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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - September 29, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Tuesday, September 29, 1970------------- Peter Newman Death In Cairo A disaster of V.Iysmic propor- tions has struck the world with the death of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. He had just concluded one of the great diplomatic achieve- ments of liis career by persuading King Hussein of Jordan, the guerrilla leader Yasir Arafat, and representa- tives of eight Arab countries to sign an agreement to end the bloody civil war in Jordan. Nasser's motives, his ambitions, his fiery anti-Western statements have made him quite suspect by Europeans and Americans alike, but in recent months he appeared to have become more sensitive to the overriding necessity for peace in the Middle East. He had come to recognize that the belligerent intransigent stance would in the long run militate against unity for which he had labored most of his life. He was able to hold Egypt together against the divisive forces which threaten her domestic security and in spite of strong in- ternal pressures he agreed to a ceasefire with Israel. The ceasefire holds but the peace talks now seem further away than ever. No leader of his stature is ready in the wings to speak with his compelling author- ity. In spite of Nasser's lough pre- requisites to a peace settlement with Israel, he spoke in terms of the pos- sibility of agreement, a possibility which many of his fellow Arabs dis- miss out of hand. The hearts of Egyptians are heavy with sorrow; the minds of Israelis are filled with apprehension; and the rest of the world looks on with dismay all because of the untimely death of one national figure Gamel Abdel Nasser, the strong man of the Middle East. A Pyrrhic Victory? A breathing spell in the Middle- East? It is tempting to hope that the ceasefire in Jordan is the precur- sor to a workable solution, but it is impractical. The fact that King Hussein and the leader of the Palestine Liberation Or- ganization have met in Cairo and have signed a ceasefire agreement with eight other'Arab chiefs of state is something to be thankful for, but provides no long term answer. Mr. Arafat cannot speak for all guerrillas even now and it is certain that he will not be able to exercise effective control over the far-left extremist forces of the PLFP (Popular Front for the Liberation of and their leader Dr. George Habbash. The terrorist leader has proclaimed him- self as stubbornly opposed to any negotiated peace settlement in the Middle East, and says that Arabs must carry the conflict directly to Americans and Europeans by what- ever means possible. Hijacking air- craft is one of those means. It is plain that Yasir Arafat, King Hussein and George Habbash would find it impossible to come to terms with one another. Hussein wants peace with Israel. Arafat wants all of Palestine returned to Palestinian control, and Habbash wants all of Palestine and a Marxist state as well. In this connection it is notable that representatives of Syria, Iraq and Al- geria from whom Habbash and his extremist followers draw most of their support, did not attend the Cairo meetings, and did not sign the ceasefire agreement. King Hussein has issued a call to the guerrillas to move their forces to the border -with Israel. Israel says that if the call is answered she will retaliate militarily, particularly if the commandos should move in force to the Gilead Plateau in North- west Jordan. This unproductive area has great strategic value. A terrorist concentration there would menace the rich Israeli farm settlements south of .the Sea of Galilee. Hussein has won a victory, but it may be a Pyrrhic one. The struggle continues. Bargaining In Berlin Only a few years ago the eyes of the world were focused apprehensive- ly upon Berlin. It looked as if a major conflagration might erupt over the apparently unresolvable issues created by the division of that city. This week representatives of Brit- ain, France, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. will reconvene talks on Berlin. The talks, however, no longer seem to be of critical importance. Europe seems of relatively little concern as a consequence of the cri- tical situation that has developed in the Middle East. But also a mood of accommodation has developed in _the European scene to replace the high- ly charged atmosphere that previous- ly existed. The talks this week will be the first to follow the signing of the treaty between Bonn and Moscow. That signing ought to mean that com- promise should be possible on some issues. It is possible that Bonn will cease to make West Berlin a place of visible political activity. And some guaran- tees may be given to West Berliners and West Germans of the right to enter and leave the city over the 110- mile road through East Germany. Nobody expects to settle the "prob- lem" of Berlin at this time. That lies somewhere in the future. At present the concern