Page 1 of 22 Apr 1852 Issue of Tioga Eagle in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania

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Tioga Eagle (Newspaper) - April 22, 1852, Wellsboro, PennsylvaniaVol. 36. 3. Lai Meiji Steno Tefr to nobs politics Tajc 3vrt0, 0cietue, cite nature Jito Raite amusement. That country is the most prosperous where labor commands the greatest Wellsboro thursday april 22, 1852. Whole political. Speech of Hon. G. A. Grow of pen Sylvania .1, House of representatives March 1602, on the. Homestead Bill. The House being in Trie committee of the whole on the slate of the Union on the Bill to courage agriculture Commerce manufactures my All Oiler branches of Industry by granting i every Man who is the head of a family and us pref in United Homestead of one Hundred and sixty acres of land out of inc lib c Clonna upon condition of occupancy and Cul ame for the period therein specs or grow said ii Lioun Hebil funded consideration Niy provides for granting to every Mica idol a family one Hundred and sixty acres of i d on an actual settlement and cultivation for five rears still it the entire question of proper disposition to be made of the Public lands. With a Domain of fourteen Hundred and iwo thirds million acres of unsold Unap Propri in becomes a grave question what is ilex to disposition to be undo of in whether n to the states in which it lies to be of at they think proper or for internal improvements Ami school purposes or to Grant .1 in limited quantities to Tho actual sculler it a Jerico bar by sufficient to cover the Cost of eur by nil trips scr with such Ilu Niu and restrictions will prevents its falling Inlo the hands of passing Over for the present the two third propositions i propose briefly to con Filer Llie Latier. The powr Given in Llie Constitution to Dis in set Ami make All needful rules and Regula no in picking the territory or Oiler properly of the t Nihil leaves the made and Man ii i Rul i Lepoal entirely to the discretion of con to tint in arc Mica a question merely of i unil to by Correct it is there la duly of Congress to exercise it in such n a Best to promote the real and Perma nent interests of the country. To c chief objection to grunting these lands to ictus Sellers and inc 0110 of seemingly great pin ability. I.-? i in have by the c m non to Nure of the country i. I r Ich Cruz n he ins liar j to Nii icy Ilio doing injustice to one i Wiio from their circumstances in life c ii ii mail of the Benefit of the f to but a Siguil portion apply his Nat onal wants and As the Means of sustaining life Are derived no most entirely from the soil every person has a right to so much of the Earth s surface As is necessary for his support. To whatever unoccupied portion of it therefore he shall apply ins labor for that purpose from that Lime Forth in became appropriated to his own exclusive use i and whatever improvements Fie May make by i his Industry becomes his property and subject to his disposal. For inc Only True foundation of any right to property is Man s Labur. That is j property and that alone which the labor of Man has made such what rights then can the government have in the soil of a wild and uncultivated Vul Vernees or what right bus one Man More than another to an acre of uncultivated land to which not a Day nor hour s labor has been applied to make it More productive and answer the end for which it was created the support and happiness of the race 3 it is said by the great expounded of Tho com Mon Law in his commentaries that hero is no of bundalion in nature or natural Law Why a set of words Apon Parchment should convey the do minion of the use and occupancy alone gives to Man in the language of the commentaries an exclusive right to retain in a per manent manner that specific land which before belonged generally to everybody but by to As it is run s labor Ihen applied to the soil that gives him a right to his improvements for by nature he is entitled to the products of his Industry so he is entitled to a reasonable Quan Tity of Wood land it being necessary to the full enjoyment of his improvements for Wood is necessary for building purposes fencing and fire Wood. Therefore he becomes entitled out of this common fund to reasonable amount of Wood land which by an implied conventional agreement non Onyx men each would be permit Ted to retain it Possession is a necessary appendage to his improvements. And to prevent conflicts As to what por Linns Are appropriated to each individual s use it is necessary that his claim should be defined and this is Best done by a Survey. Therefore it is proper that the settler should pay the govern ment the Cost of Survey for the surveys As con ducted by the land office is the Best and most 1 convenient Mode of laying off land. I besides he wants his title recorded in such Way As not to be compelled to rely upon the memory of men or be exposed to the dangers of perjury. It u therefore proper that lie should pay the necessary