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The American Israelite (Newspaper) - January 11, 1917, Cincinnati, OhioVolume 63. T itt a al al a new t flu t a a a Cincinnati Ohio january a 1�i7. My number 28. Written for the israelite. T Jacob a. Schiff. For january 10, 191% seventy years a Cycle or god in righteousness his Way he trod so so by Angels sped a. A a a ill by a Shepherd led pm so that his sheep a a a a a a a a his keep. A a Silver Crown upon to head the spirits food his daily bread like Jacob old blk a a f it with frocks and herds a a a a a a in later words. A of with reverent Faith and filled with Awe a it a a a a a a a in a a a a he walk a Ujie a a Hub aft of Hie Law. His tent stands wide from every s4# a a a a they % come in stress and he doth bless. His fathers god his own he makes but to his heart the stranger takes gives of his love i like him above a of a in it a a a a with outstretched hand a a to worry land. So Brothers join in unison let Israel give its Benison -4 to that great son a a a a a ? whose Fame was won i a a f. Within ?ip�1�1 but outward so wide a Ray of shining Light All men were dazzled by the sight a and said a behold i a Pipp from Jacob old hath sprung a seed. Is great he my Wanette Kohn. Now York a City. I Den in by of a ii Jiin. 23. The jews a fifteen thales at every fire that of living under the Protection of the curved in the City Geiger a Gesch. D. Commander of the teutonic knights Juden in Berlin ii 61, Freund Eman in Franconia had to furnish to every zip action d. Juden in Preussen i 23. Commander upon his election a a Tschoe in Mayenne a the jews had 1 to keep Pinchbeck history the humor and the tragedy of a jew a a. A a a. Gotthard Deutsch in an editorial comment on the death of emperor Francis Joseph the a jewish world refers to the ancient a Arr a a a 5� Glove Noney custom according to which the congregation of Pressburg presents the austrian emperor or to speak More correctly the King of Hungary Nen und Kost Baren % Lei Pferd Sammt equipage a which in 1658 was compromised by a tax of 400 fit is4 Rael Tische Wocher Schrift Strasburg 1910, no. 32. The wife of the land grave of Hesse on a tour through her country on october 22, 1687, ordered that the jews of every District have a Fine Saddle horse ready for her on that Day Jahub. Der Jude lit. Gesell Scha pm ppm pm. 1909. In or to keep the stable of their Sovereign in Good condition the jews of Hesse were required to buy All old Saddle Der a Tom Golf set in read their in 1745 they compromised this duty by a payment of 500 florins per annul in. I 112 Monat Szohr. F. G. A w. D. J. 41, 514. From a say a a Ril Prce # learn that the jews of Hesse had to furnish hounds for the Landgrave in lieu of which they Prifti in sum of 3.000 i. Hounds were also a favorite article of taxes in kind. The jews of Prague had to provide them for the princely House of Piccolomini known to us from Schiller a �?owallen-1# jul. Z. D. J. 1869. 244. Tip jews of Mergentheim had to maintain eleven hounds for their lord and in addition furnish relays for his coach Jude. Or. 1909, no. 19. The jews of Hesse Kassel had furnish a sort of Feather duster used in chasing game. This tax was later changed into an annual payment of one Florin in Gold per capita . 41, 514. An order issued in Prague 1652 directed the jews of Prague to pay for the maintenance of the a Kings English hounds. The jews of Peine Hannover a very Small Community had to furnish six a pm alter of Rye for the maintenance of two greyhounds 1621 in. 1899, 572. The Baron of Osterberg Bavaria evidently was in straightened circumstances when he received jews under his Protection in 1802, for he stipulated that every jew or jewess pay on their the a Ign adige fraud or a and furnish upon receiving his a Schu to briefs a shirt and two florins in Money Meidel die Juden in Mem doctor Leo Pinsker a essay Sirot lit fifteen fire buckets in readiness 1661 Saif eld verboten d. Emancipation 349. Frederick William 1 of Prussia was especially fond of tall soldiers. As militarism had not yet developed he had to depend on the enlistment of volunteers and for this purpose the jews since 1728, had to pay 4,800 the. Per annul for the enlistment of a Flange Kerls Freund emancipation i 23. In Negroponte Greece which in mediaeval times was under the Rule of Venice the jews had to pay for the maintenance of the fortification 1304. They also had to pay recognition of his Many Good services for the additional expense incurred his father was awarded two Gold med by the City when the salary of the als and the title a cd a Quot honorary aldermen was increased in order to zen by the Gove compensate them for the prohibition of Odessa Grante it to engage in Trade Miller the latins Sion of three he in the Levant. 