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Mason City Globe-Gazette (Newspaper) - March 28, 1945, Mason City, Iowa NORTH IOWAS DAILY PAPER EDITED FOR THE HOME VOL LI or AUCH MASON crnr IOWA WEDNESDAY MARCH 281945 Associated Press and United Press Fail Leased wires Tliis Paper Coajlsls a Two One or TWO aecllonsSecllon One NO lit BD 213 MILES FROM BERLllHJAZiS INSIDE WASHINGTON Service Newspaper Editors Discuss War and Why of It By HELEN ESSAEY Central Press Columnist Washington Prime Minister William Mackenzie King of Can ada was a paragon of what the well dressed prime minister should wear at a white house news conference recently He wore a black suit striped thinly in white a gray shirt also striped in white a black tie striped in white and held snug by a neat pearl pin and nose glasses be ribboned in narrow black The expression of the prime minister showed wellcontrolled alarm as the newsmen and wom en charged into the oval study of Good Neighbor Roosevelt Obviously Mr Roosevelt had said Mack or Mackenzie or Bill or whatever is the Cana dian equivalent Winston and You will now see one of the best circuses Washington has to in any spring Watch me crack the whip and tame the wild animals of the press And crack the whip Mr Roosevelt did How ever it was fun If Jonathan Daniels Is going to continue as white house publicity man he will simply have to cut his name down How about John or Johnnie to match Steve otherwise known as Stephen B Early Assistant Secretary of State William Clayton is a handsome fellow Tall and straight and well featured looks a little liie a col lege professor Mrs Clayton not so tall has witty knowing eyes and a friendly unaffected man ner Their straggles at the Mexi co City conference have left them as they intelligent nice American citizens I like the Claytons whether them ornoi it matters to I have received in the mail copy of the Globe News The Globe News is one of those know ing papers now got out iir odd corners of the world by service men with a sheet of paper a broken dosvn typewriter a lot of brains and twice as much per serverance The Globe News admits it is Greatest Newspaper And adds proudly In Tulagi nearly everyone reads the Globe News The sheet is published in Strader tell me where that is On the front page it touches gayly on such intense mat ters as WAC Perfect 3i Slay Cause New Feminine Standard The Arrival of Campaign Rib bons and What Causes Good Con duct Medals On other pages are pictures of yearning maidens small lively bits of world and camp news plus a dash of sports On ifs editorial page ihe Globe News goes serious and produces some ideas close to my own way of thinking I am greatly flattered to discover that the subject of one editorial is a question I recently asked in this column To wit Why is it not possible to gauge success in war except by the num ber of men you kill or wound or the destruction you create Couldnt there be some way to measure victory except by the yardstick of devastation and suf fering The editors of Globe News an swer my questionwith Afraid not Miss Essary This is the stuff of ivhich irar is made and General Sherman whose conflict was a strawberry festival com pared with this one was a master of understatement Navy alone will spend about Saily solely for the production of rockets Of course the other side has rockets too A paltry 8 million would complete St Atbans cathedral in Washington George Wash ington university struggles on with a niggardly endowment of 2 million The chaos of war goes deep If this war does preserve our way of life that way of life should be strong enough yardsticks for of success to provide other the measurement Eden Names Hitler Major War Criminal London Secretary Anthony Eden told commons Wed nesday that Adolf Hitler is the major war criminal and that Brit ish soldiers could decide for them selves whether to shoot him on sight or bring him back alive Eden said that Hitler as the ma jor war criminal under the Mos CQW declaration would be punished by joint action of the allies if cap tured Eden was asked by Ivor Thomas labor member whether it would be the duty of the British soldier who seeks Hitler out to shoot him or try to bring him back alive Eden said I am very content to leave that to the judgment of any British soldier Russians Capture Baltic Port of Gdynia GERMANS CLAIM LAST AUSTRIAN STOP CROSSED Say Reds Take Lebus on West Bank of Oder Before Berlin London JP Gdynia Baltic port and last big Polish city