Read an issue on 25 Jun 1845 in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania and find what was happening, who was there, and other important and exciting news from the times. You can also check out other issues in The Tioga Eagle.
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Tioga Eagle (Newspaper) - June 25, 1845, Wellsboro, PennsylvaniaCentt deducted if actually m and id Cooter t0 3tos, polite a of theme Wellsboro wednesday tall arrearage Are of the editor. P not exceeding twelve Unes m r one Dollar and for every Sno re cents. Notices not for seventy five cents. Of three insertions the same. Yearly advertisers. From Magazino. Our casement beams Mil babe hath drop to sleep it to its dreams fee shadows deep a Silver tide rippling by thy Side. And Lovely spot ave Laid the Down to rest. Imojean forget me no thy Ullh the stillness Beautiful. In Roufeh the Forest Bare shapes on Glossy plumes Tatto like ringed stars blooms i borne from tree to tree leaves with Melody. 1 Trace hours i footsteps made i once thy resting place silent Shade Icahn and trained the fragrant Bough Jap its blossoms o or me now. Iete at eve we used to Rove Sheie i breathed my whispered vows led them on thy lips my love Jtb the Apple boughs. Its had relied in o one ill candid what love had done. Too deep a weight of thou go t i filled thy in youth s Sweet hour my with lore and Bliss peeling passion Flower Neath a Southern sky Blossom soon and soon to die. Blooming Bowers seem to sea then still fire Jill seems floating o or the Flowers jew Lisper on the Hill Irele armaint Sia Light and the sea Frt spering to my heart of thee. To Leihy smiles my heart it still i Start to meet thine Pye nil upon Tom Low Sweet voice attire me no fit within my silent door i Light feet that come no More. From Start monthly Magazzu. Phenomena Yohb atmosphere. Phenomena observed in or i by atmosphere Are exceedingly numer Tail must appear to the uneducated Man complicated As to their cause of action a nay nil however be traced to the in i of electricity Light or beat these if indeed they be separate agents Zimei aiding each other in the product Ollys effect. In the remarks we Are Mike it May to desirable to Bear fit actin remembrance and we shall he follow the classification As nearly summer evening lightning so denominated from its appearance at the verge of the horizon on summer evenings is the reflection of lightning which is occurring at some place beneath the horizon its appearance is that of a faint Light flashing upward and is Best observed when the Ocean forms the horizon of he Spectator. The Aurora Bartalis is a most splendid natural appearance. It is presented to us in the form of Brilliant but soft Corus cations and steamers of Light. In Northern regions it is so during the Long Winters under which the inhabitants suffer that it in some measure supplies the deficiency of solar Light. It has been Long supposed that electricity was the cause of its production but is now pro Ved without doubt for by passing electricity from a Point into an exhausted flask a precisely similar appearance is hence we Are led to believe that the Aurora is but a circulation of electricity in a state of Small intensity through an attenuated atmosphere. Shoi iting Star is another phenomenon which May be traced to the action of Trinity and also that curious appearance observed on the Topmast of vessels and called by the sailors St. Elma s fire. These Are the most remarkable Phenomena resulting from the action of electricity or at least those which most attract the Atten Tion of persons in general. But Thia mighty Universal agent plays a much More important Pirt in the establishment of physical conditions than we generally imagine or per haps can even conceive of. In the process f evaporation and condensation it is present a All chemical changes and in the Subtle pc rations of Ca Oric. By electricity magnetic polarity is Given to the Earth and the ame property is As it were condensed in he Magnet. It is not for us to say where it but a May ask where is it not All material existence is supported by its Agency and it is probable that All changes in physical condition Are More or less on but we must now proceed to explain the next class of Phenomena connected with the atmosphere those which result from the action of or change produced by Light. To the origin of solar Light men entertain different opinions and it is not necessary for us to inquire which is right and which wrong. All Are agreed that when influenced by the presence of any other sub stance it moves in right lines. But the so Lar Light in passing from the Sun to the Earth has to pass through the atmosphere and its rays Are consequently Bent out of their course in the same manner As when passing through As on a Clear cold frosty morning they have a Peculiar Sharpness i which renders them remarkably District. It has already been observed that the atmosphere