209. Frankfurt . Old enough Leo pin i fathers school and on the Twenty fourth of december 1821, in the Small to a of Tomashow a so Small a town that it cannot be found on a map of Ordinary size in the province of vol Hynia Russia Leo Pinsker was born. Has father Sim hah Pinak so a Celtib do and respected resident of the above mentioned town and besides a very prominent hebrew scholar and a archaeologist of his time. When Leo was yet a Small where his father in deeded in establishing a free Hel Rew. School. In ated from it. Simha educated his son in almost fills a Book. As a curious instance which has some bearing on. Our main topic it May be mentioned him excellent train that they had to furnish the officials basis of his songs of the building department up to 1763, with Lemons which in those Days did very secure Fondati but Sim hah Pinsk it and the City an annual pen rubles. When or attended his As soon Grade Pinsker himself hebrew and gave which was the or life and a it wag. A a a though he was not have the significance that they a scholar was not behind the times have now in America festschrift but rather what one might Call pro philanthropic ii 399. I Gressie and thus allowed himself to St. Michael s Day was a favorite become one of a Small minority and time for collecting taxes. As Early is of pm the dictates of 1227, Vicount Aimer fir of Narbonne a a matter of fact four years after imposed upon a jew the duty to fur to Leo was born Nicholas i. Ascended the Nish a certain amount of Grain on that throne of Russ the ascension in Day r. D. E. J. 58. 82. In Koenigs itself was not a great event from our papal michaelmas geese on november 11. A Mingen p. 82. The the London paper gives As a reason. Especially Liberal in devising taxes to for this custom that the predecessor of the late emperor once strolled be levied on the jews. The jews of Avignon which until the French Rev through the ghetto of Pressburg and solution was papal territory had to ji�i�l�ll�l�llmb8 tired a jewish restaurant where he tasted some of this famous product of the jewish Kitchen and being highly pleased with it ordered that the congregation present him every year with this delicacy. The Story is of course without basis in fact although the legend has been repeated with numerous variations. Some even go Back As far As the reign of King Mathias in the fifteenth Century furnish torches on St. Johns Day in Evue d�8 Etudes juices 53, 272-276. Emperor Rudolph ii a queer character who left the duties of the government in the hands of Philip Lang a converted jew once received a pair of Lions As a present from some african ruler. As the treasurer imported that there were no funds for their maintenance the emperor ordered that the jews of Prague furnish 22 pounds of fresh meat every Day Bach Baden the jews had to furnish six pounds of hemp every year to their lord Lewin Juden 172. Probably hemp was a scarce commodity in those Days. In Hesse just As is the Case now fat had become scarce in 1718, and a special tax of 1,200 al. Per annul was imposed on the jews to pay for the increased Price of candles and soap. A somewhat come Sal tax is reported from the same country As late As 1807. The jews of wan Fried had to furnish to the pastor to the judge and to the governor each a Silver spoon every year All. , 18-65, 383. In Poland a specially of jewish taxation was the a by to furnish Wax for Church candles and spices to the officials evidently because in those Days spices were hard to obtain. Thus the jews of Inow Ratzlaw. Now Hohe Salza Posen had to furnish to the a a Starosta six a a Stein of Wax one Pound of Pepper four pours of Crocus and similar quantities to the Provost of the cat Bedi my Fiche. D. Hist. Ges. F. D. Prov. Posen Xvi 43, 49 a a be . 1595, provides for a special overseer of this spice tax . . A 327. In Carpen tras France which was also under papal Rule the jews were accused of having crucified a Point of View but the ascension of Nicholas i. Was for he was bound his i reign would bring Prosperity and Cul i Ture to his subjects. And so the Czar a began to look about him and see wherein he could improve his Domain. His own people he found were not so very far behind the times and so his eyes turned to Poland a Possession acquired in the Regii of Catherine ii. ? among the polish people he found yet another people the jews which had become his subjects indirectly through the Conquest of Poland. They were far from a pleasing people to gaze upon or Deal with. For at that time they lived in utter i darkness Igno i Ranee and foolish a a Nati Citra since they had been it so f persecuted and drive into seclusion during