The Philanthropist in Cincinnati, Ohio
19 Feb 1836

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The Philanthropist in Cincinnati, Ohio
19 Feb 1836

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The Philanthropist (Newspaper) - February 19, 1836, Cincinnati, OhioA a a big g. Birney we Are verily Fanity concern iii our brother a a a therefore. It this distress come upon us. Editor and Propri Tob. Voluble 1.new Richmond Ohio Aridj february 19, 183c, Nua Iber 8, t4ie philanthropist is Rubli snid a Salt at a new Richmond Clermont co Ohio. Terms. Two i tolls per Senum always payable is and Vasco. All letters and Consun cations must be Post paid and should be directed to the editor of the of the counties particularly should be mention. De in Ilire Ting where papers Are to be sent. An advertisement making one Square or a space of equal length and breadth will be inserted three times for one Dollar. Slave Holder department. Speech of or. Pickens a of South , in try House or representatives Jan. 21, 1836, on the abolition nest on. Published from the notes of Kemy Gitl Fry Wheeler Teri cd and corrected by the Authur. The above title Page to this singular parliamentary production it is to be presumed is written by the a a a my for himself. He has taken More than common pains to introduce this speech doubtless his ehred oeuvre a to the favourable no ice of the pub i c. As one of that Public were we called on to >as8 judgment on it As an intellect Effort or As a literary composition we should be compelled in Justice to assign it a very Humble station. It is deficient tnalmo8t everything except the subject itself and the fury which it betrays that can impart inter opt to the Reader. For our life we could not keep out of mind whilst Reading it the old mock heroic tragedy of a Chrono Nhoth nth logos a abounding in words of sound and fury a nor from thinking that it May have constituted the rhetorical text Book of or. Pickens in his younger Days. But other considerations draw our attention to the speech of this gentlemen a it gives evidence of the temper of the South in reference to emancipation. Taken in connexion with the speeches and conduct of Many other of the slave holding members of Congress during the present session with the Laws plundering of the Nail and the bloody executions by Southern a vigilance committees a it Afi Berds lamentable proof of the havoc made on the head and the heart of those who continue to usurp absolute Power Over any portion of their Fel Low men. It brings up irresistibly this sentiment of Montesquieu that corf iterated states cannot Well exist log Ether Anleu they Are based on the same Prin Etc kit together with his forcible illustration found in the history of a die grecian republics. Philip of -4is�ed�l�tfb once admitted As a member to in Council soon put an end to the liberties of the republics. Their names remained but nothing else. That such will be the result with our own Republic unless the overbearing and despotic temper of the Adulfa be healed by the removal of slavery the a meat it feeds on there can with any considerate mind exist no longer any doubt. We May it is True enjoy for a Long time unmolested the advantages of a Rich Commerce we May accumulate the wealth springing from our prolific soil and the ten thousand exhaust less Leson Rees of the country but unless slavery a ease and that right speedily the soul the life the spirit of Liberty among us will be quenched and proclamation will he made throughout the land bit Maji a a Quality As to rights is a Mere abstraction to Kot can govt no actual existence a and that the a capitalists must of necessity a own a Ai the abut i do their slaves a the working men of a the country. >vhil8t it is difficult for us to write of such things with becoming calmness we cannot but Admire the unruffled temper tie iceberg composure of certain dough face editors both far and near who hear and see and read them but who a if a Kitten cry Mew against a a a system that is bringing our country to ruin and our posterity should they he poor to slavery a Straightway with the heat and fury of Jetna they cry out for a mob to silence or consume him. With gentlemen when they say the abolition societies and their open partisans Are at present compared with other great parties Small up far As numbers Are concerned. But to ascertain their real strength we must examine the Peculiar division of parties that exists in the non slave holding states take for instance new York and we find there or later meet the great Issue that is to be made upon this subject. Deeply connected with this is Fravi Vuoti a s a b # la a by b s of i v 1 ii or. Pickens Rose and observed that he rear Cattoi exceedingly the necessity that induced him to say anything on the interesting and deeply exciting topics before the House. It in when i had occasion some weeks Sim to make a few remarks on this subject. I