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Winona Republican-Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 21, 1949, Winona, Minnesota COOLER TONIGHT, FAIR SATURDAY DOWNTOWN STORES OPEN TONIGHT VOLUME 49, NO. 209 WINONA, MINNESOTA, FRIDAY EVENING, OCTOBER FIVE CENTS PER COPY EIGHTEEN PAGES TODAY- No Time To Weaken Defenses Teach ers name rested America have real de- By Joseph and Stewart AIsop is hard to imag- ine anything more serious than President Truman's decision to weaken America's defenses in the year of the Beria bomb. Yet the vast issues involved in this decision have been debated only once, be- hind closed doors, and nearly a year ago. The debate was between the President and the then Secre- tary of Defense the late James V. Forrestal, And the question they were arguing may be simply sum- marized, in the manner of a high school debating society: Shall fenses? Like the impairment of our de- fense that is now going on, the Truman-Forrestal debate began with the budget-making process. This year the President has given the Army, Navy and Air Force a budget ceiling of billions. Last year, he set a comparable budget ceiling of billions. But this year. Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson has tried to outdo the President in economy; while last year Secretary Forrestal tried to find out what the President's order would mean. THE S14.4 BILLIONS BUDGET ceiling was set during the summer! of 1948. Almost simultaneously, the! services, working on the system j still advocated by the Navy, pre- sented combined budget requests of! billions. While the President! was campaigning, Secretary For-) restal labored long and hard toj pare down the astronomical serv- ice estimate, yet to assure this! country of adequate defenses. In November, he had finished the job. He then asked the President for billions for the Army, Navy and Air Force. This figure of Forrestal's was gambling minimum, based on a plan that was also a gamble. Or, in other words, it was the very smallest sum that could conceiv- ably implement the agreed strate-, gic comcept of the joint chiefs ofj0f staff. And the J.C.S. blueprint not only failed to provide immediate preparedness for the United States, requiring only a buildup of strength! over a five-year period. The blue-i print further accepted the neces- sity, when the buildup had been! completed and "preparedness" had been attained, of defending this country and the free world with forces far smaller than the forces of the Soviet Union. To do less than meet the mini- mum requirements of the J.C.S. blueprint, seemed shockingly Im- prudent and even irresponsible to Forrestal. Not so, however, to the President. According to those who should know, President Truman had then, as he seems to have now, a hunch that there would be no war. He was ready to act on his hunch, however, staggering the risk might be. Forrestal's protests merely drove him to consult Sec- retary of State George C. Marshall. AT'THE STATE DEPARTMENT then, as now, many policy-makers shared the presidential hunch. These men believe that the Krem- lin desires to expand by infiltra- tion and political conquest, and Mercury Falls in Winona As Winter Draws Closer Winter aparently was moving In on Winona. From Thursday's balmy high of 75 degrees, the mercury had skidded to 50 at noon today. The drop folowed a morning drizzle that totaled 21 inch. Duck hunters, thankful for the cold weather in the north country which is driving geese and ducks southward, were out in numbers along the bottoms this morning. Simultaneously, Winona area pheasant hunters spite of the wet and were preparing to make another weekend assault to central por- tions of the state. At 8 a. m. today, the tem- perature in Winona was 60, but by noon, it was evident that cold was following the rain. The Rocky Mountain snow belt extended into the Dakotas, and rain blew across a wide section of the midcontinent, from the Gulf to Canada. A dying snowstorm left a white blanket over many west- ern states. It was dry and cool in the Far West and the Southwest. Only light snow fell today in Wyoming and North Dakota. But there was a wide belt of rain in the Middle and Upper Mississippi valleys. Fair weath- er was reported in the rest of the country. The mid-October snowfall left a total of 15 inches on the ground at Billings, Mont., and 13 inches at Cody, Wyo. The fall at Miles City, Mont., measured 11 inches in the last 24 hours. Snow also fell over parts of the Dakotas, Colorado, Idaho, Ne- vada and Utah in the last four days. Heaviest rains today were in northern Missouri, southeastern Iowa and western Illinois. Subfreezing temperatures reported over the snow belt today. Mild weather pre- vailed from eastern Iowa to the Atlantic coast and throughout the Gulf coast states. Texas had summer readings yesterday. The mercury- hit 96 at Laredo, in contrast to a high of 27 at Williston, N. D. A west Texas tornado wreck- ed property and killed a woman schoolteacher early Friday at