New Braunfels Herald Zeitung (Newspaper) - February 16, 1984, New Braunfels, Texas
SA New Braunfels Herald-Ze/fungr Thursday, February 16,1984Cattle should be fed based on nutrition needs
By W.L. "BILL" SCHUMANN Conty Extension Agent
For a sound winter nutrition program, beef cattle must be fed according to their nutritional requirements to achieve proper maintenance and production of the herd.
This means that cattlemen must know the nutritional requirements of their herd and factors influencing them so they can separate cattle into production groups and feed accordingly.
It is impossible to feed a herd properly where bulls run with cows all year, calving occurs year-round allowing for cattle in all production stages and cattle are not separated based on their individual needs.
Since feed requirements of different animals vary so much, cattle of dif-frent ages and production status must be fed separately to realize high productivity at minimum cost. Producers must consider many factors in separating cattle according to their stage of production and nutritional needs.
— Protein, digestible energy and mineral requirements are about the same for weaned heifers, pregnant heifers and pregnant cows. However, older cattle consume more, so younger animals must be fed higher quality feeds with more protein and energy.
— Lactating cattle require much larger amounts of protein, energy and mineral.
— Herd bulls have a requirement similar to lactating cattle.
— Cows with first calf or young heifers may not receive their share of supplement if fed with bossy, older cattle.
Nutrient requirement of beef cattle depend on age, condition, weight, stage of production and environment. Young stock must be separated from
older stock to be fed for proper development. Otherwise, older animals will dominate and consume the younger animals’ share.
Proper winter development is important in young heifers, and studies indicate they should gain three-fourths to one pound a day during their first winter as weaner heifers. Normally, growing heifers require about one pound of crude protein and between 12 to 14 megacalories of digestible energy per head daily.
Nutrient requirements of cows depend on size, condition entering winter, stage of production and milking ability during lactation. Fat cows should make only small gains before calving while thin cows may need to gain IOO to ISO pounds by calving time. Average conditioned cows may need gain 60 to 80 pounds over winter. These cattle have about the same protein and enregy requirements as growing heifers.
Stage of production is one of the most improtant factors in determining a cow's nutrient requirements. After calving for the first three or four months, a cow needs 60 percent more energy and more than twice as much protein per day as the rest of the year. Basically, a lactating 1,000-pound cow requires about two pounds of protein and 28-30 megacalories of digestible energy daily.
With such diversity of nutrient requirements in the beef cattle herd, it’s quite apparent that animals must be separated and fed accordingly. To acheive a healthy, heavy calf each year, a producers must understand nutritional needs of his heard and establish a sound nutrition program.
Pruning fruit trees
Developing a strong central leader is vital to a successful apple, pear.
persimmon, pecan or apricot tree.
First year. Head back young trees to 30 inches high immediately after planting. Remove all side shoots or branches. When new shoots are 4 to 6 inches long, select the strongest, upright sprout as the central leader (trunk) and remove other upright sprouts. New branches will be chosen along the central leader.
Begin selecting scaffold branches early but remove all suckers and branches below 18 inches to leave room for hoeing and machinery. Permanent scaffold should grow horizontally from the main trunk and be spaced every four to six inches up the trunk.
Do not choose branches arising from the same point on the trunk or directly over each other. During the end of the first growing season, have one strong central leader and at least three to four permanent scaffold limbs.
Grass planting season arrives
By CARL ENGLERTH District conservationist
The season to begin planting improved grass pastures is approaching. Therefore, timing, planting methods and conditions, planting seed or materials need to be considered carefully.
This is usually the time to sprig most bermuda grass. However, you may need to delay sprigging bermuda grass until moisture conditions are better. Coastal bermuda grass sprigs are dormant at this time and are usually dug and planted in January and February.
Coastal planted during this time in the Comal County area is generally more successful than at other times.
Coastal sprigs are usually planted by a sprigging machine to a depth of three to four inches in a well prepared weed-free seedbed. Following the planting, the soil is usually firmed tighter around the sprig by use of a cultipackers or roller.
Firming the soil around the sprig will improve the success of the planting. The sprigs are usually dormant at this time and will remain in the ground until soil temperatures, moisture and conditions are right for growth.
There are other ways to plant coastal bermudagrass besides planting the springs with a sprigging machine. Sprigs can be broadcast over loose soil conditions by the use of a manure spreading machine. Then a heavy tandem or crosscut disk is used to force the sprigs into the loose soil by taking most of the set out (rf the disk.