As Well As the party 1 have the Honor to be associated with were then denounced As attempt ing to miss a discussion and �r9iffiniphrabi purposes. It was said that Lik mention men and the abolition ii and sunk in the country and i a Echt anal excitement to raise us Tion amp a. 1 would disdain to charge had originated from am miserable hipster editor we Hunt Down All that is virtuous a country who has fed upon c upon slander and upon whoa and Malignity bold their Cadavi loathe to touch this pitiful ing the spittle of men if it w Dera Tood to represent the exec St emment and is the Organ of at now rules the destinies of being the fret i Call upon Man to Brand it with the Indig Hood and infamy deserve. L that because 1 belong to a Compi the anti masonic party the whig party and the party i believe called the a Regency from the division of these parties the abolitionists become important and powerful As holding the balance of Power hence it is that All other parties desiring their strength acquiesce to a certain extent in their measures and movements. There is a High game playing for political Power and those who would seem to be weak from numbers become Strong from position. Their strength consists in fanaticism in painting scenes of imaginary evil in appealing to the passions of the heart Ahdas the gentleman from Massachusetts or Adams says to their religion. And when was fanaticism arrested look at its history All Over the world. In its first commencement it is seen like a speck in the Distant horizon a but Mark it As it rises it spreads and widens and grows Blacker and Blacker until it sweeps with the fury of the Rushing Tornado Deso lating the Earth and the Good and the Wise stand As if stricken with dumbness while the bold and the Strong quake and tremble like Unwe aned infants under the trumpet s blast. In its first struggles it is despised for its weakness but at length a acre suit undo until it walks erect in its giant strength and Power and with the muscular action of a madman tramples into the dust and Earth those who at first Felt pity for its delusion and contempt for its impotence. The Only Ivay to contend with it is to meet it and strangle it in its infancy. A what has been the history of the last summer we have seen the whole country excited and agitated to the highest degree. There has not been a state nor county nor town from one end of this Union to the other that has not been trembling by alive to the a general Jbv societies upon societies have been formed thousands upon thousands have been raised for the avowed object of pc Duc Itig a change a deep and vital change in the Domestic institutions of the Southern states. There is scarcely a common newspaper a Magazine or review that comes from the North but Liat brings something of prejudice and denunciation against us. There is not a school Book not a common geography which does not contain something by in undo or insinuation calculated to train up our children to believe that the inheritance of their fathers is full of evil and iniquity. The prejudices opinions and moral Power of the whole non states Are directly and openly against us on the subject of Domestic servitude. A and Well May the gentleman from Massachusetts or. Adams declare that every member s speech on this subject from North of Mason and Dixon a line would be an incendiary pamphlet and if they pursued a certain course Here they would be swept from their seats. Sir under these circumstances is it astonishing that we should be excited Here but it is not in our own country Only that the have to encounter prejudice. England has emancipated her West India islands. France is also moving in the same directions her press too is galling up the prejudices of the nation against this institution. And in England there is no review from the polished and talented Edinburgh Down to the Jeremy Bentham levelling Westminster that does not open its Battery acid denunciation upon us. Even too that Prince of modern demagogues or. Of Connell in Cheplen Titue of his arrogance and vanity must think fit to strike the vilest and basest notes to Call up the passions and prejudices of the ignoble and Low against institutions the True nature of which his ignorance forbade him to understand and against a Gallant Leople whose Virtues his natural vulgarity could never appreciate. He talks about equal rights and Public truths when he lives upon a splendid income raised by a grinding the face of the poor a by drawing the last Farthing from a starving and devoted people and Here 1 regret deeply regret that gentleman on this Side of the Atlantic distinguished for his learning and elegant diction has recently thought proper to Echo Back these notes and play a second part to this Irish demagogue by publishing sentiments and a tissue of visionary declamation calculated to have no other effect than to excite feelings Rympa tidies and. Prejudices