the Middle Ages. And so it was that Nicho the Day and furnished very Good Reading matter As Jiffie As advice lasted for one year 1860-1861. It later 1861-1862 continued under the name of a a Sion of Esfi in i. Or. And a Soloveitchik As editors. Or. Pinsker. Write few editorials. He was not a prolific writer but what he did a write was Well done and effective. But the Odessa pogrom in 1872 and the outbursts of open 1 antisemitism lessened or. Pinsker a desire to adv. Cate assimilation. And when the percentage of admission to schools was introduced and conditions for jews began to get worse than Ever or. Pinsker gave up his fond Hopes i entirely. And so for the next few years we see him living in seclusion his Hopes disappointed with no new i ideals but nevertheless trying to find some new and More favourable Outlook a for the jews and a More successful solution of their problem. A from 1872-1881 the constant flow of pogroms the increased rate of percentage in admission to schools and colleges and the unfriendly attitude a of the government toward jews since 1877, All tended to make so deep an impression upon or. Pinsker that he was compelled to give Forth his ideas upon the jewish question in print for the Benefit of the general Public. But he knew Well that the russian jews were not at that time pm us a Shock he was to give them and knowing that the German a svs educated and More Able to receive a new idea and Ponder Over it rather than cast it aside and condemn it unread he published the ideas and sentiments that he had conceived during those ten years above mentioned in a pamphlet entitled a Auto emancipation Ein Mahn Ruf an Seine Glauben Genessen von Einem Russ Ischen this pamphlet was published unsigned in German in Berlin in the year 1882. The work immediately received due attention in Germany and aroused Many discussions pro and con a and was. Almost immediately trans lated into russian. In this pamphlet or. Pinsker puts Forth All his ideas and arguments in favor of not simply emancipation Freedom but Auto emancipation Freedom gained by ones own efforts. He opens his pamphlet with the words 1 of Hibuel the old hebrew Sage a him Ain Anili. Mili a if i do not help myself who will help me and form a better opinion of us. Time and history will prove that we were not burdensome to the russian family. In the meantime the superfluous part of a superfluous people must have a a who will protect that doubly mis Erable superfluous part and where Koto my a in Fuge Wise people of the great Only shrug �1 their shoulders questions while the masses answer to Palestine 1�?T a to us it seems that the instinct of the masses is not in the wrong. We hear in favor of the latter Ideal the cry a let us gain our bread by the sweat of our brows on that holy land of our a h v from that Day when or. Pinsker had solved the question of the place of settlement for the superfluous part of the jews of Europe he struggled to carry out the idea of settlement in Palestine even to his last Days. His position and reputation As one of the Best physicians in the Eastern part of Russia his impartiality and thorough idea. He became the Leader of All integrity soon made him a prominent member among the followers of this activities relating to the promotion of that idea. 1890 or. Pinsker sent a petition to Alexander Iii. Asking in the name of the Odessa jews to be allowed to organize a society which could Aid jews emigrating from Russia to Palestine. The Czar refused to Sanction such a request but granted that a society be organized solely for aiding jews already in Palestine and so making the organization not a Zion is tic but merely a charitable institution. Thereupon a society Fox promoting agriculture in Palestine was founded in Odessa the members of which unanimously elected or. Pinsker As its honorary chairman. That society exists to this Day and has done much Good until now when crippled by the present War. Or. Pinsker a work for the society even More increased the popular Trust in him. Jews of All classes of society a from the Ultra orthodox to the most extreme reformers trusted him implicitly. And he richly deserved every bit of Faith that was put in him. It idealist in the True sense off face word to Lynx of Ido aft��-h�9poi to further his Deal and never seek Praiss Pouf doing his duty out of pure Loe for the people for whom he devoted his Energy and it use. A go a Little wonder name will Ever be inscribed in the list my jottings a a 1 the a �6#ew benevolent Congrega-1 Tion of Atlanta Georgia rabbi David Marx . �?T94 will celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of its on Friday evening and saturday morning january a 12 and 13. A elaborate a preparations have