Abilene. Counter Proposals To Truman Tax Boost Bid Plentiful Minute Man Guard Against Reds Proposed Organization Termed Key to U. S. Security By Edward O. Ethell Denver A modern organ- ization of minute men to meet threats of communist sabotage wasj proposed today. It was termed :ey to adequate security. The plan was offered by C. B.I Lister of Washington, executive rector of the National Rifle associa-l ;ion. He asked his board of directors! o help establish a new internal se-j curity force of civilians in their states "while there is time." "Russia could cripple this nation I in 12 hours without ever using an atom Lister declared. "A lot of and very little action on civilian defense plans, centering mostly on disaster relief, has betrayed the average American into a sense of security. "But the communists could attack without warning. They could do it through their cells scattered over the United States. Sabotage Possible "Even if the P.B.I. has spotted every cell and every communist, they could effectively sabotage our power and communication systems, our water supply and transportation net, and our vital industrial plants. They could do it before wholesale arrests could be made. "While our top military men are wrangling over long range strategy, are overiookmg their own back New President On Faculty of Phelps School S.E.M.E.A. Meet Sef to Adjourn This Afternoon By Gordon Holte Miss Amanda Aarestad, fifth grade supervisor at the Phelps school here, today was elected to a two-year term as president of the Southeastern division of the Min- nesota Education association. Announcement of Miss Aarestad's election was made this afternoon during the closing hours of the two-day convention of the S.E.M.E.A. here. The Phelps supervisor was one I of four Winona county educators j named to association posts by the school administrators and teachers attending the association's I llth biennial convention. Republican-Herald photo COUNTING BALLOTS WAS A as they checked results of the election for S.E.M.E.A. officers this morning are from left, seated, Miss Esther Frost, Austin; Eugene Sweazey, principal of Washington-Kosciusko school here, and Mrs. Cyrus Hatleli, Rushford. Standing, from left, W. R. Mc- Kibben, Rochester; J. R. EUingsen, Lewiston, and R. A. Henry, Winona Senior High school. By Francis M. Le May Hill fired back at President Truman's toprorfde i tax increase today with counter proposals to slash government protection for the base to put their instead. strategy into action and keep it in popular suggestion on how to make the governments ends iaction was: I IAsteT as By tax adjustments and other the military thinker may hate to Efficiency Aim Tops Defense, Johnson Says Louis Johnson declared today he is run- ning the Defense department in the interests of the American people and world peace. He said he intends to hew to that Families Own Automobiles Teacher Unity Vital, Says Mrs. Caldwell incentives, encourage a industrial and business economy With sights set on a national income. That, it is fig- -would yield adequate reve- hikes in tax support federal, state and local governments. National Income now is at the rate of about 000. Martin Critical be provided by civil- ians without cost. Those civilians] ,_, _ urged teachers and Washington Fifty-one per teachers groups as ai cent of American fam-'of education throughout the coun- ilies own at least one automobile, try. One out of 17' owns two or more. Mrs. Caldwell's address at the Seventy-seven per cent hold general 5ession Corning 11 JJ-T. urged convention delegates to insurance policies with Go on .Tpt'c rn nn rviino- want to protect their home, theirl Lets Go on Going. jobs and their way of life. All a year- Seventy-one Prefacmg her remarks with need is a little direction." I cent have bank accounts or gov- discussion of the development of His plan provides simply for! eminent savings bonds, and 45 per teachers organizations in America matching each communist cell with] cent own a home or a farm. I since the first national association a. two minute men.! But only nine per cent have an These would be organized in every! interest a business, and only community and every strategic in-! eight per cent own corporate dustrial plant. They would be (stock. House Republican Leader Mar- voluntary. Their assignments wouldj The Federal Reserve board EO tin, of Massachusetts, issued a'be to guard familiar objects: The _ statement saying the President wants more taxes to put "his so- cialist schemes over on the Ameri- can people." "The American he declared, "is so increase in the tax burden might highway bridge at the edge of town; the dam backing up the reservoir that provides water for their farm- lands; the local power station; the big transformer at the factory; the reported today on the basis of a sample survey it took early this year. It counts only those families living together and pooling comes for expenses. Election results showed ft clear- cut victory for the recently-organ- ized Winona