in German hands was captured by the red army Wednesday along with 9000 prisoners and to the south Berlin said soviet troops had crossed the Raba river bar rier guarding the Austrian fron tier A German broadcast also said he Russians had captured Lebus on the west side of the Oder river 37 miles from Berlin Gdynia a port of 113000 de veloped by the Poles after the last war as a rival ot Danzig fell just 24 hours after troops of the 2nd White Russian army smashed through its final defenses Mar shal Stalin announced the victory Other Russian troops were fighting in Danzig farther south A German military spokesman indicated Russians pushing up the Danube valley as part of a huge pincers movement on Czecho slovakia and Vienna had crossed the Raba river in Hungary Berlin reported civilians were being evacuated from Moravska Ostrava Czechoslovak city guard ing the Moravian gap now men aced by the northern arm of the pincers The Raba at some points is a scant 20 miles from the border The spokesman said fighting had broken out at Saryar a com munications center vvest pf the Raba and that the focus of the battle had shifted to that place and the large bub of Gyor 45 miles to the northeast To the north the 1st and 4th Ukrainian armies were lunging through German and Polish Si lesia toward Czechoslovakia hit ting for the Moravian gap to Prague and Vienna This push from Silesia on an 80mile front had struck to with in 14 miles of MoravskaOstrava Czechoslovakias 3rd city Dispatches from Moscow said the red air force was aiding the tremendous Russian drives on a scale seldom if ever before equalled by soviet planes Tet was taken Tuesday by Tol bukhins troops in the push men acing Vienna A Russian communique broad cast by Moscow indicated re sistance was crumbling all the way from the Danube on the north to the shores of Lake Bala ton on the south The war bulletin which an nounced the capture of Tet also reported the fall of Kisber in an outflanking threat to the vital Danube bastion of Komarom 40 miles northwest of Budapest and the communica tions center of Gyor farther west Acs 6 miles southwest of Ko marom and 16 northeast of Gyor fell too placing in peril German forces attempting to bar the Dan ube valley invasion route west ward to Bratislava and Vienna Seizure of Janoshaz a 7way road junction on the canalized Marcel river breached the Aus trian capitals first natural de fense line This took the Russians within 80 miles of Graz vital in dustrial city in the Austrian Alps and only 261 miles southeast of Szombathely in Vi ennas southeastern defenses At the same time soviet forces cleaned up along the west bank of Lake Balaton in a 14mile ad vance that carried to the road center of Tapolcza leaving only 12 miles to go to hold the entire lakes western shoreline The battle for Danzig and Gdynia was grim Marshal Kon stantin K Rokossovskys 2nd White Russian army smashed into the 2 cities located 10 miles apart on the Baltic just a week after they had been separated Two other Russian armies were linked in a massive drive on an 80mile front against the Ger mans positions in the Sudeten mountains On this front units of Marshal Ivan I Petrovs 4th Ukraine army and Marshal Ivan S Konevs 1st Ukraine pushed to within 14 miles northeast of Moravska Ostrava Czechoslovakias 3rd city and guardian of the northernroute to Prague and imperiled Vienna SIGNS GAS TAX BILL Des Molnes Beginning next July the state gasoline tax will be 4 cents a gallon instead of 3 bill to that effect liavingbeen signed by Gov Robert D Biua Tuesday LH Miners Vote in Strike Poll Today Washington hundred thousand soft coal miners across the nation ballot Wednesday on whether to strike tor John L Lewiss contract demands includ ing a a year union royalty As the miners voted on their own lime at mines or other cen tral places the government sought to avert a mine shutdown by speeding a new contract before Saturday midnight the expira tion hour or by extending the present agreement until May 1 The strike vote required under the SmithConnally war labor dis putes set because Lewis filed no tice of a dispute in the industry will be taken on this question Do you wish to permit an in terruption of war production in war time as a result of this dis pute Both Lewis and the operators have indicated a work stoppage would be averted if possible and an affirmative vote in Wednes days election would not neces sarily be followed by a walkout Tabulation of the results ex pected to be