been made fee the Celebration and a a number of prom a intent rabbis and laymen will take part in the ceremony. V Wise t a. A a 1 a. F t i or i. A a a i j., a a a Wasly it Asfe a a America a says the Springfield mass. Republican a to propose in All seriousness that there be organized a nondenominational and no racial federation for War Relief with a working capital of f 100,000,06jk>the scheme has pos ply vast and glorious the United states participate in the War in. The right at the Celebration of the first anniversary of the jewish i educational Alliance of Sioux cd Tyr Iowa rabbi Sternheim made an eloquent Appeal for the erection of a hebrew Institute which would serve As an open forum for All of the jewish societies of the City. Joseph Courshon acted As a help Man for the evening. Other speakers were rabbi Maurice i Rasure a. L. Baron or. Max a. Helfgott and a. L gallon by. Aug Las seeing How badly this people i Jot now it when Plain but Clear needed attention education and in lighten ment decided to better their conditions he issued an edict stating f that jews might immigrate into rus Sia proper and there Settle and till i physician analyses the old. And until. Land. He opened schools and colleges 4a Friom Norl Sura Ullam a Kanno in amp of try of Tolg Jug lbs i blog. Allu 116 while others More modest ascribe a 1593 Bondy Zur be Schichtle Der jul it to Joseph a who was indeed wont a Den in Boehmen to appear unexpectedly in any part of his Empire and is said to have entered incognito a jewish restaurant in the Pressburg ghetto. Again others with a touch of romanticism ascribe it to Francis ii the Grandfather of the late emperor who is said to have fled after the Battle of Saufl fit Itz in 1805, and to have arrived very hungry at Pressburg where he entered a Kosher restaurant to obtain a meal. Needless to say All these romantic stories Are fiction without any historic basis. No better is go Edemann a be Schichtle Des i 183rationalistic attempt to explain this custom As having originated from an incident reported of emperor Maximilian 1498-1519 to whom the German jews made a Coronation present of Golden eggs. The emperor upon his ascent to the throne had been approached by the memes of the jews with the request to expel All jews from Germany. When he received this present he was so highly pleased that he said it would be Folly to kill the Hen that Laid the Golden eggs. A the report of such a generous present is highly suspicious. The truth is that Maximi tanks father. Frederick lit 1440-1493 was a Friend of the jews and repeatedly refused to act upon the hostile demands made by the austrian Quot states a and that the latter expected from his successor a different policy but were disappointed. These Golden eggs have a counterpart in the Story reported from Worms at the occupation of the City by the French in 1689, that the jews presented the French general with two geese that were filled with Louis do ors. A con temp a a Alderm a Sidenbender who is authority for this Story tries to prove from it. That the jews were the cause of the fall of the City Loewenstein Braetter fuer Jue Dische be Schichtle und literature Iii 66. Needless to say there is not a Par Trueb any individual who conceived of a pet scheme for which he had no Money. Would petition the Sovereign to furnish it to him from a special tax imposed upon the jews. P. B. Boet Ticher mayor of Pyritz had designed a map of Palestine with a diagram of All Battles that were fought there. A not having the Means to publish it he petitioned in 1765, Frederick the great to compel every jew of his kingdom to buy this map for two thales which would yield to the Royal Treasury approximately 300,000 the. And of which the inventor of the scheme demanded Only 20,00. The King declined the offer a amp Famble. 1915, no. 25. This great ruler who was very hostile to the jews imposed upon them the duty to buy on any occasion Wpm they needed a privilege As for instance a License to marry 300 the. Worth of China from the Royal Manu factory and to Export it 1769. Similarly the jews were taxed elsewhere for the Benefit of struggling Industry. Thus Margrave Karl Frieder Loh of to them and urged them to change their freakish garbs and manners and to assume at least the outward appearance of All the civilized european inhabit. His kind Asp etude hot pc Ever was not very graciously received Dummy made of Straw. To make. Be. Jews. °4niy.t f atonement for this supposed mockery followed his edicts of the Christian religion they had to pay for an Iron Crucifix and were annually taxed for its maintenance until 1793 Vessillo 1915, 367. Such a Crucifix erected at the expense of the jews for supposed blasphemy is seen on the