County Education as- sociation which had supported the candidacy of William Zilliox, Wi- nona Senior High school teacher, as a member of the association's executive board; Donald R, Cop- pins, St. Charles school principal, and Eugene Sweazey, Winona Washington-Kosciusko school prin- jcipal, as delegate assemblymen, and Miss Aarestad. Others Elected Others elected today were Merle Bryant of Austin as a member the MJ3.A. executive board for a 1 four-year term; Lila Argue of Ro- Chester, vice-president, and Alba This morning's program in the Senior High school auditorium was jJaekson, Northfield; C. R. Lewis, highlighted by an address by Mrs. Sarah C. Caldwell, Akron, Ohio, i Rushford, and June Otterness, Al- president of the department of classroom teachers of the NJE-A., whojbert Lea, members of the executive school administrators to strengthen essential element in the promotion of the cause I Approximately delegates at- 'tended this morning's general ses- in the Senior High school audi- attendance somewhat .below that noted for yesterday's I opening-day meeting. The convention wUl adjourn this afternoon after association members heard addresses by Dr. Lloyd S. Michael, superintendent of the Evanston, HI., township high school, who will discuss the "General Edu- j cation for American and iDr. M. D. Mobley, state director of [the vocation education department of the Georgia department of edu- of teachers was drafted in 1857, Mrs. Caldwell pointed out that teachers associations have through! continuing capaigns, "rallied edu- cational forces, sustained morale 1950 Convention OfStateP.-T.A. To Be in Winona and laid foundations for longtime development." Winona was awarded the 1950; cation. now that an telephone switchboards. The survey also included a ques tion to this effect: She observed that "unity of Parents and Teachers at educational forces is of the annual meeting in Minneapolis !most importance to the future of jyesterday. j convention of the Minnesota Con-j Dr. Mobley will outline "Voca- tional Education as a Part of the Total School Program." Resolutions Exhorted by one speaker this line despite "straw men" and a rumors" which he attributed to the millions out of 1obs." Navy. millions out of jobs.' Mr. Truman disclosed his Johnson was the climax witness! tax objective at his news confer- 1 before the House armed services! ence yesterday, despite (A) Thatj committee which has heard Navy does not want war. They that present defense poli- tant and that strategic require- tional security. rnents can be met by assuming a Johnson said all he is trying to do mere "posture of defense." see that the of the tax-, I Congress has ignored bis call lasti January for a tax in- crease, and (B) 1950 is election year. All House members and one- third of the Senate will be out ask- ing votes then from taxpayers. 5-Year Conspiracy Terms Given 10 Red democracy." The convention closed with ajmorning to "true teacher Given Leadership statement by Governor Luther W.jstatesmanship and deal realistical- "The N.E.A, and its affiliated! local and state associations have that state and na-Iv with the basic issues of go wrong its ment in education for youth. the delegate assembly took time out to draft a series of resolutions given leadership to educators In The belief should be disDe'ed he a series oiresoiuuons their efforts to win the peace. Edu- addgd that ''we cannot aford pollcy cators participated in the United foV Nations conference in San Fran- cisco. The U. N. charter drawn boys and girls, there is no poin in anything." New Ten top-ranking] Carl Winter, 43, Michigan pOSe Ul Mr. Truman told the newsmen American communist leaders today nce has done no training for six years. The idea is, in short, that the So- into the most mod-j any way, ern and efficient defense equipment! meet an so that they get a hundred cents that if anybody could tell nced tancreases toi ars each for criminal conspiracy viets will be deterred from aggres-j worth of defense for every dollar cal year> toen sion if we make then think we arejSpent. willing to fight, even if we are[ And, throwing his "wholehearted patently unable to fight success-1 support" behind unification of the estimated Eicit in the current fis like to be ol J An F.. llth was ;_i eminent by force. Federal Judge- Harold B. Medina Counter Proposal (imposed "the "sentences national committee. Chairman George (D.