at War with the Harmony of the Union and the forbearing principles of the Constitution which he As Well us every other Good citizen has tacitly sworn to support mean or. Channing and 1 allude to him with pain and regret. Instead of standing on his palmy Emi Nelce wit ii the Benevolence and Charity of an enlightened Christiari to pour out a Oil upon the Trou blk Waters a we find him inculcating sentiments and spreading doctrines calculated to alienate the affections and sympathies of the people of this Union from different sections. Or. Speaker we Carnot mistake All these things the truth is the moral Power of the world is against us. It is Idle to disguise it. 2 we must sooner the movement to be made in the District of Columbia. If the Power by asserted in Congress to interfere Here or any approach made Towai a that end it will give a Shock to our institutions and the country the consequences of which no Man can foretell. Sir As Well might you grapple your Iron grasp into the very heart and vitals of South Carolina As to touch this subject Here. Georgia has perceived this and Felt its full Force. She under thesis views has recently passed a Resolution i declaring it Rincon Stith tonal for Congress to touch this matter Here and met the Wei Ole subject As became her and lick interests. Under these circumstances i we As astonished to hear the gentleman from Georgia or. Hol sey Intini ate that be was willing for the present to give this Resolution the go by. Here or hol sey explained that he was William to meet the Quer Tion when it came up at the upper Tims in a distinct and Independent Resolution or. P. Then proceeded and said that he would not press these circumstances at present. Virginia has but the other Day passed a Resolution to the same purport. She alive to the deep stake she has in the question has approached near to unanimity on it. The Resolution denying to Congress any constitutional Power Over the subject in this District was passed by a vote of 115 to 9 in her House of delegates. Tarr there is one subject at least upon which Jill parties can unite. 1 was deeply gratified to see that Noble state speaking As became her ancient character. That proud stale. Justly proud Frem having enrolled on the scroll of lame her Hundred patriots has Felt her vital interests and Honor concerned and a ova a with an unanimity and spirit that became the land of Richard Henry Lee George Mason and Patrick Henry. I Trust no son of hers Here will fall below the position she has chosen to occupy. Before she can waver or falter on this subject directly or indirectly you must first break up the foundations of Ull her institutions you must make a new race of people in her bosom who must forget the glory of the past whose hearts must beat with impulses and emotions of a new and degenerate nature whose mothers must quicken with a new and unnatural offspring. Sir i deprecate All party ties and party feelings in this Minter. It is too solemn a subject for this. If there be any Man her who has any misgiving or trembling As to the future on this subject let me say to him this is no place for him. If there be any representative Here from any part or portion of the slave holding race whose heart is so bowed Down in subservience and servility to party discipline and party organization As to be draw n off on this question for the vile purpose of partisan Ascendancy and political Triumph in the miserable conflicts of the Day let me say to him this is no place for him unless he is prepared to cover himself with prostitution. If there be any gentlemen Here from the same Region whose aspirations arc to please the dominant interests of this confederacy by sycophancy and flattery for the put pose of clothing himself in the livery and trappings of office this is no place for him unless he is prepared to abandon the Ini Eri Tance of his fathers and cover his children with degradation and ruin. It is of no Avail to it close our eyes to passing events around us in this country and in Kur pc. Eil Grything proclaims that sooner or Ater we shall have to meet the Strong and the powerful and contend Over the tombs of our fathers for our consecrated Hearth stones and household gods or abandon our country to become a Black Colony and seek for ourselves a Refuge in the wilderness of the West t is in vain to avoid the contest. 