overwhelmingly in favor of striking probably will be completed by Thursday morn ing Cost of the vote to be conduct ed by the national labor relations board has been estimated at 3300000 Labor Secretary Perkins step ped into the bituminous picture personaUy late Tuesday by con ferring for 2A hours with Lewis and the operators She said both sides had made brand new proposals and that she had suggested an overall in crease u a starting point She did not disclose what it was It was learned meanwhile that the operators had offered a flat day increase to the miners compared to the 51 cents previ ously conceded by them but that Lewis scorned the offer Miss Perkins cheerily told re porters she threatening the negotiators but that I expect them to settle by Saturday night Lewis Tuesday filed a parallel notice to his soft coal dispute con tention to cover the 72000 an thracite miners whose contract expires April 30 A strike vote among all but 10000 of these will be taken April 26 as a result of his action Those excluded are employed by the governmentop erated Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron company mines seized ill a strike last summer Urges Quick Passage of Manpower Bill Washington President Roosevelt Wednesday urged quick senate passage of the compromise manpower bill to forestall an exodus of workers from war plants In a letter which Chairman Thomas DUtah read to the sen ate as it began consideration of the measure the president said The manpower situation is still serious In the days ahead of us there will be great temptation for workers to leave war plants The failure to enact this legis lation will make our conduct of the war even more difficult Sens Joseph C OMahoney D Wyo and Harley M Kilgore D W Va led the fight against it in the senate They wired for sup port from the 61 senators who joined them in passing the sen ates original voluntary m a n power bill The compromise bill would vest virtually unlimited power in War Mobilizer James F Byrnes under its terms be might impose labor ceilings on any industry freeze workers in any industry and reg ulate the hiring and rchiring of workers wherever he chose Backing him up would be 000 fines a year in jail or both for any worker or employer who violated any regulation he might hand down at any time between now and June 30 1946 The CIO Wednesday termed the measure an outrageously sweep ing grant of power nowhere properly safeguarded and asked every member of the senate to vote against it The AFL and in dustry also are oppose Both Senate Democratic Leader Alben W BarkJcy of Kentucky and Republican Leader Wallace H White Jr of Maine predicted the compromise would pass Buy your War Bonds and Stamps from your GlobeGazette carrfec f fj v r o c 0 r o t Yanks Raid Berlin and Hannover London fleet of approxi mately 950 flying Fortresses with 350 Mustang lighters in escort at tacked Berlin and Hannover Wed nesday as a German broadcast said the reich capital would be evacu ated of all unneeded persons The German news agency DNB made the announcement that steps would be taken to remove all un essential citizens from the city which underwent its 36lh consent j tive RAF Mosquito raid Tuesday night Similar plans have been report ed by the Japanese for Tokyo and thus allied air power was forcing further emergency measures in the last two remaining major axis capitals Armament plants in Berlin and Hannover were the Wednesdays raiders targets for arrows indicate allied advances WHERE THE WEST FRONT MOVES EAST Solid arrows indicate allied advances which close censorship has permitted to be reported Unconfirmed reports placed Ameri uncoSfi mP H1 m the FLda and Wuerzburjr areas and a radio so nCanS thleatening Alliedheld territory in Japs Claim Counterattacks Against Yank Task Forces Pounding Okinawa Islands Guat said that air and surface vessels e attacking tieAmericannaval taskgroups which had pounded strategic Okinawa islands 380 miles southwest of Japan Tokyoalso reported that fighting was raging between re inforced American invasion troops and Japanese garrisons on 2 is lands west of Kinawa island it self The Japanese radio further said that American carrier planes raided southern Japan Wednesday in support of the reported inva sion According to Tokyo the Japa nese are now unleashing fierce counterattacks against the U S naval forces There was no con firmation from American sources of the enemy reports If the Japanese fleet has chal lenged Vice Admiral Marc C