is conduct sounds at an ele vation much greater than might be imagined. Thia is known from the loud noises which have been frequently heard at the moment of the explosion of meteorites. The Large meteor of 1719 is supposed to have been sixty nine Miles above the Earth and yet a noise was heard like that produced by firing a Large Cannon. That remarkable class of Phenomena called meteorites but Little can be said. A that we know of them is that a who thinks least of the Phenomena of nature believe himself to be thoroughly acquainted with the origin of rain Enow Dew., and Many other common appearances but if he were questioned by one had devoted himself to the study of natural appearances be would be found to have a very inaccurate notion of the subject which he believes him self to understand. Pair we afe told is produced by the condensation of vapor in the atmosphere. The1 heat of the Sun s rays causes the water on the surface of the Earth to take the vaporous form and As it is lighter than the atmospheric air in i grated delicate s. In this state it remains forming they fall from the Clouds hot How they Carne there we can not determine. Sometimes showers of stones have fallen sometimes masses hundreds of pounds in weight. Men have As in All cases speculated on their origin and the Means of their we have met with theories in which it has been maintained that they Are Luna rites and having been thrown beyond the attraction of the within the sphere of the Earth s attraction Are brought to a new but where no statement can be in any Way proved we prefer pleading our own ignorance. The influence of heat upon the atmosphere is the next subject for our investigation and we must first allude to its action in the production of winds. Is air in motion and the Only question for the1 philosopher to deter mine was How by natural causes it was put . Heat is found to be the great agent and without entering fully into the in Quiry How All the several kinds or classes of winds Are occasioned we shall refer to the principle of the communication of heat for when this is thoroughly understood the Rea Der will easily Trace the origin of All the varieties. The Sun by the heat of its rays raises the temperature of that part of the Earth s surface exposed to its action what changes Are produced in the atmosphere which tur rounds it the air immediately in Contact with the Earth is first heated and being then lighter bulk for bulk than it was before i place is then occupied by another Stra Tum of air which in its turn also rises and another rns bes in. It must therefore be evident that wind is produced by the continued Mot Iori of cold air to occupy that spot which is vacated by the hot. If this principle be understood it will be a physical reason sufficient to explain All the changes of the atmosphere whether Clouds until condensed by cold when it Falls of water to the Earth again. There is the Only explanation of the phenomenon of rain that can be Given by the majority of persons who Are satisfied that they Are thoroughly acquainted with the subject. But we might ask Why does it net always rain for there is always vapor in the air and it is always colder at a great height above the surface of the Earth than on the Flowers appear to be by the drops under the of which they modestly How their Heads How brightly the Dew drops Shine reflecting the slanting rays of the Sun of All the hours of nature s Beauty land Enchant ment none Are More pleasing to her admirers than that of the dewy morn. It is not however our province to describe the appearance of the country when the Dew hangs heavily upon waking vegetation or to express the feelings with which the sight is observed by a mind alive to the varied Beau ties and deep interest of external existence but to give a philosophical account of the origin of the phenomenon. For Many years philosophers were undecided As to the origin of Dew some maintain All the wonderful and j in appearances in the atmosphere none Borj Brilliant or so awfully grand As tin is a phenomenon familiar to in Jim. Is produced by the acim discharge of electricity in the Bat the Reader will will probably it accumulated How of a. To this question we will in f of to ii t Brief reply. All bodies con l electricity but this fluid agent iut Eter mme it May be called is Chan a in Olhs words set free by by rail action beat and other Means. Inactivity of these causes electricity communicated from the Earth to the m7 to charged per sit for this sub great difficulty although philos for the most part satisfied that h that can be ascertained. From however it must follow that May lie in either a negative or pos a having Moro or less than its but when two bodies positive the other negative meet be a accumulation of to make up the deficiency of water. If however Tufe medium through which it has to pass had the same density throughout the Ray would merely change its direction