3 or. Speaker As to the constitutional Power of this government to touch the subject in any shape or form within the Stales of this Union 1 disdain to argue the Point. If the dominant interests of Liis nation should Ever become so bold and reckless As to touch the matter or a exercise such a Power directly or indirectly then if we hold our seats on tills floor we shall become the slaves of slaves and deserve our infamous destiny. If Ever we should to forced to hold up the Noble but mutilated parch ment of the Constitution As a shield Between us and the goths and vandals who May have come in to desecrate and desolate All that is venerable and fair in the institutions of our a Outry then indeed shall we have lived to see the Day when conflagration shall sweep through the land and scythe its living monuments when the scattered fran cents of a broken and dismembered Empire shall exist Here and i Herat Only to Mark where the Republic once was. T while i can never consent to discuss the constitutional Power of this government As relates to the Stales yet it becomes us to examine the Powers under the Constitution Given in this District. Or. Speaker before we proceed on this Point would be Well for us to Call to our minds the circumstances and causes that induced the acts of pcs deed or will in connexion with the Constitution let us for a moment examine the act of cession from Virginia. The proviso declares a that nothing herein contained shall be construed to Vest in the United Sion granting jurisdiction in this District. When Congress was in session at Philadelphia a mob created great disturbance and they found themselves unable tor want of authority to protect them lives _ and their officers. Hence it became important that 8tatos any proper Tyr inthe soil a a affect. Have some territory with exclusive jul the rights of i Divi gals therein otherwise than the n Over it. 1 he object and sole desire of same shall or May be transferred by such individuals let it be Anders Towl that roti r other Muni this follows immediately after the clause describing Cipa regulations As might be deemed necessary for the tract of country and particular extent of Terri a the Harmony quiet an Independence of the gov Story ceded. I admit tie terms Are somewhat equiv Emmen when we look at these circumstances ocal at first. If the words a the rights of i divid and then compare the clause in the Consi Timio con duals therein refer Only Back to control the prop Lerring legislative Power we can come to but one a a 1 a. A 1 1then they were of no use for Onci Usami As to the great leading objects of the under the Constitution alone Congress could not ust. Hie words Are that Congress a a sulial exer have interfered in the Freehold. One of the first nver a fth legislation m All cases whatsoever principles of Tho Magna Charla is that no fre Mafi Over such District not exceeding ten Miles Square shall be Dis seized of his Freehold without the May by cession of particular states and the a r p intent of his Peers. If those words w Ere meant Only a Jiji i s vote w via <11 Ltd Cic Lutrull Vilow Celance of Congress become the seat of govern to limit the Power of the government Over the Frei ment of the United states and to exercise Tihe a hold of a citizen then they were useless verbiage. Way Oyer All places purchased by the consent of those who inserted them must have meant some the legislature of the states in which the same shall thing Mere. Alien we look at the sensitiveness of j u j erection of forts magazines arsenals i inia in the interesting and vital subject of the Dick Yards and other Elul a Peculiar property of her citizens she was about to legislation a Here cannot mean also cede we arc led to believe that she must have Ute and unlimited legislation. A i his government meant in the words a rights of individuals therein a can oct legally exist in any position without All the j other rights than those of connect this restraints of the Constitution binding upon it. It is with the clauses in tie Constitution and no Man can created by the Constitution and cannot act in any refrain from admitting that it is to say the least of sphere except under its specific Grants and to eco it a doubtful Power which every Patriot in a Lim tend that it has All the Powers Here that the states i led government would refrain from claiming As can exercise within their territories is a sole ism in notes. 1 truly the South is in a bad condition As to however it is Noj Zirena edible and notes. From his a palmy Eminence to break a Lance last a the moral Power of the world is against him a in Good sooth this Cortti is formidable enough strike terror into any adversary excepting always the a chivalrous or. Pickens As the representative of the South is her Init constitutional Law for the states can Cereise Alt the Powers not prohibited by the principles and spirit of their own constitutions or the constitute iii of the United slates while this government can exercise no Power not specifically granted by the Constitution or absolutely necessary to carry into effect some specific Grant. Exclusive legislation Means that no Oiler government shall have concurrent legislation. Congress shall exercise a like authority a Oyer All places purchased far forts arsenals amp a. A he legislation and a to Hority exercised in this District in like manner shall to exercised Over places purchased for forts amp a. If then. Congress is unlimited Here then it is unlimited in