historic Bridge of Prague and also in some other place. For the fun of the carnival the jews of furnish Ity too ignorant and too suspicious to realize he was doing them no harm vehemently set itself in opposition to All manner of such reforms. And so it was that Sim hah Pinsker was greatly honoured by the Czar who appreciated the fact that Pinsker was swayed by his reforms. A furthermore after his son had completed his study of hebrew the elder Pinsker decided dents with confetti until 1783. Ves Fillio 1907, 76 .1 the sufferings of the jews in Rome during the carnival season where they were made the sport of the mob and from which they had to redeem themselves by taxes Are Well known to american readers through Zangwill so dreamers of the the Law requiring jews to furnish geese to their rulers therefore presents but one of the Many taxes imposed upon the jews. It is reported from Salzburg under the Rule of Bishop Pilgrim 1364-1396der. Is. 1912, no. 30from Alten Stadt an Der Iller Bavaria in 1719 in. 1898, 101from Horburg Alsace 1723 Ginsburg or. Les Julifs Des Horburg Paris 1904ough hebrew education As the country a russian education As the country could offer. Accordingly a sent his son to a gymnasium and later to a More advanced school the Odessa Richelieu lyceum. At the lyceum Leo Pinsker a magnetic personality soon won for him Many steadfast friends. He studied diligently made rapid and successful Progress in his work and was popular with his fellow students who were for the most part russian Young men of the Best and noblest families. Upon finishing his course at the lyceum Pinsker became a teacher of russian at a jewish school in Keshe not Only analyses it but proposes to cure it since he considers that his destined duty. He def Mph its causes and gives the Only possible remedy. He says in part a the jewish problem of the Golos is not solved. Progress and increase in humane ideas will not Render any solution. My we Lack Unity self respect and initiative and the Lack of these elements hinders our Renaissance. Y. Our Unity is dispersion our Concord a total Weapu me humility off salvation Retreat our originality adaptability our future the next Day a what a shameful role for a nation to enact which once had its Macca i Pillet to another is our ruin. Help yourselves and god will help you a a upon Reading the pamphlet one will notice that the author makes no mention of where the land upon which the jews must Settle is to be. At the time of writing the pamphlet the author had no definite idea As to the place of settlement. He was not particularly in favor of colonizing Palestine As we shall see later but whatever views he might have entertained upon the subject he was too modest to thrust upon the Public he preferred that they sep my themselves. In fact he considered it enough on his part simply to arouse Sian jews had common sense enough to appreciate such an honorable and devoted worker for zionism a even while he was living and pay due Honor ands Respecta a info things were too Small for him to notice no worker for the clause was too insignificant for him to encourage and worked for and loved every one and everything that had anything to do in a furthering the Success of his undertaking. Or. Pinsker knew from outset that it would take a Long time to Complete a the task which he had begun and that he would not live to see it completed. This and the fear that no one was left to carry on what he had so nobly begun and that All that was already done was done in vain grieved him deeply. A had he known that the jews were destined to have a Man like of feral continue his work it would doubtless have decreased has anxiety and lengthened his Days on a to my in his health took a sudden turn for the worse and he was pronounced without Hope of recovery. On the ninth Day of december 1891? or. Pinsker died unmarried leaving his entire estate for the Benefit of zionism and jews. Alas on that Day the jews of the world lost one of their great men. Bat they had one Consolation and a i that was ? that they had realized fortunately before he had died what he had meant to them and that they did not need to repeat the worn out phrase ?i�0t that we had understood him better and had honoured him i. While he yet lived a he was buried in Odessa. No one there Ever witnessed such a huge funeral procession As the one which accompanied or. Pinsker to his last resting place. People of All ranks paid their homage a a the Brooklyn n. Y. Daily Oft zen of january 3, contains a account of the presentation of a the Story of Isai Alt dry Altie dub of the Churchjr the Manhattan in the auditorium of the com Mercial Quot High school in in ? the Couise of which it says a the play was very