seems to be simply to bring Berlin into accord with the new spirit of accommoda- tion. Oh Calcutta! By Joyce Sasse I hadn't intended to write you from here. An 18 hour lay-over on the swing north to Kathmandu seemed hardly long enough to be bothered writing about. But the things we saw in those few hours were things that shall haunt us the rest of our filth, the stench, the whispered pleas of disease ridden beggar boys, the oppressive heaviness of the most horrid city in the world. Words are insuffi- cient to portray this experience. And if, per- chance, you could understand, or actually saw, as we did, your innate sense of human pride would force you to say "It could only have been a Here people have reduced themselves to less than animals. They live but to die-- many of them nameless carcuses that the lorries pick up off the streets on their daily dawn rounds. Women bear children in a dark doorway on the street and then walk away from them. Men, whose families are rice planters in the north, come here to make as much money as they can. These rickshaw pullers crowd, ten and twelve into a room barely big enough to turn around in a room where they can deposit their meagre supplies. They go out to sleep on a rag on the street. All of the people here have parasites. They can hardly es- cape TB. Often those with leprosy lose a finger or a toe during the of the rat-infested streets. And none of them can see, through reli- gious shrouded eyes, the pathetically scrawny cows so emaciated every bone of their skeleton is visible the famed "holy cows." They spread disease. They eat food that should be consumed by man. They walk in and out, through the food stalls. They demand the right-of-way and buses and taxis, and rickshaws drive around them. They sleep on the sidewalks and roadways. They possess the land. And these are the days of the riots, the burning of taxis, the bombing of buses, and pictures of uncle Mao painted on every- thing, and Communist slogans defacing buildings so decrepit Harlem's slums look like middle class homes by comparison. I should like, some day, to know what man (.was he a wit, or a philosopher, or a theologian, or a fool) named t h e public green near our hotel "The Garden of Eden" not of man's dignity, but of his sloth; not of he wno was created in the image of God, but of he who had plunged to the very depth of despair. The Garden is still there, smothered by black land of Cain. Fated From The First By Doug Walker A LL summer I practised for the annual Herald golf tournament. When the day came, I played absolutely the worst round of the year. On the first hole my drive hit high up in the trees and the ball fell in an unplayable position. And that proved to be a sort of harbinger of what was to follow. When I got home I played a game of scrabble with my wife. On my first 10 plays I was in the predicament of having a pre- jxmdcrance of vowels only once did I have less than six vowels out of seven letters and that time I had five. Elspelh won the game by a whopping 175 points. .The golf fiasco I was tempted to attri- bute to the lack of inspiration afforded by the company I was keeping especially the gang gathered at the first tee. But no such explanation was available for the scrabble game since I was in the very best of com- pany then. If I was addicted lo the study of horo- scopes I would probably have known lhat that was a day I should have stayed in bed. Interview With J. K. Galbraith: Part I D WN IN THE southeastern corner of Vermont, intrud- ing hard into Hie dark pine lulls of New Hampshire, lies the ven- erable, timcpasscd village of Newfane. It is an odd hiding place for one of the most influ- ential thinkers of our time, a man whose writings have be- come textbooks for western civ- ilization. Yet it is here, on an abandoned farm at the dead end of a dirt track road, that John Kenneth Galbraith goes to relax and to write. As I drove my car into the farmyard, the man himself em- erged, all six feet eight-and-a- half inches of him. John Ken- neth Galbraith is an imposing sight. A monument of a man with a liturgical face bisected by a great, double-angled nose that marches on before him, a beacon to his avowed intention of altering the world to his own specifications. Galbraith, whose hooks The Affluent Society and Ths In- dustrial State have transform- ed him from economist to or- acle, lias come far since his birth 61 years ago at lona Sta- tion, in Ontario's Elgin county. During the Second World War he served in Washington as as- sistant head of the Office of Price Administration; he was the gray eminence of Adlai Ste- venson's two tries for the Amer- ican presidency; helped write John F. Kennedy's inaugural ad- dress; distinguished himself as U.S. Ambassador to India; sec- onded Eugene McCarthy's nom- ination Chicago in 1968. One of the most influential critics of American society, he has, at the same time, been responsible for reshaping some basic attitudes in his adopted country. Although he is a certified member of the U.S. Establishment, big