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Winona Republican-Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 16, 1953, Winona, Minnesota Ike Warned U. S. Open to Air Attack by Russians Air Defenses Woefully Weak, Report Reveals Stronger Forces Will Cost Nation Billions More (Editor's note: This is the first of a scries of jive articles by Joseph and Stewart Alsop on the preparedness problems lacing the United States. The articles will take the place of the regular column this week and will be published doily through Friday.) By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP WASHINGTON President Dwight D. Eisenhower is seriously considering an American air de- fense program estimated to call for to billion of additional defense spending. The being actively discussed on the highest level, in the 'National Se- curity Council. The sharp spur of the discussion is a solemn warning contained in studies made for the government by a group of the most highly qualified American scientists. These men have bluntly forecast that before very long, the cities ajid the industry of the United State's will lie open and virtually defenseless against a devastating Soviet air-atomic attack. Two years is the time of grace allowed. Few if any graver choices have ever confronted an Amer- ican President. On the one hand, the requirement for huge added spending, with its implications. If the program is adopted, capi- tal outlays for air defense will of course be spread over more than one year. But the capital outlays will in turn generate huge main- tenance and replacement charges. Hope will dim for the process described by Sen, Robert A. Taft as "getting defense spending down to a reasonable level." The Eisen- hower fiscal policy will probably have to be revolutionized, which will provoke sharp Congressional reactions. On the other hand, unfortunately, there is the scientists warning, not quite certain yet very terrible, of total peril ahead. The source of the warning is such that it cannot be lightly disregarded, In brief, it derives from a study of the air defense problem under- taken by the Massachusetts In- ititute of Technology, on an Air Force contract, not long after the beginning of the Korean war. This M.I.T. study, known as Project Lincoln, was originally conceived by former Secretary of the Air Force Thomas Finletter as a sort of Manhattan District for air de- fense. Although considerable work has been done on new equip- ments. Project Lincoln has not assumed the proportions of the Manhattan District. Yet it has long absorbed the lion's share of M.l.T.'s remarkable scien- tific and technical resources, constituting such a heavy bur- den, indeed, that M.I.T. Presi- dent James R. Killian Jr. has repeatedly but vainly sought relief from it. Among the Lincoln leaders were Dr. Killian himself, Dr. Albert G. Hill, who served as project direc- tor, and Drs. Jerrold Zacharias, and Lloyd V. Berkner. Consultants from the initiation of the project were such men as Drs. Charles Lauritsen, I. I. Rabi, J. Robert Oppeiiheimer and Vannevar Bush. Fina'Jy, last spring, when the time to reach conclusions was nearing, an immense and imposing array of physicists, mathematicians, engin- eers and other leading men was brought in from other American universities and scientific institu- tions. The expanded working party, known as the Summer Study Group, added to the scientific con- stellation such figures as Drs. Le- land Haworth, of the Brookhaven Laboratory, Winfield Salisbury of the University of California, and Emmanual Piore, civilian chief of the Office of Naval Research. The Summer Study Group reached its conclusions after long and intensive review of all relevant data, tech- nical, mathematical and theoreti- cal. The Project Lincoln-Summer Study Group findings, plus the sup- porting facts, were then transmit- ted to Washington, where the pro- blem was at once taken to the National Security Council and the White House. When confronted by the same choice that now confronts Presi- dent Eisenhower, President Harry S. Truman understandably prefer- red to leave the final decision to his successor. In this manner, President Eisenhower inherited his present dilemma as he took office. The source of the dilemma, of course, is the explosion of the first people's democratic atomic bomb in September, 1949. It is now three and a half years since that crucial event; yet Project Lincoln repre- sents the first really comprehen- sponsored scientific effort to assess the meaning of the itomic bomb in. Soviet hands. To find out this meaning, the first question to be answered was whether the Kremlin pos- sessed or was acquiring the means to deliver decisive quantities of atomic bombs to American targets. The answer was in the affirmative. Leaving on one side such special means as bombs secretly intro- [Continued on Page 13, Column ALSOPS Fair Tonight, Tuesday Partly Cloudy, Warmer VOLUME 53, NO. 23 SIX CENTS PER COPY WINONA, MINNESOTA, MONDAY EVENING, MARCH 16, 1953 EIGHTEEN PAGES This Was The Scene at the atomic proving grounds in Nevada today as Civil Defense officials completed preparations for Tuesday's test atomic explosion. Scattered across the desert are some of the automobiles to be exposed to the blast, the two New England Colonial" houses specially built for the occasion, and the 300-foot steel tower, cen- ter background, atop which the bomb will be ex- ploded. It's 1V4 miles away from the nearest house. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) Ike Studies Peace Words of Malenkov, Recalls War Acts By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER WASHINGTON administration officials carefully i studied Soviet Premier Malenkov's latest words of peace today in search of the answer to this question: Is the new regime in Mos- cow actually interested in trying to improve relations between Rus- sia and the United States? Officials said that fundamentally the true test of sincerity would State Funeral Set for Czech Chief Gottwald VIENNA, Austria (ffi A state funeral will be held in Prague Thursday for Klement Gottwald, President-dictator of Communist Czechoslovakia, who died suddenly on Saturday. The Czech radio announced last night that all work will halt throughout Czechoslovakia for the opening five minutes of the serv- ices. Before the funeral, the broad- cast said, the 56-year-old Red chief will lie in state in-the Spanish Hall in Prague Castle. The national .observance for Gott- wald will be small-scale version of the elaborate Russian obser- vance last week for his Communist comrade, Joseph Stalin. Gottwald attended the outdoor services for Stalin in freezing weather in the Soviet capital's Red Square and there apparently caught the cold that developed into pneumonia with complications and resulted in his death. Gottwald's place of burial was not announced. Nor was there any announce- ment of the successor to Gottwald's dictatorial control over the Czech government, the all-powerful Com- munist party and the army and police. Observers here speculated that the authority might be split among several top Reds. The presidency, possibly turned into a figurehead position, might go to 75-year-old Vice Premier Zdenek Nejedly. The four-man commission ap- pointed to make funeral arrange- ments was looked upon as the like- ly heir to" actual authority. Heading the commission is Pre- mier Antonin Zapotocky, apparent- ly the top contender for the high- est power. AdlaiGetsRhee's inions on War Op SEOUL Iff! Adlai Stevenson received an up-to-the-minute pic- ture of the fighting in Korea from top Allied ground and air com- manders today after seeing South Korean President Syngman Rhee. Rhee told Stevenson the Chinese Communist Army in Korea is tired and that a major Allied offensive could break the prolonged stale- mate. Stevenson called on Rhee im- mfdiately after his arrival by air from Pusan, On his third busy day in Korea, Stevenson also toured a' huge Ko- rean Army training base at Kwang- South Korea, took a close look at the deadly American Sabre jet fighters and met the leading American jet ace, Col. Royal N. Baker of McKihney, Tex. Tuesday Steveneon will tour the battlefroat. lie in the action rather than in words. There are many issues on which the Soviet could demonstrate good intention by specific action, ranging from an easing of tensions in Germany to an armistice in the Korean War. Nevertheless, top administration officials evidently believe, as Sec- retary of State Dulles declared a week ago, that with new person- alities in control in Russia and the U. S. there may be new op- portunities to work for peace. They do not intend, responsible informants said, to overlook any such opportunities. Obviously Mal- enkov's assurances of peaceful So- viet policy are being discussed here in the light of this approach to world affairs. Fit Into Pattern Some high officials privately sug- gested that' Malenkov's assertions before the Supreme Soviet (par- liament) in Moscow yesterday fit into a pattern of reaction to the line which Dulles took in a care- ful statement he made in New York last week. Dulles said the death of Stalin marked the end of an era and that it came shortly after Eisenhower had become president in this coun- try The world now is entering the" Eisenhower era, he said. He expressed the view that Stalin's death, ending his "malignant" in- fluence, would enhance the chanc- es for peace. Malenkov said yesterday there were no controversial issues with the U. S. or any other nation that could not be settled peacefully. Experts on Soviet relations sug- gested that what Malenkov said was in most respects about