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Mason City Globe-Gazette (Newspaper) - January 14, 1946, Mason City, Iowa NORTH IOWAS DAILY PAPER EDITED FOR THE HOME Assodaled Press and Unlttd Pros Full Leased Wires THE NJWSPAPER THAT MAKES ALL NORTH iOWANS NEIGHBORS Five Cents a Copy MASON CITY IOWA MONDAY JANUARY 14 1946 reper 01 TWO SectlonsSecUoo One NO S3 OPES SOAR IN DELAY OF STRIKES One Man 9s Opinion A Radio Commentary by W EARL HALL Managing Editor BROADCAST SCHEDULE KGLO Mison city Sunilir p m TCO1 Ames Tuestfxy p m WSUI City Wednesday 7J5 p m D 01 ftUtf 6U3 f m J Sioux Cily m Railroad Land Grant Myth Stands Debunked Dobert S Henry writing for the Mississippi Valley Historical Review has done all of us a favor by dipping deeply into doc umented history and giving us an accurate story what was involved in the federal govern ments plan last century to en courage railroad building in the great midwestern and western reaches of America Thanks to politicians with an ax to grind and thanks to the writers of our history books who were either lazy or biased all of us have grown up with a patheti cally distorted impression of this device known as the railroad land grant The picture presented to us has been of a wastrel Uncle scattering his substance with reck less extravagance The more near ly correct picture would be of a canny landowner using a rela tively small part of his holdings to increase immeasurably the value of the remainder First lets take a look at what the objective was in the estab lishment of the railroad land grant system second lets consider the extent of the grant in area and monetary value then lets ap praise the overall results parsighted statesmen of a cen 1 tury ago looked at the map of their country and were impressed by thevast area of not onlyun developed biiL uninhabited land The question facing was Vfhat can we do to bring this vast territory into use In answering that question it was apparent from the outset that some way would have to be found to encourage settlement This meant that a vast system of transportation railroads wag on roads and where possible canals and other waterways would have to be provided Rail roads were the prime need To build railroads 2 conditions had to be met First there had to be a reasonable assurance that the great investment should bear some promise of a fair return on investment second existent cap ital being insufficient for the size of the task a new way had to be found to provide either credit or capital for the construction of the railroads Those who studied the problem 1 with greatest diligence conceived a plan under which alternate sec tions of land in close proximity to newly built railroads should be deeded to the railroad companies The theory was that the land would either be sold to settlers or used by the railroads for credit One of the close students of the subject back in 1850 was Senator William R King who afterwards became vice president of the United States We are met by the objection he said that this is an immense grant that it is a great quantity of land Well sir it is a great quantity But it will be there for 500 years And unless some mode of the kind proposed be adopted it will never command 10 cents The senator was looking at the land involved not as an absolute quantity but as a portion of a vast domain which as he explained can never be of any value unless some direct communica tion by railroad or some other way is made That was the way the land grant plan was regarded by the men who urged ils adoption in the the whigs Henry Clay and William H Seward among them and the democrats Stephen A Douglas Thomas H Ben ton Lewis Cass Incidentally that was the way it was regarded by Abraham Lin coln in whose administration and with whose ap proval the policy found its widest use and application Part of a vast domain immense in itself was to be used to give value to the vastly more immense whole Co much for the objectives and J the reasoning which led to the institution of the land grant system Now lets take a look at what took place in the working out of the land grant policy In this were going to the doc umented proofs provided by the writer in the Mississippi Valley Historical Review rather than to i either the political demagogs or lazy and biased historians who j Continued on Pate 2 j BYRNES URGES APPROVAL FOR ATOM PROGRAM UNO Deadlock Over Social and Economic Council Is Broken London Byrnes called upon the united nations as sembly Monday to approve promptly the creation of a spe cial commission on control atomic energy and to pledge land sea and air forces to a world police force Shortly before Byrnes mounted the blue and gold rostrum the assembly agreed it should take up the proposal at this meeting Russia was reported seeking to delay selection of a secretary general of the united nations or ganization a choice scheduled to be made this week The five permanent members of the se curity United States Britain Russia France and China agree on a choice So far there was no evidence of unani mity among them Openujg the first general policy debate In the assembly the sec retary of state pledged full co operation of the United States in the new world organization He spoke after the assembly broke a deadlock over the 18th and final seat on its important economic and social council New Zealand withdrew in favor of Yugoslavia Urging the assembly to approve the formula for the atomic com mission drafted at the Moscow foreign ministers conference Byrnes declared We must not fail to devise the safeguards necessary to insure that this great discovery is used for human welfare and not for more deadly human warfare We should begin upon this