expenses the paper title but for nothing else. As properly is the Only proper subject of taxation nor should the government Jook to aught else for its support it has no right to hold the Public lands As Ai source of Revenue. It May be said True such would be men s rights to the soil in a state of nature but when he entered into society he gave up a part of his natural rights in order to enjoy the advantages of an organized Community. This is a doctrine i am aware of the books and treaties on society and government but it is a doctrine of despotism and belongs not to enlightened statesmen in a Liberal age. In is the excuse of the despot in encroaching upon the rights of the subject he admits the encroach ment but claims that the citizen gave up part of his natural rights when he entered into society and who is to judge what ones he relinquished ruling Power 1 it was not necessary that any of Man s natural rights should be yielded to the slate in formation of society he yielded no right but the right to do wrong and that he never had by nature. All be yielded Irien tearing into society was a portion of his unrestrained Liberty and that was that he would sub Mit his conduct that before was subject to the control of no living being to the tribunals to be established by the stale and with the tacit con sent that society of the government might regulate the Mode and manner of the exercise of h is rights but Why should he consent to be deprived of them f it is upon this ground that we justify resistance to tyrants. And whenever the ruling Power so far encroaches upon tha natural rights of men that an Appeal to arms be Corries preferable to submission they Appeal from human to divine Laws and plead the natural rights of Man in their justification. That government and that alone is just which enforces and de fends All of Man s natural rights and protects him against the wrongs of his fellow Man. But it May be said although such might be the rights of. Men yet the government hag a right to these lands and May use them As a source Revenue under the doctrine of Emi nent Domain. This claim by government had its origin in the Maxim that whatever was Ca Pable of ownership must have a Legal and deter Minate owner. Therefore whatever was not appropriated by individuals mail belonged in common to the whole state was vested in the King As its head. Not Only was forests waste ground3.-and wrecks but the sole proprietorship of the soil of his Empire and he might Grant it to his lords and Deal it out in Manors to the right to land to rear a habitation on. If he has a right to live he has a right to the free use of whatever nature has provided for his sustenance to breathe water to drink and land enough to cultivate for his subsistence. For these Are the necessary and indispensable Means for the enjoyment of his inalienable rights of life lib erty and the Pursuit of and is it for a government that claims to dispense equal and exact Justice to All classes of men and that has Laid Down Correct principles in its great Chart of human rights to violate Ihoko Princi Ples and its solemn declarations in its Legisla Tive enactments the struggle Between capital and labor is an unequal one at Best. It is a struggle Between the Bones and sinews of men and dollars and and in that struggle it needs no pro pliers Ken to foretell the Issue. And in that struggle is it for this government to stretch Forth its Arm to Aid the Strong against the weak favo riles of his court. But in is not necessary shall it continue by its legislation to elevate for me to up cred time in noticing the origin of and enrich idleness on the Wail and the woe of or the wrongs inflicted on Man. Under this Doc Trine of eminent Domain fur the claim of this government so far As this Point is concerned is embraced in the right of discovery. This is a claim also upon which the books Vest a right to the soil in the King or ruling Power under Industry for if the Rule be Correct As applied to governments As Well As individuals that whatever a person permits another to do having the right and Means to prevent in he does himself then indeed is Thop government responsible for All the whose patronage land is discovered not before evils that May result from speculation and land known to civilized Man. It might be proper monopoly in your Public Domain. For it is. Not that a nation that has Bent Forth a Fleet and Dis that Congress has the Power Lorriane covered land should have the direction of the j any regulations for the disposal of these lands Legi Lalion for the government of the who not injurious to the general welfare. Now should Sellic jurisdiction of the Laws of j when a new tract is surveyed and you open. The territory but How can it acquire rights which Man himself cannot acquire by the same process v it is a reasonable supposition that a Man is attached 10 the government and institutions of his fatherland and if the men who first discover a country were to Settle in it and enact a system of Laws