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The Philanthropist (Newspaper) - January 30, 1838, Cincinnati, Ohio1 it at the breaking out of the revolt Texas was supposed to contain 40,000 people seven eight is of whom were emigrants from the United states Aad those mostly from the slave holding v by fare greater number of those emigrants had be tried in Texas subsequent to the year 1823. In p year Mexico abolished slavery throughout her i monitory no effective measures however had been tidied to enforce her emancipation Laws until "1833 a a up to this time the texan Emigrant had enied those Laws by taking from their slaves indenture for 99 years. In a Otis year the mexican finder Active government was abolished and a consolidated government was established with Gen. Santa Kuna at its head. The emancipation Laws w Wetah had been openly disregarded by the texan a migrants were attempted to to earned into effect. From these efforts ,by,4he mexicans to in Faroe Tose Law arose the first a a Assn was of the texans and a that All submission to the mexican authorities was thrown off by the colonists. Previous to this time immense tracts of Texas lands had been purchased by speculators in All the principal cities in the United states and had been made the subject of enormous gambling speculations. The editors of Many of the leading k newspapers of both political parties in the United a states enlisted themselves in the cause of Texas territory presented great advantages to the and sugar planters and opened a boundless Ket for slaves. The slave growing states Yir mph put Maryland Kentucky and North Carolina wore not unmindful of uie Prospect of so vast a Market for to Ltd Mendible portion of their slave Pok a ration. In 1830 it was declared in the Vir k Ginia legislature that the acquisition of Texas p would enhance the value of slaves in Virl a at least one third. Texas comprises a territory of about 150,000 Square Miles or nearly four times larger than Ohio. The annexation of to extensive territory to the Union coming As it must if at All with the institution of slavery interwoven with the very texture of its social habits held out Hopes of political Ascendancy irresistible to the Southern politician those Fertile lands too were a source of exhaust less wealth and believed to be within reach of adventurers from All parts of the Union. Urt Hose lands were lavished by the revolted colonists with unexampled profusion on All who would Migrate to Texas. And assist in throwing off the mexican Yoke. These combined interests were exerted with a Waly Xung in Fiance on the National government. Soldiers were enlisted and rendezvoused in the streets of our principal cities under the Eye of the National authorities in Defiance of the Laws of the land and in contempt of the Law of Aris Sand munitions of War were famished those troops with As much publicity As though the unit Cne states had been at open War with Mexico new Orleans was notoriously the head quarters of those adventurers. No voice of admonition was heard from the National government on the contrary the entire South Western division of the army was ordered to the territory of Texas with discretionary Power in the comr Aander in chief major general Gaines to enter the mexican territory As was pretty debt to watch the movements of certain cad of indians who were reputed by somebody to have somewhere in Texas com mid a murder on an unknown individual. Gen. Gaines in open violation of National Law did enter territory some sixty or seventy Miles and As m generally believed and As is doubtless the fact effectually aided the hostile bands from the United states in their Advance upon the mexi Quot can territory. This general was in a position to have effectually prevented the influx of those limed parties had this been the purpose for which he was ordered to Texas. The mexican presi Dot was advancing upon the texans slaughtering All before him with the ferocity of Quot an exas a bed barbarian a declaration of Independence promulgated in Texas with Mack solemnity in imitation of that of our forefathers the Constitution of a he Public a edifice was formed laying for the a chief Comer Stone everlasting slavery without any Power in the Sovereign body to mitigate or abolish it die United states were honoured with a monopoly of the humane business of supplying the Market of this new Republic with human flesh while Litis fares was acting in the name of Liberty by the americans in Texas in the United Sta newspapers of All parties orators ministers of the Gospe id Uli Ful Hila ii i i it eos be that their Brethren in that oppressed k Iti it if n h i Cuvi and religious Liberty. The effect Wasef in Titei soldiers and supplies were poured into Texas from All quarters and at length by the decisive Battle of san Jacinto general Houston made the mexican president captive. The War was ended Texas declared to be for Ever separated from mex Leo and in the same moment these americans in text propose terms of Union with the United Texas is recognized As an Independent by the president but legislation on the of annexation is declined on the sole ground that Texas is at War and the United states at peace with Mexico. But in less than two months after the reasons for this refusal to negotiate with Texas Are made known to the people the president finds abundant cause of War with Mexico and requests Congress to give him Power to commence hostilities with that government. Whether Congress we a comply remains to be seen but if it do Ihen Quot All objections to nem got nation will be overcome. These Are the leading facts in connection with flu a hat is called the texan revolution and in View of them the committee would a a by whom we this separation of Texas from Mexico effected i and their answer is by citizens of the United i states in hostile array against a nation with whom the government of the United states we on terms of peace and Amity. By whom might this most a gently extended and combines More conflicting ocal interests thai can Well be reconciled with the peace and safety of the country. It would be madness to enlarge her present boundaries by the addition of so immense a Territo peopled As text is with inhabitants but slightly attached to the forms and stir less to the spirit of our institutions a territory too Remote from the influences of our own institutions and located by the Side of a but territory thinly peopled and defenceless where the same motives which prompted to the plunder of this territory would irresistibly stimulate to an equally unprincipled Conquest of and stir More until the whole mexican Ter More Mitory would be overcome. 