continue to move in a right at an Angle to that which it pursued before it reached the atmosphere. But the atmosphere increases in density the nearer it is to the Earth and the Light is therefore More and More Bent and assumes the line of a curve. Twilight is that period which is intermediate Between Day and night. If there were no atmosphere this period could have no exis tence but in consequence of refraction the rays Are brought to the surface of the Earth before the Sun has risen. But not Only so for the solar rays Are first thrown upon the atmosphere and although these Are not brought to the Earth by refraction they Are by reflection so that before any place receives the direct and More powerfully Lumi Nous rays of the Sun it has the reflected rays producing Twilight. Mirage we leave the subject of atmospheric refraction we must mention a curious appearance called Mirage Seldom seen and usually connected in the mind of an observer with superstitious feelings. All that class of Phenomena which appear to be supernatural As ships sailing in the air Are of this class. There Are upon record Many instances of the appearance of ships in the Gard to the Peculiar periods of certain winds or the violence of their action. Thus with a knowledge of climate the student May satisfy himself to the cause of the Trade winds at certain seasons. The Power of the wind upon the Earth is very great and frequently awful. By its motion it acts for the most part As a conservative Force carrying away noxious Vapours and causing their condensation Over the mighty Waters to which it gives motion. Were the atmosphere stationary its heat would be not Only oppressive but also most insupportable. But when the air is put into rapid motion its effects Are most horrific producing storms and hurricanes. When these happen which fortunately but Seldom much in jury is done both on sea and on land. Clouds Are the combinations of vapor which Rise from the Earth into the heavens and As juror different forms and states according to their condition. They have received from meteorologists different names and Are found to be attended with different Phenomena so that from the presence of one or the other we Are Able to foretell the weather the Cirrus is an attenuated net formed Cloud beautifully pencilled As it were on surface itself. Why does it sometimes rain on one Field and not on any other round about or in other words Why does rain fall from one Cloud and not. From these and Many other questions can not be answered by an individual whose information is limited to the facts we have just stated. It is indeed a subject of great difficulty and one upon which philosophers themselves Are by no Means unanimous. Or. Button s theory of the formation of a in is that most commonly adopted. According to this eminent philosopher rain is occasioned by the mingling of distinct Mas ses or strata of vapor and hav ing different temperatures. How this can cause the condensation of vapor and the fall of rain is not but will require some illustrations. Atmospheric air May be charged with humidity is a limit to its capacity it can not be made to contain More than a certain Quantity it May in fact be saturated. In a similar manner water May be made to Talce up a considerable Quantity of Salt but it will not do so without limit. It Ever been discovered that the Point of saturation depends on the temperature of the air. All persons Are aware that in Cooling air will frequently part with some of its humidity from which circumstance it May be supposed thit cold air Ca n not retain so much humidity As hot air. In. Connexion with these facts the Reader must Bear in mind that the capacity for humidity does not increase in the same proportion. Thus for instance if two masses of air having different temperatures should mingle they will necessarily have a mean temperature the tempera Ture of one will be raised of the other i missed. Now if the capacity for humidity changed in the same proportion As the temperature All the water would be but this is not the Gase there will be some excess and fall in the liquid state. Rain then is caused by the mingling of cur rents of atmospheric air charged with humid Ity and the Reader surprised at the easy explanation the theory gives to every variety of appearance attending this common but curious Phenomena. J the Clouds often look dark and threaten ing and we expect an immediate they float Over the heavens and no rain Falls. They Are perhaps nearly saturated with humidity and yet at such a temperature Asen Able them to retain it. Presently however they meet with a Cloud also saturated but having a much lower temperature they in stantly Intermix a mean temperature is the result and a portion of the humidity instantly Falls to the Earth As rain. Another Case May be supposed. Two Clouds having different temperatures May mingle de that it Rose from the Earth and some it descended from the