Mit schers 5th fleet carrier task forc es it is the first time the enemys navy has risked battle since its great defeat in the Philippines battle of Oct 2324 1944 The U S navy had announced bluntly that the purpose of its carrier strikes against Japans in land sea a week ago was to seek out and destroy units of the en emys navy The navys op admirals all have said they would welcome a final decisive engagement with what ever remains of the Japanese fleet Grim fighting on the is lands of Kerama in the Okinawa group is developing o a fever with our forces entrenched in counteroffensive positions Tokyo radio said While on Tokoshika Jima the enemy was beaten off in a de termined counterattack on Aka Jima the enemy seems to have brought ashore further reinforce ments on Monday Supporting American warships including at least n battleships and 15 aircraft carriers shelled and bombed Okinawa and other islands o the west and south for the 6th straight day Wednesday Tokyo said Pacific fleet headquarters re mained silent on the enemy re ports of landings in the Keremas but confirmed that warships and carrier planes continued to attack enemy forces and land defense installations in the Ryukyu chain of which the Okinawa groun is part A delayed dispatch from United Press War Correspondent Lloyd Tnpling aboard Vice Admiral Marc A Slitschers flagship off Okinawa said battleships cruisers more than 1000 tons of explosives Saturday Surface forces attached to Mit schers famed carriers paraded for 4 hours along a 10mile stretch of the southeastern coast of Okinawa Tupling said The big guns of the battleships cruisers and destroyers blasted at Japanese gun emplacements pill boxes and other shore installa tions Headquarters also announced that navy search planes presum ably based on Iwo damaged 3 small cargo ships around Hachijo island 150 miles south of Tokyo Monday It was the deepest pene tration of Japanese waters yet by lamlbased planes other than Superfortresses Radio Tokyo said 60 to 70 Sup erfortresses followed up Tues days daylight raid on Kyushu southernmost of the Japanese home islands with a second at tack lasting from p m to Tuesday midnight Residential sections around Ko kura and Moji important indus trial towns on the northern Up of Kyushu were damaged Tokyu said but important war plants and other facilities were un harmed Miyazaki on the south east coast and Kumamoio on ihe west coast also were said to have home radio said been hit The Tokyo American reinforcements landed on Aka in he Keranja group 22 miles west of southwest Okinawa Monday 24 hours after the original force of 2000 American troops went ashore on that and neighboring islands The broadcast said American units which landed on Tokashika 3 miles east of Aka had been successfully repulsed but d i d not claim that their bridgehead had been wiped out Savage battles are raging at the present time in the Kerama gruup1 Tokyo said Japanese broadcasts did not specify on what other islands the Americans had landed hut listed G more islands as part of the Kerama croup The enemy said the number of American ships in the waters of the Ryukyu chain which stretches from southern Japan to Formosa was increasing gradually These ships are formed into 4 or 5 groups Tokyo said They are cruising about centering about the Kerama islands while at the same time giving support with naval gun barrages It appears that the enemy is definitely intent upon effecting landings on Ihe main island of Okinawa Weather Report FORECAST Mason City Fair Wednesday night and Thursday No decided change in temperature Iowa Fair Wednesday night and Thursday Cooler in east por tion Wednesday night Warmer in northwest portion Thursday afternoon Minnesota Fair south and mostly cloudy north Wednesday night Cooler south and east Thursday partly cloudy and warmer IN MASON CITY GlobeGazette Weather Statistics Maximum Tuesday 72 Minimum Tuesday 39 At 8 a m Wednesday 39 YEAR AGO Maximum 39 Minimum 24 Yanks Drive Close to Cebu Capital Manila UPJ American invasion forces sweptover Cebu Wednes day to within two and a half miles of burning Cebu city capital of the central Philippines island Elements of the American divi sion which landed on the mine strewn beach at Talisay on the east coast Monday were battiinff the Japanese garrison at Pardo just south of the capital Cebu city is the second largest port in the Philippines Huge fires were reported out of control in Cebu city and the Japa nese apparently were following