-Ga.) of defendant maxi-! Winston and Davis are Negroes. !up there provides for international] jtural fields. The establishment of______ JUNESCO in London in 1945 is home ties.' He said hej i greatest achievement won by the! will appoint a committee of state Organized teaching profession to study marriage problems benjamin J. Davis, Jr., 46, Newjthe N. E. A. was founded and. for [and that the committee will be ask- ork city councilman. the first time in history, a to make recommendations lor Gilbert Green, 43, Illinois chair- atic contribution to a peoples peace! strengthening marriage and divorce Qfl 1C OfrClTTOrl f. Irving Potash, 46, member of the char-man fully. Evidently, this theory had im- Senate finance committee came addition. armed forces, the secretary said immediately with his counter pro- there is "an essential and honorable pressed Secretary Marshall, f or roie" for each Of them to fulfill un- he encouraged the President toiler present defense plans, override Fcrrestal's protests, and Before Johnson went on the wit- to insist on his original budget ceil- ress Etand General George C Cor- ing of billions. Thus the told the committee that__...... ciple became established, that "the root of the present trouble defense would do as well as the armed forces." defense. Since that momentous said all commanders posal: "I think the way to meet our deficit is: 1. To reduce spending, and 2. Readjust our taxes so as to encourage greater production and Those sentenced to five years were: Eugene Dennis, 44, general secre- tary of the Communist party, John B. Williamson, 46, labor sec- greater activity in retary. all! Jacob director. War Record Considered Robert Thompson, 34, New York state chairman, was sentenced to three years and a fine. Judge is assured. Mrs. Caldwell explained that the World Organization of the Teach- laws. In uncontested elections, Mrs. J.j Linda, St. Paul, was named vice- ing Profession, founded in 1946, president of Region One; Mrs. John was initiated by the N. E, A. and Eikum, Mankato, vice-president of now comprises members from 28 nations throughout the world who are working together to secure Medina took into' consideration [world-wide co-operation within the Thompson's war record. The New teaching profession. Great Work "We recognize the great work event, there have been three fur- ther developments. "I have a strong conviction that! Yorker won the distinguished serv- Stachel, 49, educational ice cross for service in the Pacific. After Judge Medina announced u. ovAunB Gus Hall, 39, Ohio state chairman.! the sentencing, most of the de- Marshall, wartime Army chief of !we should encourage increased pro-! John Gates, 36, editor of the Dailyjfendants smiled, staff, said all commanders until we achieve an an-Worker. The judge denied all defense First, the Beria bomb has ex- somebody TTnn ft- riVfl iHd I______-__! more than they can be given national income of somewhere things thad ploded, three years before the Joint nomical way of chiefs' planning date of 1952. to be done." was on the basis of this planning jonnson said that in addition to date that the J.C.S. allowed there are other factors. His years; for our defense buildup. was that. ciall3', therefore, if the J.C.S. "Tradition, opposing interest, and cept is valid, a much more rapidifear of ]oss of identity have all defense buildup is now necessary. played a part in the turmoil on the SECOND, -PRESIDENT TKU !subject of unification, and in the op- MAN, having discarded the idea eration Of the unified military es- of a defense buildup last year, has tablishment since you first estab- this year actually decided to lt in 1947. The present con- duce our strength. The billion troversy, in my opinion, is a con- ecHin the neighborhood of Henry Winston, 35, for arrest of judgment, for secretary. a new trial and for acquittal. budget ceiling will buy us about 15 per cent less fighting power than was planned last year. The money saved on our own Army, Navy tinued adherence to the above- mentioned considerations." The secretary said the committee might be surprised to hear it, in! and Air Force will be spent of testimony from the Navy.I military aid for Europe. But tmsjbut the fact is that the poiicy.mak. in turn means that the Atlantic jing joint chiefs of staff have pact will carry with it no special j "unanimously agreed on an erner- increase in the over-all security of Bency-war involving the max- the Western world. Third, Secretary of Defense John- son, by a secret order, has sought to reduce current defense spend- ing to the level projected by the President for next year. The vio- lent cuts made necessary by this hasty economy were what drove the admirals into rebellion. But it is not in the Navy alone, that our defense is being weakened. Meanwhile, no one has yet ex- plained why it is safe to operate on a hunch that there will be no war, when we are confronted by alhours ending at 12 m. today: giant power, long ago defined asi Maximum, 75; noon, imum utilization of Army, Navy, Marine and Air Forces." WEATHER FEDERAL FORECASTS Winona and vicinity: Cloudy and cooler tonight; low 38 in the city! and 35 in the country. Generally' fair and cooler Saturday; high 48. LOCAL WEATHER Official observations for the 24 that has been done by pioneering! sided over the annual sessions. Mrs. Caldwell remark- fourteen other delegates from Wi- ed. "We acknowledge with a full nona P.