian Soldiers All Made at Toronto University 'How These Wonderful Fighters of Diphtheria, Spinal Menin- gitis, Etc., are Prepared. DONE-IN LABORATORY Fluids are Obtained by Inoculat- ing Horses on Univer- sity Farm. By CLAKlCi: E. IKiNXISETT. f nrc many forms of pat- t riotifi work beiiur done in To- ronto. Ono is constantly hear- of the necessities, comforts, and even luxuries which are pre- pared and sent across thr seas to our soldiers. Yet you do not know that all the anti-toxin andantl- wonderful of diphtheria, tetanus, and spinal In the mili- tary hospitals controlled by the' Do- minion Government are prepared in the anti-toxin laboratory of the Me- dical Building of Toronto University. The value of anti-toxin in the sav- ing of life is being fully recognized by all medical authorities. List Feb- ruary-'the Provincial Government ar- ranged with the laboratory .of the Medical College to prepare Tor them anti-toxin and anti-meningitis scrum which they pay for and distribute free of charge throughout Ontario. In the laboratory at the medical school, a mysterious-looking room with long tables, glass cupboards filled with strange-looking flasks and j tubes, tho doctor showed us cultures of diphtheria, .tetanus and Inoculating a Horse Tetanus Germs cd tho refill I red amount of poison counteracting fluid, and three months for n "diphtheria horse." The "men- ingitis horse" is inoculated with the spinal meningitis germ Itself, and takes six months to develop the re- sisting fluid in its hlood. At the end of that time the horse s ready for the A needle connected by a tube with a bottle is inserted Into the jupillar vein, and from one to two ijallors of blood is 1 tak :en from Jiim- After a horse spinal mening-itis germs. These germs were in test tubes of gelatine, a jelly made of agar, a Japanese seaweed. and are kept dark anj at body tem- perature :n an Incubator. Growing the Germs THEKE times in days the diphtheria and tetanus germs are changed to fresh gelatine by pass- Ing: a platinum loop down into the tube and scraping enough of the germs to' Inoculate the fresh tube of gelatine.' The spinal'meningitis germ Is more delicate harder to raise, j It must, as the doctor said, change Its boarding house every other day. The next meal for diphtheria and tetanus germs" fa veal broth. A graduate of the household science course at the University Is there to prepare the gelatines and broths, for germs are very particular and must have things to their taste if .they are to grow up to be fine bardy genns.( Pour "times they are transferred to fresh veal broth, till, at the end of three weeks, In one flask there are- billions of diphtheria gurms; in another billions of tetanus germs; The diphtheria germ used in the laboratories everywhere is called the Park-TVilUams bacilluz, and was first isolated in 1896. It was discov- ered by Dr. Anna' "Williams, and Is a particularly poisonous germ, which grows .well under artificial conditions and produces toxin of the necessary strength. The tetanus germ comes from ths "Washington" laboratories. Now the tetanus "germ "is" ftvore difficult to grow in the laboratories, although it Is a hardy germ and "has been known to live fifty years, and will live even after being boiled for fifteen minutes. The meningitis germ is very strange. There are over forty differ- ent cultures of these germs kept "in the New York laboratory. Our lab- oratory at the University has been .able to send six or seven varieties which they have 'discovered to New York. This germ produces no toxfn, but the germ itself is used in inocu- lating. Inoculating the Horses AFTER the diphtheria and tetanus germs, have been in the veal broth the required length of time to throw off sufficient poison the fluids are put through filters. The filter used is -a tall straight glass Jar, in which stands a candle of a very fine grained, clay., material. The fluid-f II- ters through the candle and is pump ed out a-.vacuum pump. This Til tared liqqid is the poison produced th" germs but none of them are pre- sent It is called toxin A drop of either the Diphtheria or tetanus toxin is so very poisonous that it will kill fiftj gu nea, pigs; And now What happens7 Large bottles deadly- toxins are taken UP to the farm owned b> the Universi tjVwnere. a- number .of horses are kept These horses arc inoculat- t-d this sixteen with the diphtheria toxin, a smaller number with the tetanus toxin ana a smaller number with the spinal meningitis grerm At first a very tiny amount is injected under the sUi just one twentieth of a cubic centl meter, a-tiny more than that would.cause.death. The blood immediately, begins a sub- stance whlchi will counteract 'that poison. In "three or four days a still larger quantity fa Injected, till at the end of six months 750 cubic centime- deadly poison, is injected without in- juring the horsa. It takes elx monthf before a "tetanus horse" has develop- reaches this stage he Is bled once or twice a month, and inoculated three or four times in the same period. Now most people thank thn.t "the bleeding causes the horse to suffer. As a matter of fact the horse hardly seems to IS. but stands quietly and patiently while the Mood Is be- ing taken. Of course he may feel a little weak, but a good rest and sev- eral good feeds soon remedy that- Very Delicate Work r-p HE great bottles of blood are 1 taken back to the laboratory at the University, where the final stages of making the anti-toxin take place. To these bottles of blood a certain quantity of sodium citrate is added to prevent clotting, and they are tlieii allowed to stand till all