their theme of destruction which devastated Manila and other island capitals in the Archipelago A naval bombardment from cruisers and destroyers covered the landing by Maj Gen W H Arnolds veterans of Guadalcanal and Bougainville Although the Japanese were caught off guard by the invasion the shallow beaches were mined and the assault troops ran into mortar fire from the Talisay area 5 miles south of Cebu city Bombers and fighters of the 13th air force joined the drive and blasted a path for the ground forces as they cut across the nar row guage rail line and moved onto the hardsurface road paral leling the coast Five small villages were swept up and a stubborn Japanese pocket was knocked out nearly 2 miles north of Talisay in the drive which carried to the town of Par do 2i mjjes south of Cebu Cit The capital with its 3 Piers and airfields was a prime target for Gen Douelas JlacAr thurs forces The city had a population of 150000 has a harbor 2nd only to Manila m Ihe entire Philippines Cebu City is just across a narrow strait from historic Mactan island where Magellan died in the IGth century from a poisoned arrow It is only 75 miles from Ormoc on Americanheld Leyte and approx imately 3aO miles southeast of Manila Admiral Russell Barkey com manded the task force which sup ported the landing and Capt VTH Ham Sprague commanded amphibious attack force the On Luzon the 1st cavalry di vision and the llth airborne divi sion were nearing a junction as they edged Ihe Japanese into the southeastern tail of the island The cavalrymen pushing south of Laguna Bay seized Malvar air field 7 miles north of the road hub of Lipa under attack by the airborne forces Liberator bombers of the 5th air force raided the airdrome and port facilities of Legaspi near the extreme southeastern tip of Luzon again Sunday with 80 tons of bombs Other 5th air force Liberators the same day hit Formosa bomb ing and strafing an alcohol factory and a power plant at Okayama TRAIN HITS BUS Mexico City bus packed with passengers was struck by a new Diesel locomotive in the western suburbs of Mexico City Tuesday night killing 17 persons and injuring at least 22 Wednesdays raid was Ihe 5tb major daylight assault of the year on Berlin and was carried out by two formations of flying Fortresses which thundered over almost an hour apart The first wave hud dropped its bombs and was heading back to England as the second group ar rived Both attacks as well as Ihe one on Hannover were carried out be tween 10 a m and a m British time an official V S army air force announcement said Prior to Wednesdays attack American and British bomber forces bad dropped more than 73 000 tons of bombs on than the Germans have hurled at England since the start of the war AVIATION BILLS Would Create Iowa Aeronautics Group Des Moines the way for anticipated postwar av iation boom the senate Wednes day passed 3 aeronautics mea sures one creating a Smember commission to tics in Iowa promote aeronau Two of the bills were returned to the house for concurrence In amendments The 3rd empower ingmunicipalities to adopt air port zoning regulations Jimiiing Ihe height of structures anil elim inating other hazards adjoining airports was sent to ihe gover nor It passed 46 to 0 Ill addition to the aeronautics bills the senate passed measures which would Create an Iowa Great Lakes sanitary district embracing U communities in Dickinson county and authorize it to levy special assessments on benefited proper ty The vote by which the bill was sent to the house was 46 to 0 Extend workmens compensa tion coverage to employes doiiis incidental agricultural work in connection with their recular jobs The bill was sent to the covcrin by a vote of 46 to 0 The bill tics commission provides for NORTH DEFENSE BREAKS BEFORE ALLIED ARMIES Blackout Masks Exact Positions of Forces 145 Miles Into Reich Fans Germans de clared Wednesday that American 3rd army tanks were prowling in the heart of the rcich 213 miles from Berlin as their armies north of the Ruhr broke into wild re treat before the massed might of allied armor and infantry The scope of enemy disintegra tion increased as 4 powerful armies of Gen Eisenhower broke clear through collapsed defenses at points 145 miles deep in Ger many The 4th armored mystery spearhead of Lt Gen George S Pattous 3rd army was definitely on the loose well beyond Aschaffenburg 22 miles southeast of falling Frankfurt on the Main It presumably was into or through the Spessart