1 is extern to Schmenti of the Extension of territory with slavery ram pent on every Side could not fail to loosen the at a Nontha after that Ordi Fiance. Now could lion slave holding states to the Union in an inverse ratio of the increase of strength and territory in the slave holding Region. It would Grady multiply the occasions of foreign War would require an augmentation in time of Hgt see five or six fold of our standing army. It would generate questions of extreme difficulty and embarrassment with numerous and warlike tribes of indians it would weaken the whole nation in a War with a maritime Power by extending further by some four degrees of latitude our line of defence Len sea coast. In return for All these evils should get some four or five states enfeebled we states. Power subject by the inherent and inseparable vices of the unnatural institutions of slavery. A system of weakness and rottenness when called to resist an enemy flushed with the love of Liberty. In ease of a War with a Power to whom the system has become odious and we shall not soon meet with any other what could prevent our being attacked at this defenceless Point and if attacked by an enemy irritated by the course of War and by causes of excitement inseparable from its Progress what could save such a Community from destruction in such a War the enemy would proclaim Liberty to the slave and no human Power could save a society thus organized from utter annihilation. Should it be asked Why the slave holding portions of the United slates have not before this met the Fate predicted the reply is because they have not yet been called to contend with such an enemy All their wars have been with Powers interested As deeply in sustaining the system of slavery As themselves. But this state of things can never again occur and it is madness to tempt destruction by extending this Rotten and wicked system Over what Are now a peopled solitudes. The safety of the South a Well As the interest of the North and the Honor of the whole nation require that this suicidal measure be resisted with unyielding firmness and in the opinion of the committee it would be better that a voluntary dissolution of the Union should come at once than to by the fatal tendencies of this desperate measure. But could All those difficulties be overcome there would still remain this insuperable objection the Constitution of the United states confers on Congress no Power to connect a foreign state to the Union. By the third Section of the fourth article of the Constitution of the United states con is empowered to admit new states into the but tills clause does not contemplate the admission of a old a or foreign and Independent nations into the Union. A Short time before the Constitution we formed the several states bad ceded their vacant Western territory to the confederation As common property conquered from great Britain by the United valor of the whole confederacy. This clause was inserted with the sole View to empower Congress to admit a new states which should grow up out of this vat Domain. It is True Congress has on two occasions Pur Chi de colonial territory from foreign Powers. We allude to the Purchase of Louisiana and Florida but we look in vain for any Power Ein for this Purchase in the Constitution. But it is not necessary to discuss the constitutional question growing out of these purchases As they cannot be cited As precedents for any thing beyond the cases themselves they do not proceed the length of empowering Congress to consent to the annexation of a foreign Independent Power to the but instead of the purchases of Louisiana and Florida being a precedent for the annexation of Texas the cases would have been similar had Congress instead of purchasing their colonial possessions admitted France and Spain into this suppose a Case of this kind and who Witt Jabsi occur Congress would then have Power and Istam by the Constitution to guarantee to a despotism a a Republican form of it is to be hoped however that Southern politicians who can discover no Power conferred on Congress to protect Domestic manufactures or to charter a National Bank or to construct internal improvements will Liot be Able to discover the Power to amalgamate this Republic with a foreign Independent nation. In conc u8�on, the committee would propose the Grey is Union. Object at All. But if the Coati tuition of the United states waa held to guaranty the property in Alavo a then that con a Tuu Uon waa on Thia Point above the Law and Constitution of any state and the act of no slate therefore Aouida annul the property in Alavo a. Quot state under the twi thereof. Or m. Had used this argument before Ali it would follow from it that the states were All still save folding slates under the Constitution and Mutt continue to beyond the Power of this government Unley the state generally should give that Power. / he Constitution therefore or. Maintained had left Ala very precisely where it found it. But the framer of the Constitution had intended that the Momi Power of Thi instrument should abolish slavery in All the states and accordingly the state to get a immediately to a both la very on it adopt god. The ordinance of 1787, in relation to Tho North Western territory was adopted by Congre at the very time when the framers of the Constitution Wera split vent Ion and the Constitution a adopt ctr ing in con two by three Une while Coo Gresa in Che very tack of the defer mined that slavery should not exist in that vast territory that they did not intend that the moral Power of the Constitution should abolish slavery in the whole country or. Went on to argue that by the Constitution Congress has the Power to Abo Lieb slavery in the whole Union. More than Twenty thousand citizens of Ohio were the friends of emancipation and he thought when these petitions came up Here they did not deserve the treatment they received of being called Tencen Diarie and being branded Wilh infamy. Or. Concluded by explaining the try inject of his amendment which was he said to enlarge More fully that which had been loitered by his colleague or. Allks or. Preston said he could see no Shade of difference Between the two amendment or. Hubbard called upon or. Morais to Point out the difference. Or. Morris said if the Eagle Eye of the member from new Hampshire could not discern Between the two it would be a hopeless task for him to enlighten him. But he would ask if or. To As Ano would see no diff nce Why a he to much opposed to his while he was in Feivor of the other ? or Calhoun suggested to or. Allx to withdraw his amendment for the present As Only tending to Embarrass the general question and to consent to introduce it at the end of the Resolution. Antall Foagh he was quite right in saying he was in a minor try yet it As obvious that he effected his main object. Petitions continued to come Here but to what end 1 neither to be read Beard nor received. Not one has since come to the Poe session of the Senate so is to be in order for its action nor under existing practice could one come to its Possession. In this state of things Why Are we appealed to for new measures which can do no More than accomplish tie same thing if they do is much ? Why does the senator from Carolina when so solicitous to exclude from these halts the petitions when he has steadfastly maintained that Coti grew has no right to debate or act on the subject Why does he vote Purily introduce it Here 1 a subject too delicate to agitate one which it is said we ought not to discuss and have no right to consider Why then is discussion invited Why is examination provoked Why is controversy challenged 1 for myself said or. D., i have