Establish ment of a commission todeal with the problems raised by the dis Suggest Wallace London or Com merce Henry Wallace was sug Kesjted Monday for secretary gen eral of the united nations organi zation Polish delegate Jan Stan czyk toured the lobby asking other delegates how they felt about pick top the United States cabinet mem ber for UNOs biggest job and said Jre intended to discuss with the Russian delegation the possible selection of Wallace covery of atomic energy is insep arably linked with the problem of security It is a matter of pri mary concern to all nations The resolution to create the commission is jointly sponsored by the United States Britain Rus anda France and China In effect it would turn the atomic problem over to the security coun cil for solution Canada would sit in with the council on all atomic discussions because she worked with Britain and the United States in the development of the atomic bomb SHIP EXPLODES IN MANILA BAY Fear Heavy Loss of Life in Big Biast Manila tanker blew up in Manila harbor Monday and waterfront observers feared loss of life was heavy The explosion occnrred at P m Manila time and threw a brilliant glare over the entire har bor A military policeman aboard another vessel the Robert D Carey said the tanker was an chored about 2000 yards out in the harbor I saw a bright flame silhouet ting another vessel nearby said the M P Pvt Archie D Geddes Salem Ore and within a frac tion of a second the tanker was completely enveloped in flames Then a column of smoke and debris shot up a thousand feet 1 rushed to our flying bridge for 3 better look The flames died down soon after to about 50 feet Then I heard very loud explosions which lasted for 5 minutes I am sure that many of those aboard must have been killed A proton is 1800 times smaller than an electron but weighs 1840 times as much Read The Message from United States Army Recruiting Service on Page 14 itjiuiiLu in congress tor ihff unioncontrol legislation house considering bill to penalize unions striking n violation ot contracts and to curb union political actMUes CUSTODY CASE Seabee James A Reed Jr right seeks the custody of Ms 8 year old daughter Mary Martha left now living with Reeds divorced wife The sailor searched through 3 states before findingthe girl he had not seen for 5 years in Sidney la AP Wirephoto K and A engr 1 a J on A Reed Jrs petition for custody with her mother was K rf h iS Mry Martha 8 now livin scheduled to be continued here Monday The 30yearold I discharged Seabee from Salem Mass who said ocatcd her her ast Mary Martha Drought into court on a writ of habeas corpus Testifying at the openings of the hearing Saturday were Mrs May Thompson who lives near Red Oak and Mrs Beatrice Sor enson Waterloo Mrs Sorenson who described Mary Martha as nervous and undernourished said she took care of the child from the latter part of February 1945 until last September She said the mother whom Heed previously said legal ly was named Mrs Anona Eloise Belthieu paid weekly for her As far as money was concern ed Mrs Sorenson testified the mother cared for Ulary Martha She said also that Reed told her he wanted to return to his wife and mother in Salem X0 other testimony had been introduced at the hearing indicatiuc had remarried Mrs Thompson testified she was separated but not divorced from her husband Wayne who lives here with his parents Mr and Mrs Sam Thompson Mrs Belthieu has been living here with the See Finish of Pearl Harbor Probe Sometime in February Gov Thomas Dewey May Not Be Called to Witness Stand File Suit Against Cline to Prevent Disposal of Property that Ciov7 Thomas E DeweTof Anffeles WMMatiVe of New York may not be called ate MrsE Delora Krebs Cline vn A AS nttncnnn lUClltlri Hn Tnwran Washington An end to the Pearl Harbor investigation in February was envisioned by mem bers Monday with the possibility Dewey was one of 48 prospec tive witnesses listed when hear ings began November 15 Of this group only 9 have testified thus far William D Mitchell former counsel said about ZO additional witnesses not named among the 48 wiH be called to tell about the socalled winds message During the 1944 presidential campaign Dewey received letters from Gen George Marshall then army chief of staff urging him not to reveal that the United States had broken the Japanese code and was continuing to read the enemys messages Senator Lucas DI11 said Deweys statements to Marshalls representative who delivered the letters indicated that the New York governor already knew the code was broken Lucas has said he wants to know who told Dewey about this highly important military secret But the Illinois senator told a reporter Monday he vould not insist upon Deweys being called if the com mittee decides to shorten the hearings Lucas and Senator Ferguson RMich agreed that the com mittee must clear up evidence about the winds message Before Dec 7 1941 the Japan ese set np arrangements in mes sages that were intercepted and decoded by this country to let their diplomatic consuls know when relations with the United States Great Britain or Uiissia were at the breaking point In the case of a break with the United States the Tokyo radio was to broadcast in its noon news report the words East Wind Rain The senatehouse inquiry thus far has received conflicting evidence about whether the sig nal ever was broadcast although Mitchell declared his investigation showed there was no such imple menting message Ferguson told a reporter he is not satisfied with the statement of Mitchell who since has been succeeded as counsel by Seth Richardson a Washington attor ney including an lowari have filed tal In to The suit filed Saturday seeks M