hills 100 odd miles from CzechoSlovakia The German communique said it crashed into Gemucnden 218 miles from Berlin and the ene mys radio asserted that if had driven 5 miles farther northeast within 213 of the uenden is 145 miles deepuln he reich Exact forward locations 61 the 3rd 1st andBritish 2nd armies all were masked in a news black out however which kept the en emy confused The 1st army was 120 miles in side central Germany 225 miles from Berlin at last reported posi lions Indications were that the 1st was appreciably closer At least 14000 more Germans surrendered as American and British tanksraced through road side towns without defenses and beyond bewildered nazt civilians littering the landscape with white flags Pilots back from runs in the north where the bombline had to be advanced sometimes every U minutes said the Germans ap peared to be in rout before a British armored breakthrough to ward the Westphaiian capital of Mucnster 30 miles away at last reports The American 1st 3rd and 7th armies united in a solid front BO miles wide from besieged Mann heim to east of Bonn The 7th army hud raced 32 miles east o the Rhine to join the 3rd on the Main below Aschaffenburg which 3rd army troops were mopping up southeast ot Frankfurt Frankfurt itself was doomed Two 3rd army divisions mopped up its southern suburbs and the western part ot that 91h largest German city a major rail center and one of Hitlers most import ant arsenals Military disaster has overtak en the German army Correspon dent William Frye reported from British headquarters in the fiat tank country leading to the north fate of Berlin British units cracked within hair a mile of Borkcu anil within 2 of Boeholt a key rail center of 33000 Kaesfcld was within sight 11 a mm the vast rail center of 52 I0r j 000 where he Ruhr valley ends the cast was less than 35 miles up an aevonau away the bicnnium beginning July 1 for expenses of Ihe commission ides for up Field Marshal Montgomerys loy rmord breakthrough between Bocholt and Dorsten started off ivith a x 7mile sprint toward The commission would be capital of Westphalia pointed by the governor and before censors clamped dovn would enforce state aeronautics laws and register and revoke plane registration certificates It would name a director of aero nautics to serve as executive of ficer of the commission Sponsors of the measure said they expected the commission to become selfsupporting after the first bienmum because of regis tration fees of airmen instructors and air schools The bill w a s passed 44 to 0 The other aeronautics bill ap proved 45 to 0 would allow cities and towns to issue revenue bonds for construction of airport build ings allow to accept fed eral aid for airport construction and permit all municipalities re gardless of size to levy up to mills for airports The senate received 5 bills from its appropriations committee in cluding one to appropriate S40200 from the general fund for im provements repairs and supplies for the statehousc buildings and grounds Another bill provided for trans Iowa a gen eral contingent fund to Be ad ministered between sessions by the legislative interim committee and to a contingent fund for institutions under the board of control also to be administered by the interim committee How far the British were was anybodys guess but it seemed clear that they were through the crust of nazi defenses and out in the open on the Westphaiian flat lands in a rush for the river Ems The passed American Duisljurg Blh army by 431000 after fer of from the emergency relief fund to clearing its northern suburbs and veered sharply southeastward to ward Essen largest city in the Kuhr They were 7 miles from the Krupp works there Canadians reached the import ant Rhine bastion of Emmerich 13562 which was reported lo have broken out in a rash of white flags A partial lifting of the news blackout on 3rd army movements disclosed that 10251 Germans had been captured east of the Rhine in a week 4312 of them Tuesday Enormous stores of booty were being taken For instance the 6th armored division seized 400 box cars filledVwith German equip ment near Frankfurt Tuesday The enemy generally was retreat ing eastward and northeastward in the Berlin direction before Lt Gen George S Pattons forces The greatest tank force ever unleashed in the west drove an other 8 miles beyond Wetzlar dur ing the night with motorized in fantry closing up swiftly behind the armor mopping up bypassed pockets on the way ;