been disposed to respect iks avowed feelings of Southern senators and As they seemed to Dep meet Diee Aenon m e Yeob Tiyi t tiav61wldded it leaving it in the hands of the mover and those interested had no purpose of changing my course till that senator or. Allen assented but As the Amend Teitt could not Bow be withdrawn but by unanimous consent to was agreed that a vote of rejection should be taken on it pro Orma that it might be offered by the mover hereafter when All the resolutions should have been acted on. The Rote being accordingly taken the amendment was negatived. Or. Davis then urged the propriety of or. Smith s amendment being now Tycen up. It appeared to him the object of or. Allis s amendment had been to get rid of the other and now that it was withdrawn he thou a the question ought to be taken on Tho amen Deraedt first offered by or. Smitn of Indiana. The question however being announced from the chair to be now on the third Resolution or. Prentiss Rose and said that As the Resolution under consideration had been considerably modified and rendered somewhat plausible by a amendments be wished to say a word or two before the question was taken upon it in explanation of the vote he should give. He bad cared very Little about any of the amendments which had been offered and should feel quite indifferent As to the Fate of any Amend Menta which might hereafter be proposed because it was his intention to vote against All the resolutions without any critical Nezami nation into the truth or correctness of any of the propositions contained in them. He should do this not Only for the reason which had been frequently stated that the vice of nullification was apparent upon the face of the Reso Tumiens but for another reason also. It was obvious that they could Rehher add to nor abridge any of the i thu of the people by any resolutions they could adopt and be deemed h not Only unnecessary and useless but highly in expedient to make a formal declaration of rights there to assert abstract principles in the form of resolutions having no Riew to any practical results and which might not Only be Tia its to mis construction and misapplication but might occasion thereafter As much controversy As to their meaning As did the famous Virginia resolutions of 98. He did not wish to go into the subject at All but merely to aay hat he should vote against All the resolutions because he considered most of them wrong in principle and All of them unnecessary and inexpedient or. Davis next Rose. He said that he had averal times briefly add rowed the Senate upon this subject which for two years or More had been greatly agitated More so probably than was useful. As Long ago As that an of Brt was first made to suppress petition upon the subject of abolition in Thia Bod from thence till now the matter had received ent iou at tires though both Here and in the other \3y ust and violent procedure have in prevented answer the government of the United states by compelling its citizens to obey her own Laws and by constraining them to regard the Law of nations towards Mexico. But could she have done this we answer she did not make the Wattem in this View of the question if text shall be annexed to the Union who can deny that it was plundered from Mexico by our citizens with the silent consent of the government of the United states. Honor Justice and humanity All forbid a Union of title a orious confederacy sealed with the blood of our Patriot fathers with an infant state thus a conceived in sin and brought Forth in but could this objection be overcome still the annexation would be the grossest injustice to the Oon slave Holdma states. It would in very few years give the slav Holdi interest preponderance in the National government and would expose All the great interests of those states their agriculture Commerce and manufactures now a added by the South with extreme jealousy and aversion to the destructive influence of their it Ostile legislation. But what is of far greater in than a her pecuniary interests combing to would be a base abandonment of their fundamental principles of Liberty and Equality. How Ean those principle stand with the ipod Declara that All men Are by nature free a standi Adim Tion of the following Resolution if a a a a a of Kotof that in the name and on behalf of the res feed by the general Assembly of Tow state a Behal Ople of Ohio we do hereby protest against the annexation of the Republic of text to tiie Union of these states a unjust inexpedient and destructive of the peace safety and Well being of the nation and we do in the name and on behalf of the people aforesaid solemnly declare that Congress he no Power conferred on it by the Constitution of the United states to consent to such annexation and that the people of Ohio cannot be bound by any such covenant league or arrangement made Between Congre and any foreign state or nation. And be it further resolved a that the governor be requested to transmit to each of our senators and representatives in Congress and to the go ver nor of each of the states a copy of the foregoing Resolution. Twenty fifth Congress second session. Vissi Tae Intel Igenter debate in the Senate. Saturday january 6, 1838. On a. Calhoun 8 resolutions. The Restout Ioos of or. Cru Iauch on Tho relations see. Of a pm state Andl general governments Eom inf up and the question being on or. Hobbis b amendment to the third Resolution declaring Tim Freedom of speech and the Prea on All Nib Ecta Indish Tahle and under the uhf in m the Bead of their constr nations of government can we unite our deet inks with a people who a rafted slavery on their instil Aritma at a lit Ion which no Power in the state Ean mitigate Rusht How Ean those states Ventan them in a Lea a which binds them to Sartain it jul their physical Powers such a state of or mod Wanton barbarity the people of cannot consent to be sold to the vile Independent Power for Purpo Iea Liberty of the nation is Anady Suffi o oly off the state in which each Freedom is exercised or. Morris resumed his remarks by saying Itiat the error which be had committed the Day before in relation to the sentiments of the methodist conference had afforded so much pleasure twist be did not regret iriving fallen into iut he made a Brief explanation which bras believed to relate to this mistake Bat to audible and unintelligible to the reporter be what he asked was the Obj of the resolutions under consideration i it was to restrain and Check the Liberty of Spe and of the prom and their a re and principal domination was now it in me r Senate. Bot be repeated that the attempt to stifle the Freedom of speech and the press in this country on moral or political subjects would be a vain eff Bru but if it was Sinfol to Giacusa the question of Siave by or other subjects relating to other Tofu unities be asked Why they did not Auto not to suppress dts evasion by an end Cement. If k Natty threatened a die solution it deserved the severest measures that the Senate could adopt against it Why then not pot it Down by Law at once 1 let us see the features of such a Law and then form our judgement meeting it would the people submit to itt