those other places where Public works Are and if slavery can be abolished Here then in like manner can it to abolished in All those places in the heart of a Slat where there May be Public Warks amp a. Ail the j wer intended to be Given w As to enable this government to protect and preserve its Public works and Ira Piror Eraerts and a like authority was intended to be Given in Tifis District authority that might be essential to carry out the legitimate objects of the original Trust and no More. Any exercise of Power beyond the obvious meaning and Plain intentions of inc Grant of Power at the time it was Given is a violation of its spirit and perversion of its purposes. Again the ninth Section expressly excludes Congress from the importation of slaves until 1808. If the clause giving a exclusive legislation embraces the Power to abolish slavery then it was created without limitation at the Date of the instrument. But if Congress bad before 1808, attempted to prohibit the importation of slaves her or elsewhere it would have been directly against the letter of the Constitution. There has been no new acquirement of Power since the Date of that instrument nor enlargement of the provisions of the clause granting a exclusive we cannot do that indirectly which we cannot do directly and if Congress had abolished slavery Here prior to 1808, it would have been the most Elf Ecial measure to prohibit their importation and this they were expressly prohibited from doing. 1 do not refer the this so much As being perfectly conclusive As to show that it was tie whole spirit and intention of the Constitution that this government should have no Power to disturb this delicate and exciting subject. We All know tie extreme jealousy that existed amongst the states on this matter at the formation of Llie constitute Ort so much so that it was one of the principal difficulties in forming a a More perfect is it to be supposed that Virginia sensitive and jealous As she was at that time on the subject of slavery would have ceded a portion of her territory and citizens if she had for one moment conceived that under the clause in the constr tuition conferring legislative Powers they were to be thrown at the under the Constitution. But or. Speaker i take higher ground than this and contend that according to the Bill of rights of Maryland and the Constitution of Virginia those slates themselves could not have ceded absolute and unrestrained Power Over private property of any kind in this District. The citizens of this District had Peculiar rights secured in their property by the of to Weir own states and if Virginia and Maryland had attempted to cede absolute Power Over this subject they would have violated the rights of their own quiz yes find would have committed not a Legal act but an act of Force. Next to life an it i Liberty these citizens had Vendor the Paramount Laws of the two Adjei ing states the rights of property secured in the most solemn and unqualified manner and As Well might Virginia now divorce from herself any portion of her freemen and Transfer them hoi iii hand and foot to the jurisdiction new York As to have thrown the citizens of this District ill their rights to a Peculiar property upon the unrestrained and tender mercy of this govern ment. Again no state from the Potomac to the Mississippi under its Constitution As it now stands has any right to abolish slavery without the consent of the iii visual owners. 1 assert this upon that great principle of English Liberty which is incorporated into every Constitution that no Freeman shall be deprived of his property but by the judgment of his Peers or the Laws of the land. The constitutions Are the Paramount Laws of the land Wirich tie action of no government constituted under them can legally subvert of citrates May do unlawful Acta which i their citizens May assent to or acquiesce in but this does not constitute Legal authority. Those Stales that hold slaves Aspi erty might if they desired assemble in their representing the Sovereign Power of the Community for the specific object of Anoh Shing that property end the people might choose their Delf gites for that alone. But this would be a re organization of the body politic above the Constitution. And even in conv Ealion they would do it under the unwritten and organic Law that governs All simple consolidated communities and which exists from the necessity of the Case that the majority must govern. This exists a Only in a consolidated Community when it is thrown into its simple and original elements. And even then the minority acquiesces More from a calculation of expediency than obligation. Sir if this View be True of the great principles that regulate even the Power of the states on this subject How futile and shallow is that argument which claims for this government All the Yegish Ativo Powers Here that the states have within their territories. But it is stronger than this. The government of the United states can acquire no Legal Power even by consent of citizens. It has no existence beyond the express Grants of persecuted and raise presented. 