busi- ness tends to regard his very existenc.9 with suspicion, and Paul Samuelson. a fellow econo- mist, once wrote that an un- guarded remark by Galbraith can send Hie Dow Jones aver- age down his guarded ut- terances can send it down Galbraith, who regards him- self as an independent opera- tor at the guerrilla level of Am- erican politics, is a man who understands power, is drawn to it, and tends to project a cer- tain sense of detachment from lesser men. Convinced that modesty is a vastly overrated virtue, he divides vanity into two categories: one is Uie kind based on an individual's belief that he is truly superior be- cause he can do more things better; the other masks inade- quacy and self-doubt. Fortu- nately, he freely admits, his is the first kind. Galbraith, says William F. Buckley, the conservative crit- ic, always gives the impression that he is on very temporary leave from Olympus, where he holds classes on the mainten- ance of divine standards. I kept that definition in mind as we settled down for our talk. Here is a partial transcript of our interview: NEWMAN: As far as T know you're the first important Dem- ocrat in the United Slates to suggest that your party will win the 1972 presidential campaign, only if it turns toward social- ism. Arc you, in effect, refer- ring to th'u kind of welfarism which has passed for liberalism in Canadian politics? GALBRAITH: No. I was thinking of socialism in the sense of public ownership of the means of production. I am per- suaded there are substantial areas of modern business en- terprise, notably ths railroads and the weapons firms, as well as sectors of the housing indus- try, which do not function effec- tively or efficiently under pri- vate ownership. What we have had in the past twenty five years is a kind of a disguised form of socialism in which we' closed our eyes to the fact that these industries arc very large- ly under public sponsorship through subsidies antl regula- tions. There has never been in Can- aela quite the ideological resis- tance to public ownership and socialism as the Ameri- can Right has. Therefore, the position on public ownership of the railroads, public ownership of electric power production, public ownership in the grain trade and so forth has always been pragmatically acceptable. NEWMAN: It seems to me "I Can Do Anything .that Blankety-blank Can Joyce Egginlon The Unknown Mercury Peril NEW YORK Independent scientists and university re- searchers across America are being asked to join in a huge volunteer task force to deter- mine the extent of mercury pol- lution throughout the country. This deadly form of pollution, which was barely recognized on the American continent until six months ago, is now believed to affect vast areas of the world with a potentially deadly risk to man. A Canadian study (by scientists at the University of Toronto) has found hazardous levels of mercury in such ev- eryday foods as bread, rice, fish, tea and beef hamburger- while in the United States there is one recently documented case of mercury poisoning causing irreversible brain damage. There are several known causes of the pollution. One is the addition of mercury to fer- tilizers and grain to ward off attacks from fungi a process developed in Sweden during the Second World War. It is now known that the mercury can survive into the grain grown from the treated seed, thence into the bodies of bens who are fed the grain, and on into their eggs which are eaten by hu- mans. The pollution also comes from a number of industrial plants disgorging their wastes into rivers and streams. Mercury is used to some extent in almost every industry, and particular- ly, in the manufacture of plas- tics and paper. Recent tests on freshwater fish have found some to be dangerously con- taminated and, in recent months fishing has been either stopped or restricted in several lakes and rivers of Canada and the United States. In an attempt to encourage stricter Government controls, an independ e n t organization based in New York, the Scien- tists' Institute for Public Infor- mation, has circulated hundreds of American scientists and uni- versities, asking them to make tests on their own neighborhood for mercury contamination. The Institute has explained how the tests should be made and will correlate all the with results which may well shock the nation. An associate of the Institute commented: "There is reason to believe that most Western countries are in the same position as we are. But no one has thoroughly in- vestigated or understood the problem of mercury pollution." Much remains unknown about mercury pollution. Aside from fertilizers and factory wastes, there is a theory that it may escape into the general atmo- sphere from automobile ex- hausts and later be precipitated, .miles away, in the rainfall. No one has yet been able to ex- plain why mercury pollution has shown up to an unusual ex- tent in such unlikely places as the northern reaches of Hudson Bay and in certain lakes of Ver- mont, many miles from