would any Man it Kre to Snake the attempt 1 there was no in the world that would dare to do it openly and generally. A Graat Deal bad been said about the constitutional right of a slaveholder to his slave. The senator from Indiana had said and it ifs not been denied that one effect of these Resolution was to extend slavery. Or. Responded that anti want and this a Goa of inject if Tybera a any m much Auen House much regret id been expressed that it was agitated a tall. At the first session of the last congram after a Long and mated Denun Chatory debate carried on chiefly by the Mem Bers from the South the Senate arrived at certain results regard to abolition petitions in which he or. A did not concur but a very great majority did. It was proper to recur to the state of things then and to Call to mind the sentiments of that Day. The leading argument in that debate was that the agitation of the question was a source of great danger pregnant with ruinous consequences to the country causing serious obstruction to the action of Congress and great uneasiness out of doors. And it was most urgently insisted that h was one of those delicate topics which it was not Safe to discuss which in truth we had no right to discuss either As regarded the states interested or the District of Columbia or the territories. Such sir being the avowed sentiments of a majority of the Senate they proceeded to give to them Sanction and practical effect and they did Supplew debate and dose the doors against petitions for though they resolved to receive them yet they immediately afterwards adopted the practice Whiteb Lias Ever since been in Force As the journal will prove. A senator for example offers a petition another objects to the reception the one housing the petition then moves for its reception the other immediately move so Lay this motion on the table which motion is not debatable but is carried by a Large majority. The consequence is that the one presen Jing the petition is denied the right to Lay it before the Senate the Senate refused to receive it the Senate from South Carolina or. Calhous was in the Lead of these measures and is it not True that he was sustained by an overwhelming majority or. Ca Rooh said the course which he marked out was not followed at All. N or. Davis. I did not mean to aay that the a sufi of fee senators proposals was Ai opted but that the Senate sustained the chief purpose he aimed at or. Calhoun. I was in the minority in every vote on this subject. I wished to meet the petitions and to refuse the admission of them. I wished to take higher and stronger ground. I was not averse to agitation. Or. Davis. I did not allege that the senator was averse to agitation but that it was generally deprecated and that fals proposed measures looked to that end As the journal most fully proves. If the so Nator had not interrupted Roe lie would have had no occasion to complain or to Correct me for i was about to notice what i am aware of that the proposed course of the member was to meet the petitioners at the door shut it in their faces torn them Down stairs and bid them begone and that he urged the Senate to sustain that View of the matter. In that i know there was a failure Bat in his general object though attained by different Meana he did fully succeed. He and his friends did erect a Barrier As High As he could desire a Barrier insurmountable to the petitioners and As effectual to Stop agitation and debate in this chamber and the presentation of petitions As it could be Short of penal liabilities. Discussion died with this arbitrary Rule because the Senate yielded obedience to in if any thing of much importance bad since been id it had escaped my observation. 1 therefore repeat that the object of the senator had in attained Tho petitions a have been driven away without a hearing no answer to their prayer has been made no not so much As to say they were in error. What i would ask would the senator do beyond this if the Senate yielded itself to his will ? the senator from Virginia or. Rivas said yesterday that the states could take care of Thema Elvea if the Channel through was closed up for he feared nothing from hit abolitionists in their own territory. Did not the Senate close up this Channel most Elf so a Tauy 1 is not choked to the top so that nothing can reach the Senate what higher or stronger Barrier can be made there is but one that can be More effectual and that is to make a Law of Congress consisting of pains and penalties. Make it felony punishable by imprison meat in the Penitentiary for any one to petition for the abolition of slavery in this District. If there be no right to petition and the petitioners Are violators of the Constitution disturber of the Public peace criminal agitators Feria toning the safety of the Union then such a Law will be both and let it be brought Forward for it Grill Tost the principles advocated and put members to vote upon a beyond a Mere expression of opinion. Send such offenders against the Public peace Ai Public Justice to the judicial tribunals if such is the sense of Congress to receive the Reward of their merits. This would Bear the stamp of consistency a if the doctrines which tend to such i snits Are sound then let them go Forth in a form that shall be understood and let those who demand Relief take the Rera Ftp Roessly Igil their hands and Tivey will soon learn the views of the Public on this right of petition. This would be More Manly than to agitate the Public with i Reata. It would Fence the people yesterday threw Down fee Glove and challenged disc onion in terms which almost made it dishonourable to this Challenge and this alone has induced me to Rise for had resolved that fee senator should be left free to act upon the majority which goes w be him wife whatever Power be might while he adhered Toimi lotion although my own constituent of have written to me inviting my attention to these resolutions not Barguse of their effect upon the abolitionists but because they embrace other matters of High moment and of objectionable character. I would have taken fee Hazard of disregarding these Calls upon me but 1 could not be silent under fee Challenge of fee senator. The senator says we can bring no objection against his resolutions while we vote against them inferring from our silence that we vote in a Blind and sense Lem manner 1 deem his inference from his premises wholly unwarranted for fee larger portion of fee votes we give Are recorded without offering fee reasons to the Senate upon which they Resl but i have Many objections to these resolutions More than i shall find physical ability to express and fee strongest of Fedose objections Are to their political character. They Are not called for Are not More efficient than fee measures now in Force and can do no Good. They Are As been Well said a part of them at least Mere abstractions or Ajo Walt of abstract doctrines a Way demanded by the occasion. They embrace matters having no connexion with abolition and Call non us to commit ourselves to an interpretation of fee Constitution when there is no emergency arising in fee course of our Public duty requiring us to give interpretation