as vague as anything Stalin ever said about peace during those times when, in the view of the Ameri- can government, he was talking out of both sides of his mouth. Father Authority In Home, Ike Says PHILADELPHIA tfl President Eisenhower said today "it is an old but unchanging truth that the father represents authority in the home." Eisenhower made the comment in a message to the 21st annual convention of the National Catholic Conference on Family Life. It was made public here at the start of the three-day sessions. The President, in a letter to the Rev Edgar Schmiedeler, director of the family life bureau, Washing- ton, said he "noted -with interest that the general theme of your convention is "The father, the head of the home." "It is no less true that members of a family who learn and live by wholesome respect and authority in the home qualify as citizens who know genuine respect for public the President said. this sense, the respect and authority deserved and command- ed by the father are the source of respect for law itself in society at large." Several hundred priests, nuns and lay delegates are expected to attend the convention sessions which continue through Wednes- day at the Bellevue-Stratford Ho- tel. Bishops participating in the convention sessions will include the 'Most Rev. Peter W. Bar- tholome, coadjutor of St. Cloud, Mjnn, Air Force Chief 'Fed Up With Russian Attacks WASHINGTON W-Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg said last night he is "fed up with our boys being used as clay pigeons" by Communist plane pilots in Europe. "I'm worried about said Vandenberg, the Air Force chief of staff, in speaking of the situa- tion which saw two planes, one U. S. and one British, shot down by the Reds in Germany last week. He said in talking with newsmen on his return from an inspection trip to Europe and Africa, that he could not comment further. Supreme Soviet Makes Malenkov Prime Minister All Issues With U.S. Red Leader Says By EDDY GILMORE MOSCOW more than members of the Supreme So- viet unanimously confirmed Georgi M. Malenkov as the Soviet Un- ion's prime minister yesterday and loudly cheered his inaugural as- sertion that all "troublesome and unsolved" issues with the United States and other countries can be solved peacefully. One foreign diplomat termed the speech to the nation's parliament by Joseph Stalin's successor "al- most an offer to sit down with the United States and anyone else and try to ease the world's ten- sion." "It could be one of the most important statements to be made in a very long another diplomat commented. (In Washington, officials of Pres- ident Eisenhower's administration said they were studying Malenkov's words carefully but commented that the sincerity of any peace overtures would be shown better by action rather than words. Such specific action, they pointed out, could range from an easing of ten- sions in Germany to an armistice in the Korean War.) Funeral Oration As in his funeral oration over Stalin's bier a week ago, Malen- kov in his address to the Soviet delegates in the Kremlin's ancient IU1U, I, w niv-i _ _ Vandenberg said U, S. pilots in Hall of St. Andrew again stressed the American zone of Germany must fly near the borders of Com- munist East Germany and Czecho- slovakia "to see what is going on, but they stay well within our own lines." Reorganization Of Agriculture Dept. Planned WASHINGTON Eisenhower expects President to announce a plan to reshuffle the Agriculture Department late this week, Repub- lican congressional leaders said today. House Speaker Martin (R-Mass) told newsmen the Agriculture De- partment project was discussed by GOP leaders at their regular Mon- day morning strategy meeting with the President. Martin said the plan does not call for any "violent changes" but seeks to improve the organization of the department in the interest of efficiency. New Ulm Names 1st City Manager NEW ULM, Minn. Wt-Philip L. White, 46, Claremont, N, H., today was named New Ulm's first city manager. He will take over the a year job, ordered under a city charter adopted last year, on March 30. White was manager of Claremont four years. Prior to that, he was town manager of Brattleboro, Vt. a policy of peace. "At the present and in the fu- he asserted, "there is no such troublesome or unsolved ques- tion which cannot be solved by peaceful means." This, he continued in a specific reference, applies to the Soviet Un- ion's relations with all countries including the United States. Not once di4 Malenkov refer to "warmongers" or to American "imperialists." Both these terms, formerly -so widely applied to ac- tivities of U. S. leaders, have been absent from pronouncements of So- viet leaders and the Soviet press since Stalin's death. Malenkov said his new govern- ment's foreign policies are based on