Clouds. To Jupior these opposite opinions the advocates on each Side Laboured strenuously and introduced Zuments and experiments almost without end to prove themselves their opponent wrong. A feeling of a partisanship thus tool the place of philosophical inquiry an d Neve Are disputants so far from truth As then. Or Wells a Man of science and acute perception commenced the investigation in spirit and proved that both the contending parties were wrong and totally ignorant o the cause it would be interesting to follow the course of investigation he adopted and to urge the importance of inductive reasoning the value of which was to clearly proved in this instance but All that our space will Al Low us to do is to explain the result of his experiments with As much simplicity As pos sible. The drops of water formed upon plants Trees und some other things exposed to the atmosphere Are neither thrown Down from the Clouds nor Are they produced by the condensation of vapor rising from the Earth but the vapor contained in the atmosphere is condensed upon bodies cooler than the air it self. Still it must have been observed that Dew is not formed upon All substances nor upon similar things in different the explanation of these circumstances will illustrate the origin of Dew under All its conditions. There Are two ways in which a substance May be cooled or in other words lose a por Tion of its sensible heat by conduction and by radiation. The conduction of heat is a phenomenon so commonly observed that it will not be necessary to make any remarks concerning it. When a poker is put into the fire that part which is exposed to the imme Diate action of heat will in a Short time be come red hot. But this is not the Only part which receives an increase of temperature for the portion most Distant from the source of heat will also be hotter than it was pre Vious to its being placed in the fire. The re sult is occasioned by the property of conduction which All substances do not alike possess. Hence we Are accustomed to say of Ion and Sean ply and stand which Edge of the have in Wrt Anceo Dew m the vegetable Economy Are some where no rain Falls and Only moisture received by plants is from Tufia Soiree. Snail and join ii account at Treme coldness of the ate Tain aqueous vapor wifi which is loaded is not Only condensed into Sconsa Hdale amt Fena to or bail. It is exceedingly Tiff Icett to deter mine wry on Ine occasion Snow it formed and on another Hail but the cod that the condition Ito sphere with we Are som perfect y acquainted a has much to do auction of the effect. Frost and the Winter months when the Earth is cooled by radiation the temperature of All things upon it is reduced and even of tree atmosphere which surrounds it. Hence we have cold and1 frosty weather and water is converted into ice. We have already explained the circumstances which always attend a change of Neces sity of heat being acquired in a latent slate before a liquid can take the vaporous Condi Tion and the giving off of latent heat before liquid can be Frozen. It re not therefore uffizi set that the temperature should is re deed to a certain Point for the. Freezing of but the liquid must give out its Jeon statue it this.1 leads us to mention a curious1 fact connected with a thai. It Viust have been often observed that the atmosphere is colder during a thaw than a Frost which can Only be explained upon the principle of latent heat. When ice is assuming a liquid state it must obtain a. Certain amount of la tent heat and during a thaw the sensible heat of the air it wire stolen far thu purpose and its temperature is cot sequent by lowered it is that the Atmos phere is frequently colder during a thaw than when the ice is forming. Causes of change in the or. Hall stated before the association in that Long and carefully continued observation of the weather at Bristol in eng land had led him to the following theory which was strikingly correspondent with 1. That the barometer very generally in deed almost invariably ungulates at times corresponding to the changes of the at these times it More frequently Falls than rises. 2. That the weather is ordinarily unsettled at these periods continuing so for about two or three Days Anil for the most wind continues High at these times. 3. That As the weather settles if it be come settled at it not infrequently remains in an unsettled so will it continue until next change of the Moon or rather to the recurrence units disturbing influences. 4. That these variations occur As regularly at the quarters of the Moon As at the new and full and Are then As fully marked. 