to that instrument it is an unnecessary attempt to influence the Public judgment and such works of super rotation Are let alone. Any and All these reasons Are a most ample justification for voting against even that which May seem to be right in fee abstract for i would give no countenance to making a Creed of avowal for politicians and to the publication by the Senate of abstract opinions merely because they May contain apparent truisms. They ought also to be useful and put Forth for some useful Public purpose. The Senate would be foolishly employed to resolve that two added to two make four. But sir the leading reason urged for disposing of fee whole abolition matter is that the agitation of the topic disturbs fee Public Harmony and endangers fee Union. Lam quite disposed to respect ail such fears and apprehensions when urged with seriousness to listen to Public sentiment and to yield much to Public judgment and sir i am Happy to perceive that the thought now and then flashes across the minds of gentlemen that there Are two ends to this Union both of which should fall under the Protection and paternal regard of this government. We Are fee representatives of the whole and our of fictions and watchful Ness should be commensurate wife the whole. It is our duty to see that fee whole Republic is Safe. All interests must be regarded All rights must be protected. We most look to Public sentiment throughout. No interest because it is great and powerful should be permitted to absorb All Public attention or to cause a disregard of those of less importance. Ail must be nourished All respected the rights of ail so adjusted and harmonized by a spa Irit of Compromise and con citation a to remove All just cause of discontent. This u fee Way to preserve the Union and yet from the course of argument Here one is sometimes doubtful whether More than one end of the Union u thought of when All our vigilance anxiety and affection is demanded for feat end Kame. The Resolution before a propose no measures for fee general Harmony but to give certain interpretations to fee Constitution favourable to the slave interest. This is to avoid the dissolution of the Union. X cannot see Bow fee end is to be reached by the Means and therefore am constrained to come to the conclusion that matters other than abolition Are wrapped up in these resolutions. Who is most Likely to be discontented and to disturb Public Harmony those that hold direction of political Power or those who have no Power except the Force of argue Ben 1 i wish to ask you sir what your recollections Are in regard to the history of Public policy. You have probably for the last thirty years been a witness and Participator in what has occurred Here and your memory can go much beyond that. You know what has been the Public feeling on the subject of the integrity of the Union and what kind of a reputation those have acquired who have been suspected Only of agitating this alarming topic. How stands the Hartford convention in Public estimation 1 How other con Ven tons and assemblies of men of More recent Date who were supposed to meditate unfriendly feelings to the Jinio ail hostility to the Union has at All times been viewed by fee great body of the people wife the most profound sorrow and regret. Those therefore who engage in such treason Able purpose do it at fee imminent Hazard of character at least for they acquire a very unenviable reputation. The abolition most can have no motive to dissolve the Union. Tovy Bavy never in charged with such an object to my knowledge. Their acts May create alarm and discontent which May tend to that. There May be selfish men among them for fee ambitious always Mould fee moving elemental when they can to Aid their own selfish purposes. It worm not be singular if such were found among them but their number cannot be great. But How is the abolitionist to be profited if his wishes Are Alt realized if All the slaves on the Globe were made free Bow Wilt it mend his Condi Toni in no Way whatever. He can gain nothing of the change. But they repudiate and very properly All right to interfere wife the states Anid confine themselves to fee territories and the District or Columbia. Their v be Feus limited in extent and to the attainment of an object in which they neither gave nor can have any interest Wahidi excites a Sel amp the feeling and which does not in fact Toudie fee Union or threaten it. The worst then which can be said of them by Freir by rest enemies is what is actually said they Are delude mis idea Philane Kopisto fanatics heated wife an unbecoming Xeal. Ottese and such opprobrious epithets have been applied to feel but no one affirms that they aim at disunion nor do i think any one can impute to feel any corrupt purpose. I do not mean to touch the question of the expediency of Freir Cours in asking for immediate abolition in this District that i will meet whenever the Senate will open it by receiving their petitions but not until then for the right of petition is the higher right and must first be vindicated. I shall however at All times go for fee Union and the whole Union and against fee abolitionists if they propose to interfere with constitutional rights or gnat Fott lies. Out from the Capitol and Lepante them Freir own gov a Gumiit it would consign Ofle oders to in amp my for pre sumptuously daring to approach these Haus to make a Humble request the senator has not proposed to go this Longfe a a wrong report or Morris did not so argue he contrary lists this state rent in a subset Osnel number of the Interi fencer red. Pril. But i again return to the inquiry who is to dissolve fee Union there cannot i Trust be such purpose Here for every Day we heart a thought deprecated and fee deprecation mingled Wilh the most ardent patriotic Profeta Ioos of love and attachment to fee Constitution. Is fee great Siave interest to do it i Appeal again to your recollections and to Fedose of fee senator from South Carolina and ask you whether an interest so powerful As to have majorities in both houses and to maintain its Ascendancy in the government is Likely to have occasion to secede from fee Union through fear or oppression 1 sir this interest has ruled the destinies of the Republic. For forty years out of forty eight years it has Given us a president from its own territory and of its own selection. I do not advert to this in the tone of complaint for it has been done at the ballot Box but As a proof of its great strength tact and skill and of fee extraordinary predominance it Bolde Over All offer interests bending and shaping them to its purposes. During All this time it has not Only had a president sustaining its own Peculiar views of Public Pouch but through him Baa held and used in it own Way fee whole organization of All fee depart cents and All the vast and controlling patronage incident to that office to Aid it and carry out its views and policy As Well a to protect it and secure to it every Adan Toge. Let us eve plots a Little further air and see How the houses of Cong Reaa have been organized. I am sorry feat i rely on they stand firmly together and Tike a macedonian Phalanx shoulder to shoulder