the red blood cells settle to the bottom. The plasma, an amber-colored fluid con- taining the anti-toxin, rises to the top. This "is poured off into a boiler and heated to sixty degrees with ammonium-sulphite to remove sub- stances not containing anti-toxin, i On long tables are glass jars with glass funnels lined with a parchment paper. .Into these the heated ;plasma Is poured, and the precipitate, a foamy-looking" substance which clings to the paper, is the precious material wanted. This is scraped off, spread on large sheets of a. special parch- ment paper with several layers of above It, and left for five or six days to enable the ammonium sulphite to be absorbed from the pre- cipitate. In that time it turns a pe- cuMar biuisli -green. Free from all ammonium .sulphite, it is.scrapod off and tied into paper bags that look f lllte Christmas puddings ready for j the toiling-. These bags, are in them- selves very. Interesting1. The paper must be tested thoroughly, and of a certain kind which lets the water In but'nothing out, for the anti-toxin are kept. These guinea pigs are used to standardize the doses of anti-toxin. A little guinea pig is given a fata! dose, say one unit, of diphtheria tox- in, then the anti-toxin is injected. In this way It is found how much anti- toxin is needed to neutralize the diphtheria toxin, that It can be reckoned how much anti-tox'n should be injected into a patient suffering from diphtheria: to counteract the disease. The standards for the toxins come to the University laboratory from "Washington every other month. In- deed, all the laboratories In England, France. Italy. Russia, and Canada are dependent on Washington for these standards. STAGES IN MANUFACTURE. ILLUSTRATED FOR OUR READERS Drawing Off Some Blood From the Animal One of the Laboratories in the Medical Building Filtering Anti-Toxin to Ensure Its Purity Western Canada Grows Its Food Now and Exports Too By AUBREY are multiplying- that the t Canadian West Is coming into closer relations with both the Orient and the Antipodes. Geography out In the Pacific coast country I'ery naturally Involves trans oceanic terms, and the expanding tides of trade and commerce are bringing the must'be hung; in these boss in water [people of the far Weat Into intimate for seven or days. If there should be a flaw in the bag over S250 worth of anti-toxin would be destroy- ed. During the soaking in water the anti-toxin Is dissolved and held in oSutlon. The blood which is taken from the "meningitis horse" is merely, i acquaintance with places and condi- tions that not so many years ago were regarded practically as belong- ing- to another world- There Is, for instance; the trade in fish, and there is also the export fruit business. The development of the British Columbia fruit Industry to stand till, a clear amber-colored jfs perhaps as noteworthy as that of plasma has risen to the top.. This is t any other natural resource in Can- poured off and Is the aiiti-meningUffl sertim to be used in fighting menin- gitis. One might ask: Why does the anti- toxin have to be returned to a liquid ada, and Its trade interests are wid- ening out each. year. Up to a few yearn 'ag-o "Western Canada was sup- plied with fruit almost entirely from Ontario, but now the control of the There had then gone forward a'ship- ment of 3.500 boxes of -apples to South Africa; 1.150 boxes to Shang- hai, China; boxes to Australia, and half as many more to New Zea- land; two carloads, or boxes, to Glasgow, and a similar quantity to London. It is estimated that Britiah" Colum- bia will have about carloads of apples for export this year. The crop was good, and prices :are running about the same as last year; In some cases at an advance of 10 per cent. The fruit crop of the coast Province, of all kinds, will be worth .more than Three-fourths of Dunned fruits and vegetables used in the TVest still come from Ontario, because the can- ning industry is much more fully de- veloped there than in British Colum- bia; .but the Western pad; is grow- ing in volume year. Canned tomatoes, which formerly were a dis- tinctly eastern product, are now be- ing put up. in the Pacific country, and are gaining a foothold' In the prairie market, In the way of fish the Pacific Pro-! vincc is doing an export business that is even more characteristic of Its resources than the fruit it is sending abroad. Its salmon pack has already become world-famous, and has reached to the markets of ope and Asia. B. C. Fisheries Grbwirig THERE is an international aspect) to the North Pacific fishing in-i dustry that is curiously Illustrative: of Oriental cunning. The Japanese hr Iqng known the value 'of ine fisheries on the Canadian side of the water and have frequently come over to do some business on their own ac- count. They are forbidden by law, however, from securing licenses for1, fishing salmon off the Queen Char-' lotte Islands. The Japanese, however, have made other arrangements that served their purpose excecdlng- 'ly.well. They bargained with the In- dians at the beginning of the season to do some fishing for them, agreeing to pay them at the rate of three cents for each fish caught. The In- diana were satisfied with this ar- rangement, and the Japa got the fish. Prince Rupert has become a fish market of first. Importance, and through the summer months daily catches of pounds of halibut and salmon were taken there by off- shore and river flehing boats. A large part of this output went east and was distributed to" the prairie mar- ket, but in one form or or is a demand for it overseas as well. Some of the Pa- cific sea-food