5. That the period five Days which determines the state of the Wea ther is Fen Ved from the Sprng and Neap tides or the full influence of the Sun and Moon upon Only origin of these he Sta Ted was actual observation residing on the Banks of the River and taking Mach severest in the operations of professor Wheeli respecting Bis description of these. Or. Hall seated that he had been led closely positive electricity it is just thus in the atmosphere v a i of Light called lightning or the Clouds May be in one tilth in another and then the the null i Betti Between 8 Liitt a Tlly u a powerful and dangerous in in Large intensity. This is a truth Easi tables by the use electrical machines but what orgy when developed and col too ii Story of nature with the a the great author of All has a amt of thasom effects we see in action zip i tin real life and the burning of so Ute Only know a part of what do there Are effects which my in t Only subjects of conjecture which Are not even imagined an attendant of lightning and at the time of the lit Harge reverberated from Cloud to sound by i of w from air none being seen on the water cause of this is evidently that the atmosphere is in some Peculiar state of refraction and the image of some ships below the horizon is cast upon tha Clouds. The Rainbow is another phenomenon resulting from refraction but differing from All other appearances i n the splendor of its col ors which Are produced by the decomposition of Light when passing through drops of it May Here desirable to mention that the atmosphere is also a conductor of sound and that to great Heights if there were no atmosphere there would be no sensation of sound. Things Are required for the production of sound a sounding body an or Gan of hearing and a Good without the others is useless that it is the air which conducts sound May be proved by a great variety of experiments and by none better an attempt to make1 a Bell ring in a receiver exhausted of its atmosphere for no found will be heard. The Power of the atmosphere in conduct ing found varies with the condition of. The mid turn. It is a common remark that sounds Are heard better Over the water than on land and still better Over ice. Sounds Are also More distinct daring the night than the Day in fact when the atmosphere is least burdened with Vapours and is most pure sounds Are Belt heard. On a dark Cloudy Day sounds familiar to the ear appear to be stifled in their Page through the atmosphere where the sky and is generally formed at great elevations. V the cumulus is a dense heavy times appearing As a Large hemispherical mass like mountains indistinctly and some times As Small irregular Clouds. This modification of Cloud is Peculiar to Fine weather. The stratus includes All those Clouds which hang Over the surface of the Earth or water and Are seen in the evening after a Fine Day creeping Over the valleys and the surface of lakes and Rivers. It is universally considered As the Harbinger to Fine weather. The Nimbus is the storm Cloud dark and threatening the sure forerunner of storms and tempests. It is generally charged with electricity and from its discharge Thunder and lightning proceed. The changes in the forms of Clouds Are frequently very rapid and surprising a few moments causing an altogether different appearance whereas at other times the same Cloud May be seen for hours and even Days together. The philosophy of Clouds is but Little understood by scientific men nor is it will be much but neither of them being highly charged with vapor saturation is not produced even when the temperatures Are made equal and consequently no rain Falls when we come to consider the Peculiar condition of the atmosphere at different parts of the Earth s surface we Are struck with the capability of this theory in accounting for the regularity of the fall of rain in one place its irregularity in another and its entire absence in a third some countries rain Falls at All times of the year though More commonly at some periods than at probable that our information increased until the electrical condition of the atmosphere be better understood. Few of the most common appearances of nature Are More than partially understood by the generality of persons and yet with this unsatisfactory amount of infer mation they Are so Well pleased that it to them quite unnecessary to make further inquiries. Isben we become satisfied with our knowledge upon any subject curiosity ceases and every motive for thought and vesti eation is lost the most illiterate Man the atmosphere is in a constant state of change from the rapid alteration of tempera Ture and at the same time always More or less humid so that rain is of very common occurrence. In those regions where the state of the atmosphere is More uniform and its changes periodical rain Falls Only at certain seasons of year. The heavy Rains of in Dia always occur at the shifting of the Mon Soons when the atmosphere is constantly varying. Rain Seldom if Ever Falls Trade winds in those places Over with they pass. These winds Are occasioned by the constant motion of heated air from the Equa Tor to the poles and there is no Intermix Ture with other currents having a different temperature but beyond the limits of the trades