this presumption is that they would be similar to those of the land of they Kindred. Therefore there is a propriety in giving to nations jurisdiction Over the men and property of the country they May discover but not a proprietorship to ils soil. It is Only necessary briefly to refer to the facts and history of discoveries on this continent to show the want of a reasonable foundation fur any claims to the land itself by reason of Dis covery. Spain being the first to encourage to yips of Western discovery was the first european Power Tocu Mony rights to land on this of the Ocean but As Columbus made his first Landing on an Island of the Gulf Stream and saw not the main land of the continent till after it was Visi Ted by other voyagers right of eminent do main became divided Wilh other nations. John and Sebastian Cabot sailing under the auspices of Englind first discovered the continent of North american the shores of which from Albe Marlo sound to North of Nova Scotia were afterwards explored by the latest. From thit time Forth Henry Vii claims the in of the soil Basing his right to the land from Ocean to Ocean on the fact that the first civilized Man who gazed upon a few Miles of the Rocky coast of new England was a subject of the British Crown. And thus he becomes the sole disposer of a vast continent which his foot never passed and his eyes never saw. James Cir tier a native of St. I Lalu lands Al the Inlet of Gaspe on the shores of Canada and erects there a shield with the lillies of France and henceforth a tenant less Terri Sriry is to esteemed a part of the dominions of France and subject to tin Royal Grants of Hir King Juan Ponce de Leon plants the Cross on the coast throwing to the Breeze the Wasilus and Lions of Spain takes of the country in the name of Charles the Nineteen years later Ferdinand de Soto gave to the world the first knowledge of the miss is Sippi ind Sank to his grave beneath its flood As the fruits of Spain claims the such is the origin of the rights claimed by France England and Spain to the Iirth american continent and by Conquest and Parchment. has taken their title to the Terri try now composing the United Stales that of England by the revolution and Grants to colonial subjects and proprietors of France by the cession of april 30, 1803, Anil of Spain by the treaty of february22, 1919. We become vested it is True with All their rights but they had nothing to convey save that a subject of theirs was the first to discover land never before in their own quaint looked upon by Christian what kind Ofa Fouti is that upon which to base a right affect ing the happiness of my and the destiny of the Nice what is there in the Costi Mitori of giving to one individual the sole and exclusive right to any of the bound is provided by nature for the Benefit and support of the Wlizlo your land office and expose it to Sale the Man with a most Money is the largest the most Desirea Ole and available locations Are seized upon by tiie capitalists of the count re who seek that kind of investment. Your settler who chances not to have a Preemption right or to be there at the Lime of Sale when he comes to seek a Home for himself and his family he must pay l in Speculator Ihrcke or four Hundred per cent on his investment or encounter the trials am hardships of a still Mere Remote Border life. And Laius under the up elation of Laws that you cull equal and just from the settler three or four dollars or More and put it in the pocket of the Speculator. Thus by the opera Tion of your Law abstracting so Muc Hofhuis hard earnings for the Benefit of Capitol for not an hour s labor has Boen applied to the land since it was sold by the government nor is it More Valm ble to the settler. Has not a right to complain of legislation that compels him id endure greater oils and hardships or Contri Bute a portion earnings for the Benefit of the capitalist but not upon the capitalist or or the for Cul ilor is it proper that the Blamo fall Man must seek a livelihood and do business Umlor the Laws of the country and whatever rights lie May acquire finder the Laws tic ugly May to wrong yet the Well being of society requires that they be respected and observed. If a person engage in a business legalized and regulated by the Laws and uses no fraud or deception in its Pursuit and evils result to the Community let them apply the Reudy to the proper source that is to the Law miking Power. The Laws and the Law makers Are responsible for to a lever evils necks partly grow out of their i while the pu1 lie lands Are exposed to Indish Criminate salp As they have been since inc organization of the government it operas the a qom to the wildest system of land of the dire a deadliest curses that Ever the energies of a nation or pushed the Arm of Industry. It needs nor a Enghry dissertation to portray its evils. Its history in the old world is written is sighs Ond Lears. Under its influence you in England inc proudest and most splendid aristocracy Side by Side with