This method requires a very soft moist seedbed at the start. After sprigs are forced into the soil, the seedbed has to be packed or rolled to firm the soil around the sprig. This method has been fairly sucessful in the past, however, experience is needed in farming methods.
For seeding most improve grasses and grain corps, wanner soil conditions are more desirable. This is the season for most small grass seeds being planted in March.
There are more improve grasses and native grasses available to the farmer and rancher today than there have been in the past. Therefore, the agriculture producer needs to be knowledge hie of which grasses will be best suited for his situation. The Soil Conservation Service has information on the various grasses. It is not always easy to make a decision on wtscb one to plant. However, each grass has its own place and an evaluation of improved grass needs along with your present grasses can tarnally help you make the decision.
Once you made your decision on the grass to plant, shop for your best buy on grass seed. One word of caution,
Second year. In January and February, head back the central leader at least one-third of last year’s growth. This pronmotes more scaffold branches along the central leader. Head back each branch to encourage lateral branching and discourage competition with the central leader.
The lowest branch should be at least 18 inches above the ground. Select new scaffold branches every four to six inches by the trunk during the growing season.
Early in the growing season, select the strongest, upright sprout as the central leader and remove competing upright sprouts. Continue selecting scaffold limbs with shoots 4 to 6 inches long. Lateral branches held in a horizontal position with limb spreaders or ties promote early flower bud formation.
Third and following years. In February, head back the central leader at least one-third of last years’
growth. Older scaffolds will have new branches forming seconday shoots or laterals. Remove vigorous upright suckers and haed back all lateral shots. Follow general pruning rules and remove poorly positioned limbs. The tree should begin to develop a Christmas-tree shape. Upper branches should not shade lower scaffolds.
During the growing season select only one upright shoot to maintain the central leader. Fruiting on side scaffolds spreads limbs and encourages more fruiting next year. Lateral scaffold branches held in a horizontal position with limb spreaders or ties set fruit buds for next year.
Mature trees. The main framework is established and the central leader needs no further encouragement. Do not cut the central leader back unless it’s necessary to lower the height. Follow general pruning rules to maintain shape and allow light to enter the tree’s interior.
Remember, no two plants grow and develop exactly alike. Trying to ob-tian identical frameworks in young
trees can be frustrating. The best solution is to compromise — know the idea and modify it to suit each individual.
Fruit trees often are neglected for several years and become tall, bushy and unmanageable. These trees can be brought back into production by careful pruning for two to three years to rejuvenate new fruiting wood.
Start by making a few, large thinning cuts to remove entire limbs tha crowd or rub. Reduce the height by removing taller branches. Do not remove more than one-fourth of the larger branches any one year. This heavy pruning of the larger branches any one year. This heavy pruning stimulates tree growth and promotes suckers and waterspouts. Remove these undesirable branches during the summer months to prevent shading in the center of the tree.
Every dormant season, remove a few more large branches until the tree form is obtained. Make few heavy cuts rather than many small ones. In several years, the tree will be back into fruit production.
don't sacrifice low quality cheap seed for quality certified seed. Most recommended seeding rates are minimum seeding rates based on certified amounts (rf pure live seed. Pure live seed is a percentage of pure seed, germ seed, and dormant or hard seed. Those persons needing help in determining the right amounts of seed can get help in doing this from your local SCS Field Office.
Seedbeds for planting seeded grass are qually as important as the seedbed for planting coastal bermudagrass or a regular crop. However, tilling the soil 4 inches deep is not necesary for seeded grasses since the small tiny seeds are planted within the top inch of the soil surface.
Planting small seeded grasses are relatively easy. There are a number of planters used in planting small grass seed as the seed is usually planted on the surface of the soil. The methods used in packing the soil will usually be enough to get the right amount of soil over and around the am all seed. Equipment used to pack the soil is usually a cultipacker or roller.
The grass seed or sprig will remain in the soil until soil temperature, moisture and conditions are right for growth to begin. Once growth begins and the plant emerges from the soil, you are on the way to success. As always, all is not complete, as you will probably need to help the plant along by fertilizing and controlling competitive unwanted weeds and annual grass.