1 silenced upon this floor we interests of those i stand Here involved directly or indirectly ration shall deter me from Ute of my heart on this subject. I question for partisan warfare i t rises above All parties and j Dearest and Paramount in Crear state in this confederacy. Or. Speaker i have seen Seq that there is an unsound Stab elsewhere totally at War with to nations. I have not read pass year to he now deceived at �?1 v mercy of other interests and other sections an tags upon and no Gower can be acquired for it by the nist to herself on this vital Point action or acquiescence of the people or citizens Liis Thedith amendment declares that a private prop a must be Given by the Stales that made it and who erty shall not be taken for Public use without just Jalone can alter it. much less can it be taken for Pri-1 there is a wide mistake and Loose notion on to lib Vale use. It cannot be taken except for Public use. Subject of the Power of govern Jent Over private it becomes then important to ascertain whether property Ion Tlemcen draw their ideas on this sub slaves Are private property. And Here let it be of eject from the history of european governments and served that there is a Loose idea abroad that we Lipold the jurisprudence of great Britain. If there be our rights to that species of property under the com any okie principle that has distinguished our revolt promises of the Constitution. W e hold them As i tort from All others it is this that we have Suc original rights before and above the Constitution needed in limiting and restricting the Power of gov coming from the states in their separate existence Crement Over private property and More effectually the compromises of the Constitution relate entirely securing the rights of citizens thereto. If this was to the relative representation that the states As Polit \ not the great principle of the american revolution ical communities shall have upon this floor but this then it has none. The line that separates the Power is not the source of rights to us in this or any other j of government from private property is the Litis private property. The Constitution recognizes them that defines the limits of Liberty Inwall countries. 1 As private property the second Section apportioning know sir that the British government under the our repro Emalien the clause Cna Liling the owner to claims of omnipotence in parliament has again and recover his fugitive slave and the clause sanctioning again trampled Over the great principles of the mag ppm a. Jug Charta and it is not Here that we Are to look for As things examples to define our notions of Power in govern als of the ment Over the property of a free people. Under Tho Ling states plea of stale races try and the High prerogatives of key cannot pm lice a Nett a count re n a be protected and a peo is Public Pic regulated but the government May be a despot works if ism. But in tins country with our constitutional Hen might and limitations defined i deny the right to interfere it if there with private pc Perth except by a due process of s that Abo Law a through the verdict of a jury of freemen. A itch in the it is however suggested that although you can it Cut just net pass an act to abolish slavery at present yet can Mcney you May pass it to take effect in future upon Tho it through Post raft principle. Let us examine this. If Tho Igal approx rights of citizens be secured unqualified Day at present be specific under the Constitution How can you directly or Indi y implied restly interfere in the future if i have a perfect effect some right to my Stock 1 proceeds anti or to Abol the government that the right of 4r to a a a Quot a a and Inre j Conr mires Power it 13 ixe Reise of proceeds is As absolute and despotic As that which absolutely would take the property itself. A free government ewer asm in regulate and shape to preserve and the people protect them for the Benefit of its citizens but no is to Gie go Ern Mentis free that instead of a whole Simc and judicious exercise of this pow or usurps to Cut Thena off enl rely. If government have no right to destroy the existing property itself it has no right to destroy its proceeds. The principle and the p wer a Pate and Are the same in the one Case As the other Means of or. Speaker allow me to suggest to our North anything Ern friends the propriety if they can of t King ser that these grim is. I respectfully Sugo Consi Itu gust whether it would not be by iter for them to the proper raise the constitutional restrictions As a shield be to on this tween themselves and popular fanaticism than to Uci Pate by rely upon the grounds of expediency. It they intend

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