indus- trial plants. Nor is it fully understood how or why it attacks the body except that the brain and other vital organs are often affected, causing in mild cases irration- al behavior and in severe cases irreversible coma. Mercury poi- soning does; however, explain the familiar phrase "mad as a hatter." Long before the haz- ard was recognized, mercury was widely used in the process- ing of felt hats. (Written for Tlic Herald and The Observer, London) LOOKING BACKWARD Capers' THROUGH THE HERALD 1820 The Carnegie library for the city is assured. The sum of has already been set aside for the building in Lethbridse. Robert Barrow- man declared he has no inten- tion of running again (or office. He explained that the office de- mands the major portion of one's time and is "no bed of roses" at best. nm Britain has come through (he "crisis" month of Scptcmbc r, weathering the heaviest and most sustained sir attacks in the history of war- fare. Goering's airforce has failed to gain mastery of the skies over the beleaguered is- land. 1950 Property claims of Japanese Canadians from the Pacific coast are being award- ed. is coming to this area. I9fi0 Soviet Premier Khru- shchev leaned to his feet and shouted at Prime Minister Macmillan during the latler's speech to the UN General As- sembly. Following the heckling he stomped out of the Assem- bly. that you are abandoning the small liberalism which has al- ways been (lie dominant ideol- ogy of the American Demo- crats. Would it not be more realistic to expect a new pqliti- cal party to take up your ideas? GALBRAITH: No. The Dem- ocrats will always move to the left. You can always accom- plish more in the Democratic party than you can outside it, and since the Democratic party is not ideologically exclusive it will always embrace such posi-. lions. In this respect I sup.pose, it has some parallel with the Liberal party under Mackenzie King. It was King's genius, among other things, to make sure that he had no serious op- position to the left of him. Well, the Democratic party functions in somewhat the same way. NEWMAN: But isn't even the enlightened element of the Dem- ocratic party trapped in its lib- eralism? Can they take the kind of radical steps you suggest? GALBRAITH: The old guard can't. There's no question about that. But a younger and men- tally much more flexible group is coming along. The people that marched with McCarthy and Bob Kennedy have no trou- ble in accepting my ideas, in fact many go beyond them. NEWMAN: Who would lead such a party? GALBRAITH: We need some- body who will hold together the young, the blacks and the poor and give them confidence that the Democratic party will act on their behalf, and who will not repel the unions. There are people Who can do this. George McGovern could do it. Georg.e would have his major trouble on the union side. But he could do it. Ed Muskie would have no trouble with the unions but he would have to develop his strength with the minorities, with the youngsters and with the ghettos. He could probably dp it. They're moving in that direction. Ted Kennedy could do it. NEWMAN: Do you think it's possible, then, that Nixon will a one-term president? GALBRAITH: Yes. It's pos- sible. But Nixon has one thing going for him, which in some ways, however, is a wasting as- set. He has gcing for him the fact that people do not compare his Vietnam policy with a per- fect one. They compare it with Lyndon Johnson's. People com- pare imperfect de-escalation un- der Nixon with all the anxieties associated with escalation un- der Johnson. People worried that they were going to wake up one morning under Johnson, and find that we were bomb- ing the supply routes out of China, that we were bombing Haiphong harbor. Now under Nixon, other than the Cambo- dian insanity, one has had a record of inadequate, inefficient withdrawal. The Cambodian invasion cost Nixon very heavily in this re- gard. It caused him to adopt the war. As the Vietnamization process continues, and is shown to be phony, he's going to be subject to pressures to forestall the retreats of the Viet n a m army. More and more, this is going to look like Nixon's war. Nixon's other great disadvan- tage is the fact that he has no formula for taking care of do- mestic, economic and social problems. He is inert on those issues and he's in an ideological tangle an economic policy which is accumulating against him. The Democrats have had a handicap these past .couple of years with the impatience of the youngsters and the fact that violence on the campus has been used against them. But I have the feeling that the cam- pus violence has run its course. Campus violence just seems to be reducing itself into isolated acts of terrorism, and I think experience shows that once you have a very short period of peace these issues begin to be practically forgotten. People were very angry with the kids last summer. I suspect if there's a peaceful autumn they will have forgotten about them. NEWMAN: You believe the kids will be able to enlist them- selves back