forcefully presented compelling the a do mar attention and interest of a everyone. The Oast was Well so Lee talk Well and contained a number of prominent people of the greater City. A i rabbi a id a at Raisin of the Temple Shaari Zedek. Had a Strong speaking ii pee in that a up the g syrian King. I or. Raisin hebrew and also in Good English Plis intonation and be fiction were i Good and he satisfied the members of tas Tift Frt r i n t up a r t himself to the a peaking to be hoped however jewish ministry will not lose rabbi to the stage. I Neff. But he did not continue Long at them out of their stupor and self i firm i in Pforzheim the privilege that every jew receive duchy of Baden As late As 1814 Lowed into his Protection buy of them 200 al. Worth of goods and Export them 1778 . 1908 79. Emperor Charles in who was always in bad financial Straits and used to help himself by pledging the jews of various cities which Means their taxes Reserve a for he self the right that the congregation of Frankfurt should furnish him Parchment bedding and Kitchen utensils when he should reside in the City Kracauer Polit. Gesch. D. Re Kph in f.. P. 37. Sifly Wplf al Laws of Nuremberg had to furnish the emperor with bedding and fire Wood when he was in the City Fraenk. Kurrier March 29, 1908. King Charles of Naples 1266-1284 ordered the jews of Bari and Trail to furnish him with the necessary a or nature on his visit to in . Bad Ischen Juden 172from Osterberg Bavaria in 1 �02 Meidel Juden in Memminger 82from Schwa Ittah. Bavaria in 1645 Der tar. 1878. 1229from Ille Reich a a Bavaria in 1789 Meidel p. 77. From Mayenne in 1724, where in addition they had to help maintain the students of the Jesuit College to furnish fish during the Lent season for the franciscans the capuchins and the jesuits in addition to bedding for the Bishops Hunting Lodge at Aschaffenbur during the Hunting season. This sufficiently explains the fact that the origin of the custom in Pressburg is but a relic of such a tax which the jewish Community in later times considered As a privilege and therefore maintains it to this Day. This work and soon entered the medical Branch of the Moscow University. At the University 1848, showed remarkable courage in offering medical Aid to the patients who were suffering from that dread disease cholera and who were filling the hospitals to such an extent that the regular staffs neglect. Quot we need no holy land a he says in his Auto emancipation. Quot we need a land of our win where our rights will not be disturbed from where we shall not be driven whither we can bring our precious possessions which we the a ppm Fate. Cause they our possessions made Palestine the Jordan and Jerusalem i on Friday evening january 5, tem pie Israel of a Silver Jubilee Celebration to Mark the completion of Twenty five years is a vice of rabbi Leon Harrison. Addresses were delivered sex president of Temple Israel mrs. Maurice Steinfeld for the sisterhood of Temple Israel Helen i Tor the Sabbath pc Tel of item pie Israel and or. % David Flom or so glib est Dent of Temple Israel to a which rabbi Harrison responded f there was also a communal Celebration held in the Temple sunday mini la life sch the a growth of religious a Fellowship during the last Twenty five fears and its relationship to use a was he theme. A the speakers were the reverend ? or. Bitting who spoke of a barriers a Tah of be Tigmo creeds and races a rabbi Samuel Thurman who i ? Cunt a the a growth of Fellowship within the Synagog in the s i Iota five a years a a a Asp Brown editor of the St. Louis a Lre Public spoke of the a the closer relation of religion to communal and civic life a and judge of Neill Ryan to the great but modest Leader of the i on a the higher Law offt Ligion in re jews. Not Only were jews present relation to the Law of a the Litas if but russians of the noblest and most a the occasion was an unusually Happy such great numbers. After being and were not made holy by them graduated with High honors he re a worse if f61.6. Turned to Odessa where he settled a a land of lit Utaji and entered upon his medical practice maintaining it successfully jew were the favorite object for these cities Ruedemann Erzie Ungs taxation All through mediaeval times and Down to the end of the eighteenth Century a when the special jew taxes were eventually abolished. They were first of All subject to excessive taxation for which they had to be responsible As a body. Thus in the thirteenth Century in Germany the jews paid one twelfth of the total taxes of the Empire while they could hardly have formed one per cent of the total population. In addition to these a Legal taxes they were bled on every possible occasion when the