Fertilizer is a necessity for improve grasses. In this area, a soil test will usually be made on a new pasture to determine the exact amount of fertilizer needed for establishment. Usually, new pastures will require at least 40 pounds of nitrogen and 40 pounds of phosphate to get the grass pasture established during the first year. However, don’t be surprised if those old cropland fields require more because they usually do. If you don’t plan to fertilize your newly planted improve grass, you should consider not planting the grass.
Fertilizer is essential for most improve grasses and will usually provide a better return for dollar invested. Your local County Agent or Soil Conservation Service can supply you with soil testing information sheets and bags to assist you in having your ami analyzed for the proper amount of fertilizer needed for establishment and maintenance of your improved grass.
Weed control is just as important as fertilizing and can sometimes be just as stimulating to the plaid. From the time the new plant emerges until it establishes a sustaining root system, weed control by mechanical or chemical means will be needed.
By STELLA WILDER THURSDAY. FEBRUARY 16
Bom today, you are highly impressionable. Even as a child, you picked up the slightest vibration of like, dislike, favor or disfavor wafting toward you from other people, situations or circumstances. You need harmony in your surroundings to do your best work, but you are not at all unable to function adequately even amid the highest degree of confusion. Courageous in the face of crisis, you otherwise may give on an air of timidity.
Although you are not lazy, you welcome any who will shoulder at least part of your responsibility or take over part of your duties in whatever area of life they may arise. You can be counted on to keep a promise, but you are wise and do not promise often.
To see what is in store for you tomorrow, find your birthday and read the corresponding paragraph. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 17 •
AQUARIUS (Jan. 26-Feb. IS) - Take advantage of an opportunity that could change your life. Otherwise. you will surely regret it.
PISCES (Feb. lt-Marcb 21) • Your tendencey to procrastinate could cause you to lose out on what would have been certain gain by eve.
ARIES (March 21-April ll) • Home and family affairs must not be allowed to interfere with the settling of career problems today.
TAURUS (April 26-May 26) • Continue to exercise your authority where your own future is concerned. Allow no one to dictate plans.
GEMINI (May 21-June 26) - Some interference from family members may cause you to lose out on an opportunity. Your chance will come again.
CANCER (June 21-July 22) - Favorable decisions from higher-ups enable you to get on with the business of creating a niche for yourself.
LEO (July 23-Aug. 22) • Consult one who has already launched a project similar to the one you propose. You can learn much today.
VIRGO (Aug. 22-Sept. 22) - Avoid financial transactions involving friends. You would do better to work alone than with an unprepared assistant.
LIBRA (Sept. 23-OcL 22) • Circumstances developing in the background may make your private life confusing. Take heart; order resumes at eve.
SCORPIO (OcL 23-Nov. 21) • Push new career plans early in the day. Correspond with one who can help; make key connections — now.
SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 22-Dee. 21) • Handle affairs smoothly, even if there is one too many. Too many cooks may well spoil the day today.
CAPRICORN (Dec. 22-Jaa. lf) — Joint financial affairs appear confused today. Experts agree you need their help; give them the go-ahead.
In area clubs
Bluebonnet Palace, IH 35 South — Friday. 9-1: Firefox. Saturday,9-2: Nashville Sound.
Bottom Dollar Saloon, McQueeney — Tonight through Saturday: Randy Loiter 4 the Billy Ball Band.
Crystal Chandelier, Loop 337 — Friday: Possum Gap. Saturday: John Steele.
Eagles Hall, 257 South — Friday, 8-12: Valentine ball with The Litt’l Fishermen.
Faust Hotel Bar, 240 S. Seguin — Tonight through Saturday: Aaron & Beth.
Texas Dance Hall, U.S. 281 South — Friday: Clay Blaker 4 the Texas Honky Tonk Band. Saturday : The Newton Brothers.
Wagon Wheel, FM 306 at Settler — Saturday, 9-1: Rim Cochran.
Wolfgang’s Keller, 295 E. San Antonio — Bill Knight at the piano, every night but Monday.
On area screens
Braantex Theatres, 290 W. San Antonio — Vent! (PG) and Angel (R). Show time 7:15 p.m.
Cinema I 4 ll, Walnut Square — The Pit (R). Shows at 7:15 and 9:15 each night. Also Surf ll (R) with nightly shows at 7 and 9.
“I find the big catches.
Block finds me the big refunds.”
Big refunds are the best catch of all at tax time. That’s sshy I go to H&R Block. My preparer is trained to know where to took for every deduction and credit. And over the ^ long haul, that means more money in my pocket.”
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