Mrs southwest of Ames Fankhauser Strike Picture At a Glance By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Major developments telephone strike delayed 30 titled ithoul The pickets were withdrawn later in the morning and telephone rVreU in PlaCeS the rsttimi since threat of a nationwide tele STEELSteel operations approach normal after CIO walkout Put for at least 30 days Monday and itponed until next Sunday midnight at president request unfon trllinf Cmmumcatlons equipment workers began return 1 steel companies renorterl nnlv fmvr Waee issue to their jobs Oj issue workers spokesman r Tuesday will not be postponed conciliation conferences continue outlook for averting meat industry strike Wednesday in remains dark sentiment reported in congress for stiff 79th Congress Returns to Face Important Problems a 79th second session at 11 a m CST Monday with a request to its leaders by President Truman to expedite action on his unfinished legislative Acting House Speaker McCormack of Massachuseltstold rcporlers COIlference for early action on his legislative program Wlde when congress went home program McCormack said the entire pro gram was discussed at the white house in a general way and the strike situation was reviewed He quoted the president as be lieving early action imperative on his proposal for a law setting up factfinding boards to handle ma jor labor controversies and pro viding for a 30day cooling off period before strikes take effect Senator Eastland DMiss told reporters he would seek immedi ate senate action on the factfind ing legislation asked by the presi dent Weve either got to get out some strike legislation or sur render the country to the CIO he said As the lawmakers reconvened Mr Truman sent them a recom mendation that appropriations and contract be cut back by Je f in addition to m recisstotis aV proved by congress near the close of the last session McCormack told reporters the president also is anxious for prompt action on legislation deal ing with the United States employ ment senice Congress passed a law last year returning the em ployment offices to state control in 100 days but the president ve toed it A bill to retain federal control until the middle of 1947 as re quested by the president will be considered by the house labor committee Thursday The first full peacetime session since 1941 finds congress some suit in superior court against Al on the a moun tha lie E3 VG I1PP nvnnnrm ntiinc and breaking point and the voters dis ior playing a kecnerthanusual in terest in capitol hill activities For this is a congressional elec ri congressiona eec Cline from disposing tion year All 435 house and 32 of the 9G senate seats will L November Hence political con wjiic Hi tience political con VnUdC Kenneth siderations will dictate many con ianknauser who lives 7 miles is the year republicans ail mvestlfiatlon half of democratic supremacy in They believe confidently last on larger pro portions after President Tru mans January 3 radio address complaining of inaction on post war domestic legislation In lhat speech Mr Truman called upon the most powerful pressure group in the Ihe American people io put the heat on congress and demand action Congress the president declared has done little to enact the legis lation he has requested The shape of early congressional action likely will be formed by re action to Mi Trumans plea Al ready the mail has started to flow into the offices of senators and of it sup porting the president some de fending the position of congress Because major public interest has centered in the labor situa tion and in the armed services demobilization programs those Put Off Telephone and Steel Tieups Association of Communications Equipment Workers The organization Sunday ordered national telephone strike but quickly postponed it for at least 30 days to permit its locals to file strike notices as required under the SmithConnally act Telephone operators and other members the independent fed eration have in many instances refused to cross picket lines es tablished by the ACEW last week causing a partial tieup in tele phone service throughout the country Postponement of the tlircafcned nationwide strike of all telephone workers plus CIO acceptance of the ffovernmcntspotisored wage compromise for General Motors workers had served earlier to brfehfen the labor picture These late developments coupled with the earlier 1week CLOSE BUSINESS FOR ARGENTINA Shutdown in Protest to Government Act Buenos Aires A virtual blackout of commerce and in dustry covered Argentina Monday at the start of a 72hour close down called by the nations busi ness leaders The shutdown was In protest o the military governments refusal to modify a decree ordering wage IT coupled with the earlier 1week for workers SCS deay in the steei strke Although transportation function ed within the city of Buenos Aires and suburban trains the British railways operated normally other activities came to a virtual stand still There were no deliveries ot bread or groceries The butchers association announced shops were open Monday but would close Tuesday Milk was delivered The government promised no one would be deprived of arti uiLfee uue wouia oe deprived subjects will iieceiveTprompt at cles of prime necessity lenuon Representatives of the manu facturers industrialists and busi nessmen expressed satisfaction with first reports of he lockout saying only milk and ice were be ing delivered and that a number of drugstores were opcralinc on emergency basis UNION TO HOLD MASS MEETING To Explain Issues of Scheduled Strike Local 38 of the packinghouse workers union of the CIO an nounced Monday that a mass meeting packinghouse workers and