Royal Treasury faced my deficit. Thus emperor Rudolph in the thirteenth Century imprisoned rabbi Meir of Rothenburg in order to compel the jews to pay additional taxes which they declared themselves in Sylble to raise somewhat earlier iting John of England imprisoned a jew and ordered that every Day one of his Teeth be drawn it is not reported that Gas was used in the operations until he would pay the a Bret demanded of my. Ssh a p of a a Spla of gtd by the jews had to pay for anything in an emergency and to furnish any article was difficult to obtain. A thus a jew in a Ipi Vandenburg Art Der Havel was obliged to keep a stallion for the City and to Furni seven a of Oats per annul. Dobr Anglini grand Niece of Pope Clement married a the had to furnish a he canopy 1600 ves Sillo 1914, 387. When Duke Alfred of Modena married 1579 the jews had to pay a special tax to defray the Cost of the festivities in. 386. The jews of Rome had to maintain 2600 be dip for the soldiers of the papal guards Rev. D. E. J. 51, 340. At least somewhat in of Lemony with jewish ideals was a tax imposed upon his jewish subjects by King John i of france�?o1360-1365. ? they had to pay for the i expense of Quot writing a French Bible with commentaries r. . 55,97. A clip still in Many places the jews had to pay special taxes for fire Protection. To avoid ip�i�iptadin4 it has to he stated that this was not done because the jews were tbsp acted of starting Iii inv order to insurance companies which d i had a to Ablance of Justice in that ? the fire companies were composed volunteers the jews a were not admitted to Hesse every jew had to furnish bucket for a a a fire brigade Jhm of Jahub. D.l.g.i i 112. I in Berlin the m a. A. A 1�. The efficiency of the consumptive Hospital at a Denver. H in the Teller report Page 85, june 1916 the National jewish Hospital for consumptive at Denver col., and Wiz Iipp superintended or. Mid1? 0liip.ife described Jis follows. A a summing up the foregoing presentation it must be said that the Ina t High al functional Zed and Well administered organization for the performance of a very definite social service namely the care and treatment of patients suffering from tuberculosis. As a general Plahte it ranks among a the f most modern and Complete of a the a larger Santoria of America. One sees planning in the general evolution of the result in a Large measure due to the fact that the executive management of the Hospital has reposed i in one superintendent from the Day of its opening sixteen years ago until the present time. Under the leadership of this Mintra Tor the assumed a leading place in the Sanatorium Field and he steadily maintained its position during Jitae fifteen years of rap 4#i w a Quot to his last Days. During his first years of practice Hekt a strictly to his profession and almost never took any interest in social affairs. However in the Early 60�?Ts, when Alexander ii. Was reigning and had greatly improved editions of the jews and when there was in Russia a general stir of Awakening among the jews or. Pinsker began to take an act ave part in trying to better the Condl tip a of his people. It was at that time that he formed his a of Juliu to serve tih1iii�m lib it was to a this Ideal that he remained True throughout his entire use. A. In Ponder 11/s policy to Ward the jews had considerable More favourable effect upon them than that of his father Nicholas they Grade i began to band no to old customs a and were becoming like i the russians in thoughts As i Well As in manner ? of dress i As l we have said above or. Pinsker top f was influenced by the tide of a off lome and was among the Many who believed that the Only solution of the jewish problem would be assimilation or in other words that jews should give up their manner of living thinking and dressing and adopt the habits and ideas of the More modern russians s and in order to make the propaganda of education and assimilation More widely known o. Rabinovits under the patronage of or. Pinsker edited a newspaper called a Graz weyts the Dawn. This paper advocated the formation of clubs and schools where russian would ? be a a Pucandl Tbs things taught and discussed would conform with the russian a spirit it also Dia cussed important jewish problems of Little wonder that such marvelous courage and ability to speak the truth in we pm a manner on the part of or. Pinsker aroused the whole european press and evoked wide comment and deep thought. It was indeed almost the Awakening of a zionist in feeling among the jews. However in 1884 or. Pinsker in 1 letter to the editor of a compilation of essays on the jewish problem expressed his views wholly in favor of immigration to and settlement in