gather round it and by mighty and concerted efforts give it fee Lead in Public Afi is Agai Iuit All opposition. Sir Bow can i better explain its Alt pervading in Luetke than to declare again that it moves this government Over fifteen millions of souls great and energetic As it is and disproportionate As is fee slave holding population to feat of fee free states. With this mighty Power in your hands wife proof at every vote taken in this Capitol of your ability to continue it Carly of of this interest entertain apprehensions for your safety what More do you claim what More can you have How can Fedose who bold Power be oppressed by those who have none How can those who hold the Power of this government fear it 1 i canot believe there is occasion in the mind of any one belonging to this interest for a data solution of fee Union unless he be ambitions unprincipled and without Hope of advancement it will Beres Sone it ble enough to meet danger from other quarters when it threatens mischief. But or. President i Murt not omit seme other Crowfis of Tita of fee slave Intens St Here. It claims to Ite Elf and its Exen Loti Wka new of Merit then is in the overthrow of fee policy of internal improvements and of having broken Down and rendered unpopular the policy of so assessing and collecting fee Public Revenue As to protect and encourage free labor. Over this lost great interest it claims a signal Triumph for having Defeated it i need not multiply proof of fee Zeal activity and singular Success of Fedose who manage this interest the integrity of fee Union is or Olebly quite As important to the slave territory As to the free i cannot therefore credit the suggestion that fee people of the sooth Are so blinded to their interests As to court so calamitous a result what then is it that shakes this great Republic so feat it reels upon Ita foundations so feat we Are brought to a solemn pause Here in fee Public business and Are gravely and solemnly devising remedies to redeem us from threaten us ruin sir we have a set of resolutions nearly concocted that Are to up Forth with Healing Power to Calm fee Public mind to allay the outbreak Ings of fanaticism and to tranquil use the raging elements. The opinion of the majority of the Senate is to workout the extraordinary result but i again Aak what it is that we Are contending with what feat threatens calamity and is thus easily to be subdued it is the abolition icis a Rob come Here in no very alarming numbers though the course pursued Here has increased the aggregate not to threaten fee government or to menace the Union to sir not at All but humbly to entreat and Pray you it abolish slavery in the District of Columbia where i believe there Are about forty thousand people of All sir they have claimed nothing but fee right to beg and Pray of the Senate to use its Power for this purpose 1�? what More Humble and less objectionable right can be claimed by Man than the right of respectfully entreating yet sir the exercise of this poor privilege by persons mostly females too has brought us into grave deliberation to Rescue the Union from iming dissolution. Sir i cannot Pouti Ripato in these fears nor persuade myself feat such causes will produce such results or that the Union will be attacked unless the provocation is Given Here. These Alkali zionists Are in the free states. It has often been said and was a Day or two past reiterated by the senator from Missouri or. By Rook that their books papers prints dec. Cannot enter the slave country and therefore would do no harm there even if fee slaves could read As they never can reach them. It seemed also to be admitted by the senator from Virginia or Rivis that there is no objection to fee discussion of the subject in a state that permits it to be agitated. Where then is the alarming mischief what creates fee great Fez fitment spoke of As existing in fee slave territory and which i doubt not Doss exist the exciting matter is fee debates published from this Capitol fee Exa rated and highly coloured pictures of Dan Gor drawn Here. The evil is chargeable Home Here and fee fat possibility rests her. Tie effect was clearly foreseen and the result foretold. It is but fee natural Progress of events that fee excitement of fee people should re act upon Congress and i agree to fee sentiment often expressed Here that this topic agitated in this place in fee manner it is disturbs the Public Tranquillity and the practice ought to subside Inlet the matter can be treated More there would probably be no excitement among the Sieve holders if it was not roused Here and there would be less Here if fee flame kindled elsewhere by fee breath of these balls did not impart its warmth to this body. But sir i return to the inquiry what is to be hoped from these resolutions where Are their Healing properties their Power to assuage resentments and to allay irritated passions Are we now agitating the matter to any Staful purpose i read feel ail while a part of them seemed to me to contain certain doctrines on slavery according wife the sentiments of the mover the residue seemed to be a Mere avowal of a political Creed. Nor being quite certain that i was right in fee matter a was comforted when my Friend from Delaware or Bataan Rose and expressed the same sentiment. They professed to treat of abolition but the worthy senator declared that on lifting fee veil he had discovered nullification concealed under the first of the series he pointed the Little fellow out to us hidden snugly under a thin covering of state right Gauze. Q now. Sir i ask the Senate to look at feat Resolution is in these words leu died that in the adoption of the Federal Constitution the states adopting the same acted severally As free Independent and Sovereign states and that each for itself by its own voluntary assent entered the Union wife fee View to Ita increased Security against All dangers do metric As Well us foreign and fee More perfect and secure enjoyment of its advantages natural political and and to inquire whether it has any apparent connexion with fee abolition of slavery. The mover has already Lieen asked what he Means by this Resolution How it is pertinent or applicable to the matter in hand what was his Aiu wer did he say it waa to allay excitement to suppress debate or to Check petitions a no nothing of fetal but he did in substance affirm that it was introduced As a sort of constitutional platform upon which As a newly discover Ted footing the Senate were together together and tand4lffl is momentous crisis. The Constitution itself without senatorial amendments is Broad a trough and Good enough for Roe to stand upon. Sir there have been Many platforms creeds and confessions of Faith All of which Are designed to tie Down Freedom of thought and action and which in general i do not believe have Subserve any valuable they Are designed to carry out particular doctrines and so fee senator from Carolina avers in regard to his. He says it embraces fee doctrine of �?t98, and it is expedient occasionally to reiterate fundamental principles. Magna Charta was reaffirmed and hence the propriety even upon this occasion to reiterate and reaffirm fee Sundai