into the political process? GALBRAITH: Yes. What is happening is their discovery that operating outside the pol- itical process isn't a real alter- native. It involves some very great disadvantages, including the disadvantages associated with the kind of insane rhetoric of the Weatherman that sort of thing. NEWMAN: What about urban problems in the United Slates? Surely, this will be the m a i n battleground of the next elec- tion campaign. GALBRAITH: I am quite per- suaded on this point: that much of the urban problem in the United Slates is the result of trying to run cities on the cheap. Trying to run cities without ad- equate funds for the police, san- ilation, housing, recreation, hos- p i I a 1 s, welfare, without ade- quate funds for all of the pecu- liar problems, the peculiarly expensive problems of the mod- ern metropolis. The one thing wo have never understood was how expensive the very big city is. NEWMAN: I've always felt that in your books, while they were on economics, you wcra really writing about human values, and I wonder how you feel about what's happening to our civilization? GALBRAITH: I've never real- ly been concerned with econo- mic goals as such. It seems to me (he only concern one can have is with the human condi- tion, and this is where I've bro- ken with most of my fellow eco- nomists. The economic tests for our society have generally been whatever increases output or economic growth or whatever induces economic efficiency. I began arguing quite a few years ago that this was no longer a tolerable goal; that economic growth was a surrogate for wel- fare up to a certain point in af- fluence; but beyond that one has to consider what one was producing, and lhat this be- comes increasingly the case as one becomes more affluent. One has increasingly to ask what should be the mix of pub- lic and private production. One has increasingly lo ask what Ihe rich are getting as com- pared to the poor. One has in- creasingly to ask what are the differences between the compe- tent industries in the private sector, for example the automo- bile industry, which after all does turn out automobiles with cons i d e r a b 1 e efficiency, as against the housing industry, which is clearly an incompet- ent industry in the private sec- tor. Those are all questions that are dictated by some concern for the human condition rather than for the more primitive test- of economic performance, which is the Gross National Product. NEWMAN: Despite your dis- satisfactions with U.S. society as it exists, you seem remark- ably optimistic about the Amer- ican future. How do you recon- cile these views? GALBRAITH: I was going to say that American society is a functioning anarchy, but that's not quite true. Its capacity to survive doesn't depend on Washington, doesn't depend on the state governments, it de-, peiids on a certain inherent ca- pacity of people to organize and to come around to views that are consistent with survival. These lessons have lo be re- learned every once, in a while. Every once in a while we have to rclearn that non violence is wanted, not as a concession to goodness, but because it's good in itself. One of the great develop- ments in the last couple of years has been breaking the military hold on Washington, on public life. This has come about not out of recognition of the abstract principle that civilian control of the military estab- lishment is good, but of practi- cal recognition of the dangers that come from letting the army, air force and navy have too much power. The tendency is to respond with a certain measure of so- briety and wisdom lo the stim- uli of the situation, which is the thing that enables the United States to survive, and so I'm optimistic in the sense that I think these stimuli continue to work, and probably are working a little bit more rapidly as one gets a progressively highly ed- ucated community. On the other hand there are offsetting influ- ences from the fact tbat some of the old coadjutors of society, some of the old stabilizing roles of tradition, are weakening. NEWMAN: You mean the in- fluences of the church and the family? GALBRAITH: Yes. The fam- ily, the church and the calm- ing influence of the WASPS. Tomorrow: Prof. Galbrailh cotnmcnls on Canadian polilics, Pierre Elliot Tmdeau, and tlie likelihood of another depression. (Toronto Star Syndicate) Four "It'K not a RKAL strike they just like to keep iu practice." The Lethbndgc Herald 504 7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publishers Published 1905 1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mail Registration No 0012 Member of Tho Canadian Press and'tlie Canadian Daily Newspaper Publishers' Association and Ihe Audi! Bureau of Circulations CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor end Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, General Manager JOE BALLA WILLIAM HAY Managing editor Associate Edito'r ROY'F MILES DOUGLAS K WALKER Advertising Manager Editorial Page Edilor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;