Palestine. A he says a allow me dear sir to fill some space of your publication with ? a few words. A they Are words which come from the lips of a Man deeply grieved because of the Fate of his unfortunate a but nevertheless one bred in Russia and earnestly Loving and numbering Many of them among his steadfast friends. J a Lyon Are in the act of face gunning an edition which will seem distasteful to Many. Not Many will thank or Praise you for Yourl Ioor the so called educated will pity you As one who ? is Blind a while the impartial will not know what to make of i4 a not that disturb you such is the Fate that awaits every new idea at the outset however Good or useful it May be. I a we shall Tell them re Are excluded and yet we Aref criticised for being exclusive. Everything before us is under lock and key a yet pre Are criticised for being reserved. Zowe Are deprived of the right to seek a livelihood. A our whole nil Pii suffers Sjef the misdeeds of a few. We nearly suffocate in our pales and yet we Are to approached for being Glutinous and for being lawbreakers let a i a we Hope a of pvt a a a that tap be course of time the russian people will aristocratic families As Well. They too respected his love for his people a in fact they loved him the More for it a a top i it is True that or. Pinsker in his Auto emancipation was not the first to advocate the idea. There were others before him they Laid the foundation so to speak. But they had written of the jews going Back a to the i holy land in a sort of fantastic and poetic Way in novels and in Stor finl Quot some \ too had written in hebrew a Tongue doubtless Best suited for expressing such lofty Hopes and desires but read and understood by few. Therefore up to the time of Pinsker few paid serious heed to the of the prob Lem. Pet was the first to arouse world interest to make zionism an open affair to let the christians know of the secret dream of the jews and to arouse the press a to make comments or. Flask Erjas the forerunner of the present zionist movement figuratively speaking he Laid the Corner Stone of zionism. M if one stops to Analyse his Auto one can find Many or. Pinsker so personal traits in it. For in most writings of such a character the author his a we can a a a a Jhu i death one As evincing not Only the close relationship Between rabbi 5#nd congregation but the growing Fello Phi Between the different a religious communions. Ils Lii of mind Lis keen intelligence his deep sense of right his moral and physical courage his sense of humor and right in the text we see his originality of expression id Power of Clear think ing and insight into human nature hit of was a stirred in Baltimore by a performance which was Given in the vestry room of the Madison Avenue according to the Baltimore daily Sun of was a trial of Antiochus a grand Kink and Royal Ginko a for alleged of the Laws of the Sam pigs state of Syria a a for he body of the jewish in general Antiochus i was in of dieted a for that on the fourteenth Day of Kishinev in the year 3674, hebrew Calendar or in the 165 of the present Era he did then and there conspire by divers or heinous Means to restrict the jewish people in the free exercise of their rights and practices. In it in Tail a amp a my a was accused of Corner tag the a a Kosher meat of tacks in the Road leading a a the of off water Spidy and of the proper distribution of soap. For he it known that Antiochus is in Gink a being not Only a potentate but a Captain of Industry As Well As owner of the Abba Ioir wherein a a Kosher meat is alleged to be stored. Rabbi Morris s. Lazaron was of counsel for the prosecution his colleagues being m. S. Guttmacher and Jese Miller. Antl Ochus attorneys were Irving b. Grand Berg and Nathan Woloshen. Attorney Milton Greenberg was his Honor the judge and the jury contained a Lff full f�? up Ujj in Mland Fernale this per possessed there Mormance called Forth Indian and protest invite jewish character a the Side which so Many Young Stu dents were accustomed to see at the zionist to gatherings. When among them he would change entirely i eyes used to Light up with a new fire an almost Youthful expression would come into his face and he would be diet of the Baltimore jewish common my one of them not patronizing or total items a Hay been not guilty even sympathetic and fatherly tall a fit Sii tors clan Xii that was an attack on what the majority things that the to Ltd de Mimi a it not been Corree in report eds the ver just a Young Man. The emotions of such. Their by the quaint Tich no a Faniie to notice was his modesty almost a Adit of Feal of we Bulta life was is it the been that of an exhibition built a

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