respect for the rights of other countries, "strict adherence to all treaties" signed by the Soviet Un- ion, and co-operation and develop- ment of business relations with all nations, whether Communist or capitalist. Draw Tighter Links The Soviet Union, he went on, would draw even tighter its links with its allies, and especially with Communist China and the "peo- ple's democracies" of Eastern Eu- rope. On the home front, Malenkov said, his government would work for five things: To make the state even more powerful, tighter, the bonds among the Soviet Union's various nationalities, strengthen the armed forces, better standards of living and guarantee the "unity" of party and government. The two legislative Soviet of the Union and Soviet of for only one hour and seven minutes, then ad- journed and headed for home. Dur- ing the session they also confirmed the other members of Malenkov's regime named after Stalin's death and approved a sweeping govern- ment reorganization streamlining the previous 54 ministries down to only 26. TroopsAwait A-Bomb Test Five Members of Minnesota's Civil Defense organization vis- ited the site of Tuesday's test atomic explosion today. Behind them is an auto to be exposed to the blast. Left to right: David G. Harrison, deputy state director; Col. E. B. Miller, state direc- tor; Walter P. Halstead, Minneapolis director; M. V, Choban, So. St. Paul director; A. J. Lund, Minneapolis deputy director. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) U. S. Calls Malenkov Bluff on Peace Talk WASHINGTON State De- partment today challenged Soviet Premier Malenkov to carry out his words on "peaceful intent" through action to settle the Korean fighting and other East-West is- sues. A statement by Press Officer Lincoln White said that the depart- ment received "with interest" Malenkov's inaugural declaration Sunday at Moscow, in part be- A St. Patrick's Day treat in the form of an appropriately decor- ated 500-pound bomb" has been prepared for the Communists in Korea by Sgt. Martin J. Marren Jr., left, of Orange, N. J., form- erly of County Silgo, Ireland. Helping make the delivery will be radar expert T. Sgt. Thomas C. Rafferty, right, of Brooklyn, N. Y., formerly of Dublin, Ireland, who flies in the back seat of a Tiger- cat and is on his second combat tour in Korea. Both men are with the Marine Corps' "Flying Nightmares" an all-weather fighter tqutdron. (AP Wirephoto to HM Republican-Herald) Two-Man Irish Parade Set to Wear the Green By JERRY BOIN RICHMOND, Va. Iff! John O'Grady and Allie Duffy, Rich- mond's two-man St Patrick's day parade, will be making their an- nual rounds tomorrow, painting the town green. O'Grady, 63, a builder, and Duf- fy, 60, a retired fireman, will drink only green beer. A local brewery is making sure the brew is the correct shade. They'll eat only green bread and food. Restaurants that expect them to call have promised to co-operate but the two Irishmen will carry a green vegetable dye just in case the restaurants forget. O'Grady Warns Police O'Grady has warned police he'll pay no attention tomorrow to any other than an Irish officer and he'll have no truck with traffic tickets if they aren't green. Of course, the pair will be decked ont in green from head to toe. "We'll even wear green under- wear, in case of an O'Grady chuckled. Their day will start with visits to any number of business estab- lishments along the city's main artery, Broad Street. At each stop, O'Grady and Duffy will make with a tentative Irish jig, a "top o' the mornin' and a pleasantry or two. They'll travel in an old-fashioned buggy behind a green-blanketed horse named Patrick. A footman will jump down at each stop to un- roll a green carpet for them 'to tread. O'Grady and Duffy, one a portly and the other a spare gentleman, are not advertising anything except their high spirits. "We just want to bring good cheer, to show people that life is really good O'Grady ex- plained. "St. Patrick's Day gives us an excuse." O'Grady has been promenading through Richmond bearing the green every St. Patrick's Day since 1911. Duffy started a few years later, also as a solo per- former. They decided to make it duet in 1986. cause the name of former Prem- ier Stalin was "barely For this reason and because Malenkov apparently recognizes a "latent power for good" among the Soviet "peoples, which Secre- tary of State Dulles recently men- tioned, the department said Mal- enkov's words were received "with interest by this government." "Their true significance how- ever must be determined by the future action of the Svoiet Union and by those under its the statement said. "Protestations of peaceful intent are not new from the Soviet Union but words must be weighted against acts. "The war continues in Korea. Planes on peaceful routine mis- sions are shot down