the public will be held at the i weamer was ex high school auditorium Tuesday I peeled to return to Iowa Monday evenme at R with zero forccast fol Ma son City and vicinity alter a rela tively mild weekend and a reading only as low as 14 degrees at Ma son City Monday morning Sundays high reading for the statewas 42 degrees at Sioux City and the public will be held at the I Near high school evening at 8 Speakers will be Ben Henry Des Moines regional director of the CIO George Dunn Mason City attorney Lee Hartman Clear Lake president of the Cerro Gordo county Farmers union and a rep resentative of the A F of L Clarence Ramsey chairman of the strategy board of local 33 will preside at the meeting The purpose of the meeting will ue to explain to the public why the union is asking for a 25 cents an hour increase the issue in volved in the proposed strike scheduled for Wednes Zero Weather Expected in North Iowa zero weather was ex Fire Barns Station Turin ffFire starting from gasoline destroyed the Clarence Burke filling station and burned a truck here Saturday night The blaze which did an estimated i departments of Blencoe I awa set for Monday raised hope in some government circles that ten sion over postwar industrial strife soon might slacken Behind this hope was the feel ing that a breather in telephones and steel and further pressure on General Motors corporation for settlement of the 55 day old auto strike would improve chances for settling all 3 disputes A steel settlement particularly could provide a wage pattern for other industries On the less hopeful side how ever wasthe absence of any in dication that Tuesdays scheduled strike in theelectrical industry or Wednesdays in the meat packing industry could be averted The telephone strike affecting some 250000 workers throughout the nation was ordered Sumlav night by the executive board the national federation of tele phone workers Within minutes after the strike call was announced by federation president J A Bcinie however the board ordered it delayed to permit member locals to file 30 day strike notices The board also asked Westeni Electric company strikers to withdraw pickets from telephone exchanges Withdrawal of the pickets would mean that telephone operators who as federation members have been honoring the picket lines could return to their switchboards In the national Western Electric dispute issues now center around the unions demand that large rates based on merit be elim oux y imca uasaa on merif oe elim Shippers were warned to protect inated in favor ot completely auio agamst temperatures dovm to 5 malic pay progression Automatic degrees below zero in the north west part of Iowa Tuesday morn ing Temperatures of 10 above in the southeast 5 above in the southwest and zero in the north east are expected Highways in this area cleared wage rates now run from 60 cents an hour minimum to after 8 years Merit rates continue up to S164 The telephone federation is de manding a wage increase of a day a return to the 40 hour week uiiu wjr ti ICLUIII 10 me iij nour week lip Monday according to the stale and a G5cent an hour minimum highway patrol after being icy north and east of Mason City Sun day evening Mostly cloudy with snow flurries was forecast for Monday night and Tuesday Weather Report and wage Bierne in his radio appearance said negotiations between the com pany and local unions still are in progress and declared our plan is to settle the dispute without any strike In Detroit the ClOunited auto workers approved the federal fact finding boards ware proposal as for the strike of 175000 GM workers The union gave the corporation until Jan 21 to reconsider its rejection of the 17Vi per cent boost which the panel recommended Should it fail o do so the UAW said the unions original 30 per cent de mand would he reinstated atures ranging from near zero atlonil1 labor relations north to 20 above in extreme i through its regional offices south portion Tuesday morning c ln Monday issued a Mostly cloudy with occasional Complaint against General Motors snow flurries Corp charging it with refusing Shippers forecast northwest 5 Jja rVn collectively in good below southwest 5 above northI WIth the Umted Automobile cast zero southeast 10 above i Hearing on the complaint was Minnesota Cold wave south and for fan 28 in Detroit FORECAST Mason City Mostly cloudy considerably colder with snow flurries Monday night and Tues day lowest temperatures Mon day night zero Iowa Decidedly colder north and colder in south portion Monday night and Tuesday with severe cold wave north portion With temperature ranging from 15 to 20 below zero north to zero to five below south portion Continued Fair north Tuesday morning cold Tuesday night The complaint was issued on the basis of charges filed against the corporation by the union on Nov 8 and Nov 27 The charges were made while acrossthetable con ferences were under way between cojci luesctay night Fair north erences were under way between and mostly cloudy south portion ani the union on the UAW Wnnrtn v t Ti CIO n V 1 Snow Monday night and Tuesday IN MASON CITY GlobeGazette weather statistics for 24 hour period ending at 8 oclock Monday morning Maximum Minimum At 8 a m Monday YEAR AGO Maximum Minimum 33 13 31 34 23 01 06 CIO demands for a 30 per cent wage rate increase Meanwhile speaking for the CIO united electrical workers whose 200000 members are due to strike Neil Brant Washington representative of the union said Sunday night the strike would be postponed Brant contended the General Electric and Westinghouse com panies and the electrical division of General Motors corporation had rejected the unions proposals for delaying the walkout ;