-T. A. groups participated appreciation the heritage of which we are trustees. We are not un- mindful of the responsibilities and obligations that such a trusteeship places upon our shoulders. "A million strong, speaking a common voice, we can the trend of events. Teachers work- ing together on a unified local, state, national and international level can determine a course of j education that will shape the future of tomorrow's world and lift our professional ceilings to heights that enable all teachers to walk on higher ground." The realization of this goal, Mrs. approprmu: more money lor eau- f and International cation. If we do not invest in The association approved unani- th mously resolutions prepared by the committee stating that pjthe association will: 1. Continue to spread infor- mation about the United Na- tions and support its efforts towards a peaceful solution of the world's problems. 2. Recognize the fact that re- cent developments in atomic warfare and other types of mass production make international co-operation and understanding more imperative than ever be- fore and strive to emphasize the interdependence of all peo- ples in our modern society. 3. Encourage the internation- al exchange of students as a contributing factor toward in- ternational good will and under- standing. 4. Work toward more suc- cessful democracy which will serve as an example to all nations of the world. 5. Encourage the training of needed technicians and the de- velopment of scientific re- search. 6. Work to provide equalized and expanded opportunities for the thorough education of an youth. In other matters primarily con- Region Two. Mrs. Charles Aldons of Renville was re-elected treasurer. The Rev. Russel Meyers. Minne-j apolis, defeated Mrs. S. E. Wyoming, for Region Three vice-! president. I Harry M. Reynolds, Winona, state! president of the organization, pre- in the convention. Truman Signs Tax Bill Madison, Wis. The state beverage tax division will be able to] collect taxes from all Wisconsin per- j sons who buy cigarettes by mailicerned with the development and from states without cigarette taxes, expansion of the teachers organ- under a bill signed Truman todav. by President ization, the assembly voted to in- crease membership fees during the Under a new law, shippers must furnish state taxing authorities each month names of those to whom clg-jaries earned by the individual next two years with the increase to be prorated according to sal- Caldwell acknowledged, "is not a arettes were shipped. Thus the teachers small task. It will demand our Very j vision will be able to get names of Amended Motion best judgment, much hard persons seeking to avoid! xhe resolution was adopted in and infinite patience." I payment of the three cents per pack! amended form after one delegate "It will require the finest talents Wisconsin tax. originally proposed that a flat of all educators as We sit down! Formerly, Wisconsin received annual fee be charged. Im- together to talk out our problems jnames those Persons who bought! mediatelv after the presentation and work to arrive at common understandings which will Insure the froln having a cigar- consin levy. the greatest development of teaching profession." Despite the scope of the Mrs. Caldwell observed that! I..JJ inhere are not unreasonable ex-Juaa JOItlS jpectatlons." i "They can be achieved if the countless thousands of teachers in ette tax. The division then wrote individuals assessing them the Wis- "expanding and and known to be making an armament effort more intense than the nazi effort of the 1930s. 50; precipitation, sun sets to- night at sun rises tomorrow at Additional weather on Page 15, Handcuffed Together and flanked by U. S. marshals, Eugene Dennis, second from left, general secre- tary of the Communist party and City Councilman Benjamin J. Davis make their way through the crowd today from a prison van to the federal building in New York city to receive sentences. Both Dennis and Davis received five-year prison terms and fines for criminal conspiracy. Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald.) our unified profession use their many abilities to carry forward these fields of endeavor. By using intelligence and of our members the combined strength of all our associations can move forward For Aid to China the Washington Judd (R.-Minn.) was one of six I House Republicans who joined last! night in a plea for further aid toj Nationalist China. The group of the motion, a Rochester dele- gate asked that the motion be amended to include the prorating provision and this suggestion re- ceived approval of the majority of members. The association also recommend- ed that efforts be made to secure certain federal income tax exemp- tions for teacher retirement an- nuities. A resolution approved by no specific recommendation for the amount or type of assistance theyL :eJ 4 assembly asked that the ex- be up to the highest allowed any other retire- with faith to the brightest dawn'asked to be used in the "general the teaching profession has area to combat the spread known." lof communism.' Resolutions regarding school aids education supported the Nation- (Continued on Page 3, Column 5.) TEACHERS ;