rentals of the doctrine of 88. We sir is the doctrine of 98 the senator has Hod some bitter experience in this matter. He knows where it led him he knows what results he has contended for under its authority and he knows that Many others now on this floor who claim to respect with equal defer Enite fee doctrines of 98, travelled paths widely divergent from his paths so opposed feat they led to Sharp bitter and alarming conflict. This ought to teach the senator not Only fee Folly but the danger of putting Forth abstract theories upon the Oor uti to Tion. But the senator advances this theory be Wise it contains fee Only conservative principles the Only remedy for the slave states. And what is that conservative Pron pie and what the remedy the senator from Delaware in giving a definition of the meaning of fee Resolution solved Perks i Wuh out designing it this principle and remedy. The movers View of state rights is As i understood them feat the United states Are confederated corporations each a party to the Constitution in fee nature of a treaty or confederation and when this government or perhaps one of the states in fee judgment of a state shall violate this compact it May declare fee whole contract void because it has been broken and create to observe it with the same Freedom and upon fee same principles that one nation declares a treaty null because fee other party in Ita opinion has violated the must be fee remedy the right to secede from fee Union when a state sees cause and what b this but nullification 1 i he Resolution b capable of two constructions one to be it a out fee senators View fee offer fee View of those who hold to a different construction of fee Constitution and still Call what b the second Resolution it seem designed a it Point out the ditties of the states towards one another in regard to Freir Domestic institutions and the Doty of the government to protect each state in the enjoyment of Ait such Domestic institutions and to restrain such states As assail those of other states the country stretches through wide Rosce of the Earth embraces Twenty six states some almost under a vertical Sun while others Are in fee Region of Frost. Their Domestic institutions we All know must be various and d of feint under different circumstances. Those for example suited to Louisna will be ill fitted for Vermont the vows of different states upon the necessity character and expedienc7 of Domestic institution will always conflict Ami our was designed for that very purpose. The right of a it each the Freedom of the press the Liberty of discussion Are Domestic institutions and Are we to be restrained in the exercise of any of these precious rights because others do Friar from us in opinion May hold our reasoning against Freir institution in the matters All belong to fee states and it ties w to regulate them at pleasure and without reference to fes it View other states. If the design b to dog. This government with Power to abridge the Anvil eyes of the states then the Senate can exercise no such authority and bad better pause before it acts. But sir i must bring my remarks to a close As the state of my health will not permit me to proceed. I intended to have examined the character of these Reeo Antione More in detail and to state More fully my objections but i Roost forbear. I cannot however sit Down without asking the senator from South Carolina again Why he incorporate a political doctrines wife thu matter Why he mingles Wilh slavery the annexation of Texas to the United states he says we must go Back to elementary principles to fundament a. Go Back from where and what Are we to go to or. Both you and the senator ,l6ut with quite different sentiments in that act of fib Golem rent Sorn times called fee Force Bill and each of you had your of Inicis upon that celebrated paper called fee proclamation. You were then arrayed against each other. The senator b about to go Back and asks the senators to go with him and they do go wife him but where from and where to he cannot be smog to fee Force Bill or the proclamation and doubt Lea he considers the Senate As going from Ibero Badt to what i have endeavoured to show the character of the first Reecht Tion and the construction which May be put upon Ift. U May possibly be considered an attempt to renew s Creed which live the Force Bill and fee proclamation had rendered of of font Ful authority. For myself i bad Hub sympathy wife those who so much lauded the Proela Batson or so Rauch Wondem Ned the Bill. The quarrel a Between Parte of the same state rights party. Having drawn the attention of fee Senate to fee use which i fear May be made in the country of the Resolution i shall not at the time proceed further. Or. Webster expressed a Hope that As or. Dath was now from indisposition too much exhausted to continue he remarks the i ate would adjourn. Or. Davis replied that be should be glad to submit some Furfere remarks but could not proceed now and would not request fee Senate to Stop the Progress of business on to Lett account. Two div bios were then had on the adjournment when fee Senate refused to adjourn. Or. Dat Isben resumed he seat. Or. Cal hour replied to or. Dabat length but want of room obliges us to omit he. Pril or. Bayard moved to strike out fee words a the several states a and insert the word of the Constitution itself Viz. The people of the United states. He Only object was to avoid a committal to a political Creed to which he could not con Gnu if or. C. Would admit Tow slight change or. A won 4g� with him. Or. Calhoun objected that those words Wen Nous they might be taken in a geographical sense meaning fee inhabitant a of fee Northern continent of America or they might mean the people As a peo Pir or they might mean the people Only of the several sep me states is utter was fee Only sense be to nil admit. Or Bayard urged that fee very words of the Ensti tuition to which every senator had sworn could not surely be objected. It appeared to him that or. C. Was contend ing rather to put be own Peculiar interpretation upon that instrument rather than following the instrument itself leaving the interpretation open. Tzib he or. Bayard Eon tended ought to be done. Why be asked Abeld or. Calhoun refuse to take fee very words of the Constitution itself or. Clay of Kentucky said if the senator from Delaware would Frame he amendment actor dog to the historical fact in the adoption of the or. Clay would vote for it. The historical fact was that the was adopted by the people of the several states a Ting within their respective limits or. Calhoun the senator to sub lbs fee View of the other Side has selected a passage for he Araen Zinent which is their whole Relence. We rely on fee historical of dict and the senator from Delaware ought not to Force Kab interpretation on us. Or. Bayard the senator b much a taken k Hei thinks our views Are sustained Only by the preamble of a Constitution the by topical fact is. That it is the government in the words of the Constitution of a the people of the uniter it is so decided by chief Jos Tim Marshall. When the preamble of the Constitution was a we the people of new Hampshire. Vermont a tic the names of fee several states were stricken out and the existing expression inserted in order to avoid Alt ambiguity. I do not depend at Alt on the preamble Bat on the Dycus Sion in the convention. I Cani feat it was regarded As a govern Wita Stua Oating from the people As a general body and on the subject i shall be ready to Wield h a Mon with fee senator on and suitable occasion. If few senator puts a different construction on Throe words be to so i do not want to express any particular opinion on thai subject or. Bayard s amendment was lost Days 8�?nays 34 and the third Resolution waa adopted years 81�?nays 11. Lermont co in it nuance of a county Anu-slat�iy4i�cjty Ruance of a Public notice tins Ftp by. Rich find on Friday the 5fe of Janear a. M., for fee pure of holding Quot meeting. The meeting was introduced by a it the Rev. John Rankin on the death of the. Joy from these words a a Fea and a that Dii live to Cariri Jesus eau Buffer ,�?