will also make its way this winter to the boys in the trench-! es, whose new fish rations will cer-i tainly include halibut and salmon from British Columbia. state? not make tablets of the trade between the coast and the precipitate and give the. to 1 Great Lakes is in the hands of the the patient through the mouth? That and practically the would seem certainly. This fruit coming in from the east is was tried of course, but antl-toxin grapes. This year. the taken in that way Is absolutely incf- markets, are for fectUe ard me'sly. digested. supplies., successfully combat the poison coucalng through the veins of the -diphtheria or tetanus patient anti- toxin' must be injected into the blood. Even then It does not kill the it simply neutralizes the poison. .Girl Workers Help T TPSTWR9 in another room a .young lady dressed all in white and wearing rubber gloves fills small bottles with anti-toxin. She sits at a glass; cabinet filling the bottles from a burette, a long glass graduated tube, with :a tiny tap at the bottom. The tiny" bottles hold units, or about two and a half teaspoonsfull. Everything is thoroughly sterilized, and the utmost care is taken, as In all the departments of .the laboratory. In another room several girls clad in'wliite'are'nusy wrapping these iit- tle bottles in absorbent cotton and> sealing them in wooden boxes ready for overseas, as well as for the hos- A-feature of the caae that is oven more .gisiiJileant, however, is the de- mand for Western apples In the mar- kets overseas. Shipments are now 'forward to Australia and "New Zealand, to the Fiji Islands, China, and .Ceylon, to South America and South Africa, and to Bnffland. There is an increase of 40 per cent, in the shipments to these various overseas markets, and in the case of'the Anti- podean markets Especially, there is a marked expansion over preceding' years. A biff liner left Vancouver a few days ago with "every foot .'of her j available cargo space filled with ap- plee'for -Australia.. The entire sur- plus crop of Jonathans was contract- TELFSCOPIC SPECTATORS Telescopic spectacles have been in- vented for persons are so ex- tremely near-sighted that ordinary lenses do not offset the defect; Splendid for Bad Coughs, Colds, Bronchitis An.yone ivlio tries this' pleasant' tast-- ing home-imule eyrup, will quickly understand it is used in more homos in the United States and Canada than any other cough remedy. The way it takes hold of an obstinata cpujjh, Riving will make you that .you .never tried it bc- Tore. It is a truly 'dependable coujjh, remedy that should be kept handy, in every to use at the first sign of a ed. for by buyers. that country before they were ready to ship. Fruit Export! THE figures of one large shipping concern in the pkariagan dia- pltals and doctors here at home. jtrtct, as siven up to the first of No- vember, indicate oh what a cosmo- In connection with the laboratory is a room where cages of cunning- little and rabbits politan scale the fruit growers of the coast Province are doinff bMstaeea.: Help the Needy Ones to Enjoy.Chnstma3.by- Subscribing to the Herald "Gdodf elldws" Fundl bottle with plain granulated sujjar gyrup. The total cost is about 54 ccata and you have 18 ounces of the most effective ivratdy you ever used. The quick, lasting relief you pet from this excellent cough ay run will really surprise you. It promptly heals the inflainrd membranes that line the throat and air paasa-ca, stops the annoying throat tickle, loosens tho pMcgm, and soon your couph stops entirely. Splen- did lor bronchitis, croup, whooping couirh and bronchial asthma. Pinex is a highly concentrated com- pound or .Norway pine extract, combined with tniaincol and is famous tho world over for its healing effect on. tho mem- -To ounces full' directions else. Just imagine! Then compare with the Bright, Cheerful and Happy Home Full of Music. You can have this by coming to our store and selecting your piano or phonograph. Note the World Renowned Musical Instru- ments We Sell. STEIN by. all as the World's Best. Oldest and Best Piano. Eatab. 1840. inventor of the phonograph and maker of the most natural reproducing instrument known. YOU ARE ALWAYS WELCOME Come aim See Us About Your Xmas Music EVERYTHING MUSICAL 315 Sixth Street South (Near Court House) Lethbridge. "Here's Where I Protect My Nine Dollar Investment." Shoes are up 80% to 100% in going higher. Rubbers cost practically the same as before the war. A good pair of shoes runs away with as much money as five to ten pairs of equally good rubbers. Yet one of these pairs of worn when needed, will make a pair i of shoes last half as long twice as for nothing destroys shoe-leather like get- ting wet. So the money spent in rubbers is returned several .times over in the saving of shoes alone, and .again in prevention of colds and worse, with the attendant expense and-danger. -Beyond these personal advantages, wearing-rub- bers is': a patriotic duty. Leather is growing .scarcer, while its ..need.for the soldiers is "as great or greater than ever. Every pair, of shoes we save, by releasing that much leather, helps a bit toward winning the war. With (he Xmas and New Year's Greet- ing to old friends, enclose your Por- trait. It's the ideal re- membrance because it's the next best thing to a visit. Mafit tht Appolntmtnt Early Smith's Portrait Studio CANADIANS WANTED FOR THE ROYAL NAVY Provincial Naval Recruiting Committee: E, H. Wilson, Honorary Secre- tary, 10035 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, or Naval Recruiting Office, K. W. .Honorary. Secretary, Alberta. SHOPPING EAKLY, ;