in Germany. Pledges for the independence of Austria continue to be ignored. "It will be interesting to see how in these and other pressing re- spects Mr. Malenkov intends to im- plement his words of peaceful in- tent." Senate Passes Bill Ending Rent Curbs ST. PAUL Senate today passed a bill to end rent controls in Minnesota on April 15, two weeks before federal rent controls are scheduled to expire. The vote was 36 to 20, with 34 needed for passage. The bill now goes to the House. There was no discussion before the vote. In debate earlier, supporters ar- gued that now is the time to take off rent controls unless the state wishes to continue indefinitely on a controlled economy. Opponents contended there still is a bousing shortage and that end- ing rent controls is certain to re- sult in higher rents. The bill was sponsored by Sens. Gordon Butler, Duluth; Walter Burdick, Rochester, and E. L. Andersen, St. Paul. WEATHER FEDERAL FORECAST Winona and Vicinity Fair to- night. Tuesday partly cloudy and warmer. Low tonight 22, high Tuesday 45. LOCAL WEATHER Official observations for the 24 hours ending at 12 m. Sunday: Maximum, 37; minimum, 26; noon 30; precipitation, .49. Official observations for the 24 hours ending at-12 m. today: Maximum, 35; minimum, 22; noon, 35; precipitation, none; sun sets tonight at sun rises to- morrow at AIRPORT WEATHER (No. Central Observations) Max. temp. 37 at noon, min. 22 at a. m., thin overcast at feet, visibility 15 miles, wind calm, barometer 30.08 falling, humidity K gar out. Men Will Be 2 Miles Away From Blast House and Cars Will Be Examined in Tuesday Explosion By BILL BECKER ATOM BOMB SITE, Nev. The little white house on the cor- ner of Elm and Main streets is due to take a fearful pounding tomorrow. And how it comei through may mean life or death, to you in an atomic attack. Fortunately, this house is not on the corner in your home town but in the middle of sprawling Yucca Flat. There as troops and a group of 20 picked newsmen crouch in two-story frame and concrete structure will be put to a fiery atomic test. It may or may not withstand the blast from a tower less than a mile and one-half away. A sister structure only feet from the tower is expected to be demol- ished. It may be a "bomb" to the aver- age man, but tomorrow's test ob- ject is still a "device" to Dr. Alvin C. Graves and his fellow scientists. He said neither a shell nor a bomb is being detonated. But the device, whatever its shape, will still pack a punch equivalent to of TNT Men 2 Miles Away The troops and front-line news- men will be dug in two miles south of the tower. The test bouses built to specifications of the aver- age American home for the Fed- eral Civil Defense Administration east of ground zero. If the surrounding area is not too hot, radioactively.' speaking, newsmen and Civil Defense of- ficials may be able to find out how the family of manne- in the more distant house. There are 19 dummies in the white colonial home seven of them in two bomb shelters in the basement. The rest are in the liv- ing room, dining room and an up- stairs bedroom. Even the several hundred news- men and Civil Defense observers at News Nob, seven miles south of the explosion point, are due for shock and heat about equal to that ex- perienced at last spring's invita- tional shot. Dr. Graves said the lower height of the 300 feet as compared to feet in last year's plane compensate for the smaller device being used. Then, too, News Nob is three miles closer to ground zero than it was last April 22. The pressure will be on the soldiers, for sure. Dr. Graves said, the blast will push against front- liners with an extra pressure of one pound per square inch. The heat rise will be one calorie per square centimeter, enough to give the boys "a slight reddening of the a good sunburn, nothing Graves said.- Testing Cars Seventy automobiles and trucks are scattered among the Joshua trees within an radius of the shot tower. There are brand new cars and broken down old mail trucks, like you'd find on almost any Elm Street. A few contain dummy familief on perhaps their last outing. From all this, Civil Defense ex- perts may learn which is safer under bomb attack, a home or a car. And the Col. William C. Bullock as exercise director- hopes its maneuver will equip an- other battalion of GIs to cope with the realities of atomic'warfare. The two-mile yards) fox- boles are twice as close as last year's positions. The closer trenches are being used because sheep survived in them previously. The AEC is conducting its usual biomedical studies on various ani- mals placed in bunkers as close as 400 yards to the detonation tower. These animals include dogs, pigs, monkeys, rabbits and mice. GIs in Korea Gave To March of Dimes SEOUL in Korea gave to the 1953 March of Dimes, the U. S. Eighth Arar ;