the most abject and debased people vast Manors hemmed in by Hedges As a sporting ground for her Obj hey while men Are dying beside the enclosure for the want of land to till. Thirty thousand proprietors hold the title deeds to the soil of great Britain while in Ireland alone there Aro two and a half millions of tenants that own no part of the land they cultivate nor can Thep Ever acquire a Lille to a foot of it yet they pay annually from their hard earnings to Absentee landlords for the privilege of dying on their soil. Under its blighting influence you by hold Industry in rags and patience in despair Sueh Are some of the fruits of land monopoly in the old world and shall we Plant its seeds in the Virgin soil of the new our system is subject to like evils not so great in Mig Nilde perhaps but similar in kind. Let the Public Domain then be set apart As the a Inion of Laboi by preventing its being absorbed capital and thus instead of Blessing the race becomes its and while Oal Tei to Grant these Linds to corporations and states in race because perchance he was the first to look j to develop the resources of the country. Upon a Mere fragment of the creation by the same process of reasoning he who should first discover the source or Mouth of a River would be entitled to a monopoly of the Waters Hal flow in ils Channel. Or he who should first upon one of the rills or fountains of Tom Earth might prevent fainting Man from quenching there his thirst unless his right was first sector de by Parchment. Why has this claim of Man to monopolize any of the gifts of god to my been confided by Legal codes to the soil alone there any other reason than that it is a right which having ils origin in Feudal a system tint regarded Man but As an Appen Dage of the soil that he filled and whose life Liberty and happiness were but Means of in creasing the pleasures pampering the passions and appetites of his Liege having once found a place in the books in has been retained by the reverence which Man is wont to pay to the Pisl and to Tims honoured precedents the human mind is so constituted thai in is prone o regard As right what has come Down to us approved by Long usage and hallowed by Grey age. It is a claim that Haf its origin with the Kindred idea that Royal blood flows Only in the veins of an exclusive few Whoso souls Are More etherial because born amid the glitter of court and cradled amid the pomp of lords and courtiers and therefore they Are to be installed As rulers and Law givers of the race. Most of the evils that afflict society have had their Ori Gin in violence and wrong enacted into Law by the experience of the past and retained by the prejudices of the present. Is it nol Limo Yuu swept from your statute. Book its still lingering relics of feudalism 7 wiped out the principles engrafted upon it by the Row mingled policy of other times and adapted the legislation of the country to the spirit Oftie and to the True ideas of Man s rights and relations to his government for if a Man has a right on Earth he has a and thereby add to its greatness let us not for get in what its True greatness consists. We Are pointed to. The cities and villages that will Spring up along the line of these improvements As a reason Why such appropriations of the land should be every american will rfcs Rico at whatever adds to the Rue great Ness and glory of his country. But it is doubtful whether tha appearances of greatness that grow up under a system of and special legislation Are to to considered As adding to the real glory Ofa coun try. It is not a sure indication that the people of that country Are most prosperous and Happy in which you behold the most splendid edifices Tho greatest profusion of wealth and concentration of capital. He who his opinion the real happiness Ofa people up m such evidences alone is equally foolish wit i. Him who in View of a cily judges the condition of ils inhabitants by the lofty spire and lowering lint beneath Ali we gorgeous structures in cellars deep in the Earth dwells the most squalid poverty misery and in its streets arc to to seen the Haggard and la Borer the Sean Tress and the child f rained to and to crime. If you would raise fallen Man from his Degra Dation elevate the Servile from his grovelling pursuits to the rights and dignities of men you must first place within their reach the Means for supplying their pressing physical wants so religion May exert its influence on the soul and soothe the weary Pilgrim in his pathway to the Tomb. For it is in vain you talk of the Good Ness and Benevolence of an omniscient ruler to him whose life from the Cradle to the grave is but one continued scene of pain misery want. Talk not of free Agency to him whose Only free Dom is to choose his own method to die. In vain Yon entreat him to cultivate the intellect and purify Tho heart whose Days Are dragged out in procuring a morsel to sustain life and whose list in spa Peri new spa per

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