��?-1 Tim. The society after a abort recess Oce eded to to Siolaa. Or. John g. Rogers in fee chair John Jol Ulfo. Esq. Moved that a committee be appointed to nominate a Board of officers for the ensuing year w. G. Gage Willums Patterson and Samuel Jackson were appointed said committee. The following Resolution was then offered by or. Weed which after some remarks from us Trover in its support was adopted Bete ived that the present Orist demands on the part of abolition its increased Seal and consecration to the work of giving petitioning and edict dating information feat we moreover pledge ourselves lives property and reputation to the cause until slavery b driven from fee land and the world. The committee to nominee officers made the following president William Carnes of new Mon vice presidents or. 8. G. Meek of Goshen Brice r. Blair of Batavia Charles b. Huber of William Bargh and Moses Larkin of Felicity managers we. 8. Patterson Daniel fee David Jones Thomas j. Morrab and Robert a Albresie treasurer Andrew Coombs Jun. Corres Roemary Alons i May possibly fall into error but i shall be i think right As for a i go if not the records can easily be had to Correct me. For thirty years oot of thirty six years that interest has placed its own is Ker in the chair of fee other House Feus securing fee organization of committees and the great influence of that station. And air while ail other interests have during part of fee time had the chair in which you Pree assigned to Treib As an Eli Tient for these great concessions yet in Eachys a when Protem. Is elected who upon the cd nth Gencie want coded in the Constitution will be fee president of fee United states feat interest has invariably Given us feb offi look i beseech you through All the places of Honor Oer. Of profit and privilege and there you Wilt find fee representatives of feb interest in number feat indicate it influence. Does not then the interest bold fee destiny a of feb rept Tutic in its own bands 1 does it not Rule guide and adapt Public policy to its own vows and fit itto a Uit fee action and product of its own labor sir to too that the politicians of the slave country sometimes Dixa race about men and measure of minor but on into vast of slave boor and the Protection themselves state rits politicians. But what advantage can there be in vowing an opinion that can Only excite controversy about Ita meaning. It b futile to attempt to make the Constitution broader or narrower for we have no Power to add or dim Inch. We May Sanction puzzling theories about fee prob Abb intention of the United states but fee Constitution must and will speak for itself be fee opinions of the Senate what they May. The Public will look upon such acts As they Are unnecessary and obligatory upon nobody As Mere attempts to give direction to the Public judgment. Sir i a a fee senator and the Senate to read fee pre by to the Constitution which 1 now bring to Freir attention a we fee Peop of fee United states in order to form a More perfect Union establish Justice ensure Domestic Tranquility provide for the common def Isavee promote the Gene Ai we fore and secure the blessings of Zubei to ourselves and our posterity do ordain and Stab lab feb Constitution for fee United state of America. And compare h with feb first Resolution observe its unequivocal language a we the people a Date. Instead of fee state a corporation. And a a a a Impf Wii a a to Feih or. By sir i will not dwell on the matter which has been again and again argued by fee Best taint in the country a i care not whether fee Constitution was made fee states As corporations or otherwise it males no pro Bioti for Nul Utica Tom gives no Courtena Okte to a but leaves it to stand on such theories As human invention has brought to Ita Aid. I am in no respect disposed to Revere it since it has met wife single poetic condemn on and therefore shall vote against All abstractions where its seed is sown. It b no part of my Doty to sit Here forming Creety and conf Assimos of Faith for fee purpose of up a a bib opinion. The and act for Thema Elvea and in tangos Freir liw Riffi pending Secretary or. J. G. Rogers recording Secretary John Jolliffe. It Jolliffe Here desired to is from the duty As be had served the past Yeai and w. G. Gage be appointed which was agreed to alteration the rept was adopt. A recess was then taken until 6 a the evening m wifi 3k time the society again met the following resolutions were offered and sustained by messes. Rankin Weed Parker Jolliffe and Coomb Sar Reto tved that it b fee h a guest importance to the of Liberty that fee a be sustained. Reto hed that we pledge ourselves individual of to obtain one or More sobs Eribert to the a philanthropist and As Many More a we can. Rete hed that we hold the Resolution passed by us House of representatives of the u. 8. On the right of petition to be a violation of the Consitt Tiou of the u. States and of fee right of the people to petition that body and ought to be rebuked by an indignant people. Ree Omvedt that we highly commend the stand take by fee Ohio Ifo legation in Congress on the right of Petite of and feat u is a source of unfeigned regret tit one Shea id be found we h. Hunter so rec test to the cause of Liberty and the state As to Subrai to slave holding arro Nsncy. Jive eyed that Tho anti slavery society by its emancipate the save a to elevate Educ be the people of color affords fee Varesi to do Juanize the continent of be voiced that the d Oretta and cxm3 sign ing her. Offered to the state Imp Mao that immediate attention of be and Logia Liate. Beselev that it ls�b4h8rageup<m the Timon Fife with of the Citi seas of Obj that drives fee Exeter a a a of All Good men Vad threatens to destroy every to Tigri of fila ship Fez being Between fee states. Bee Obed that fee tearing of the Hellen worn Frob her husband i Muring her in. Prise for aed men signing her to slavery is a barbarity that Hwd my a a up i Savage Asban sed. Bee lived that the beating or. He of Frea in at Keiu acky vie a deed d will Jan dance on her trial in Washington. A of fit a worthy of legalized Kidnap per Only. Ruehddy that or View Wilh the utmost Abhi

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