the air is rapidly cooled and mingling with other masses rain is common and very heavy. has n6t seen and admired the Beautiful drops of condensed vapor like Well formed globules of Crystal with which vegetation is in Eairly morning before the Sun fully exerts its vaporizing influence one body that is a conductor of heat and of another that it is a non conductor. Another method of communicating heat is by radiation. By radiation is meant the throwing off in rays. Thus the Sun radiates both heat and Light and the same is True of a common Coal fire. If we stand at a distance from a fire we feel warmed but this is not occasioned by the heating of the air by con due tin for if this the Case we should feel equally hot on but As is Well known we May be a cliched on the Side near est to the fire and Frozen on the other. The principles of radiation enables us at once to explain the phenomenon of Dew connecting with what has been already said the fact that All bodies whatever May be their temperatures radiate heat. The Clouds radiate heat to the Earth and every substance on it to the atmosphere. During the is daring the hours when the Sun is above the horizon the Earth receives More heat from the Sun than it radiates and consequently the temperature rises but at night the radiation goes in without an addition of heat from any source and consequently the temperature Falls. Thus it is that the temperature of things upon the surface of the Earth becomes. Lower than that of the Atmos phere surrounding them and the vapor combined with the air is condensed upon them and forms Dew. There Are now two questions which an intelligent Reader would propose and which we must answer. Why is not Dew formed every is not Dew formed on All night and Why substances i the Dew is not produced when the night is Cloudy it is Only under an open and Clear atmosphere that it can be formed when Clouds Are hanging Over the there is a Mutual radiation Between them and the receiving and giving of heat so that the temperature does not fall Suft gently Low to occasion the condensation of for the same reason Dew is not formed under the shelter of a tree under an open or upon those plants Orer which a mat or even a Cambric handkerchief has been thrown. All substances Are not deed because they Are not All Good radiators. Good conductors Are bad radiators and consequently lose their temperatures slowly and receive no this is when they Are also reflectors. A polished piece of Metal not have on its surface one particle of Dew although exposed in a Field completely covered with moisture. I sensations we to compare them with the weather but difficulties him insurmountable had occurred when considering the variations of the weather indifferent places at the same time yet regarding those in the neighbourhood of Bris Tol his conviction was Fer baps the varying time at which the tide reaches various places so fully described by professor Whewell in his lecture might As Sist in solving this difficulty and if the at Tention of others were directed toward it his end would be attained. Or. Rootsey stated that Bis observations. Fully confirmed the observations of or. Hall. In variable weather the crisis of the Day was always to be looked for at change of the tide. The tide wave when of the enor Mous magnitude with which it reached Bris Tol fifty alternately lift up and letdown the atmospheric column which stood upon it and thus give Rise to changes in the barometric state of that column which every person knew caused the other changes or at least preceded .them., professor stated that if the understood or. Rootsey aright the influence of the Moon on toe atmospheric column to which he referred was not that direct one exercised in causing an atmospheric tide but the indirect one of first causing a tide in Ocean which in its turn lifted up and let atmospheric column so As to cause condensations and Rarefaction very much removed from its mean state. Rarefaction and con Well know have in Nib influence on Rovniy meteorological Phenomena acid therefore be thought this a valuable hint the great rapidity with which the tide wave was propagated and the direction in which it Tnp Ved would thus become a subject of in Terest to the meteorologist when comparing changes of weather at Distant places., that the Moon and Sun an influence on the weather was so Well known that rules for anticipating the consequent changes had been Given to the Public by some person in name of the elder Herschel. Or. Harris stated that of the the Moon upon the weather be had no doubt though rules Ifor judging its influence were still wanting. The same gentleman has again had Occa Sion to observe the Between the changes of the Moon and the height of the barometer. I this is a Quet Tiofil upon Bichi Fol and extensive observation is1, men of science have hitherto we ear been i i 11 newspaper newspaper
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