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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - September 20, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LEIHBRIDGE HERAlD Monday, September JO 19VI Joseph Krnft Galbraitli's answer L'S. policy regarding the Pakistan crisis has been severely criticized, not only liy other nations but by large sectors of. the American public. But there are signs now that diplom- acy is working to a limited ex- tent, and possibly for a limited time in preventing the outbreak of a terrible war. Pakistan's leaders, ac- cording to one commentator writing r o in Islamabad, "have made i t known that should Washington avoid the harsh public criticism of Pakis- tan that has been used by Britain and other nations, a modus vivendi could be worked out." Congress last month temporarily cut out U.S. aid to Pakistan, aid which since 1950 has amounted to 4 billion dollars. This has worried Pak- istan President Yahya Khan so much, that as a direct result, he has agreed lo the admission of UN observers in East Pakistan, accepted UN and U.S. officials to! refugee assist- ance programs, replaced East Pakis- tan's governor and martial law ad- ministrator and replaced him with a civilian, and has eased censorship of the local press. These are stop-gap measures, but (he fact is .that the danger of war has been reduced although at great cost. That cost is the suspicion and antagonism engendered in India, which can see only that the U.S. military aid to Pakistan, however small, has continued during the crisis period In an article published in the New York Times, former ambassador lo India John Kenneth Galbrailh comes out strongly for autonomy and self government for East Pakistan as the only viable solution to this complex problem. He says that no promises will ever persuade the refugees to return to their homeland as long as Gen. Khan's government is in con- trol, and that no action of the U.S. should "encourage or seem to en- courage military domination of. the East by the West." He states that "by itself West Pakistan is a highly viable community with a higher po- tential for economic growth than In- dia." In other words it is quite pos- sible for the West Pakistanis to get along without East Pakistan. The burning question on which the livelihood and future of millions refugees now living and dying in cir- cumstances which shame all human- ity, is whether Mr. Galbraith's solu- tion is tenable, and if it is, can Gen. Khan be persuaded that it is the only answer both for West Pakistan and East Pakistan? Opportunties for aged program for senior citizens along similar lines to the Opportunities for Youth one this sununer is an intri- guing idea. H is certainly worth some consideration. The need for remunerative employ- ment is not as pressing for most senior citizens as it is with young people. They have their pensions and the possessions accumulated over the years. But there are other values in- volved. Both young and old benefit from being creatively engaged. It would be immensely satisfying to many people in their later years to be occupied in projects of their devising. In some instances il is possible that individ- uals might be enabled lo do things long dreamed aljoul and llms achieve fulfilment. Some resentment has in society over what is done (or youth while the aged are seemingly over- looked. This is not an altogether jus- tified feeling but it exists nonethe- less. The program proposed by MP Barry Mather has the merit of pro- viding redress or balance. It would be very interesting to see what sort of ideas senior citizens would propose. No doubt they would at least be the equal of the young peoples' proposals in terms of ima- gination and usefulness. Canada in Africa News that a Montreal firm has been awarded the contract to supply diesel locomotives to the east Africa community, that is Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, is encouraging, not only because it will provide work for Ca- nadians, but because it means that Canada has at least a toe-hold i n African development. The money for purchase of the locomotives will be provided by a Canadian loan. Five years ago, after an adverse report by the World Bank on the feasibility of constructing the rail- way which would link up the Zam- bian copperbelt with the Tanzanian port of Dar es-Salaam, the Canadians and the British did a survey of their own a much more thorough and encouraging one. The cost was esti- mated at about million, a sum which Canada could not possibly un- derwrite. But the Chinese did. For reasons not quite clear, the Tanzam railway authority has asked CNR authorities to take over the management contract for the rail- way. These men will be responsible for overseeing the complicated deal between the Africans and the Chinese (o make sure that both get a fair shake. It's a case of better late-than- never and an indication that Canada is trusted by both Chinese and Afri- cans to deal impartially with both parties involved. ART BUCHWALD No senior citizens wanted WASHINGTON Recent statements b y television network officials indicaie that their programming this year will be aimed at youth and young married peo- ple who have more money to spend than their elder more conservative-spending parents. Since TV is nothing but an adver- tising medium in this country, it's hard to fault the networks and their sponsors for wanting lo rench Ihe people most likely to buy l.s. The Iruih w luc matter is that old peo- ple just won't go out and spend money, and for that reason there is no reason to indulge them in any way. You would think the elderly would be bitter about king considered "nonpersons" by advertisers, but on Ihe contrary they seem very philosophical about it. My Uncle Phil said, "I knew the hand- writing was on the wall some years ago when the Saturday Evening Post canceled my subscription because they I was over Ihe mandatory age 45 to read their magazine." "That's Inie Uncle Phil, but it's one thing for a magazine to drop older peo- ple as readers, but it's another for all three networks lo decide to go after Ihe youth market." "U'c have only ourselves to blame. It's Inie we rton'l have too much money to spend. The we don't is we spent it all on our kids, whom the sponsors now insist they ivant to reach. If we hadn't given all our savings to our children, the advertisers would be making programs for us instead ol them." "It seems a brutal thing to I said. "You have lo lonk at il from (heir sland- Uncle Phil said, "what good is it lo make entertainment for people who cca't. buy a sports car, or who don't care If have bad breath, or who are too tired to :1y the'friendly skies of United? If God wanted the networks to appeal lo senior citizens, He would have seen to it that they 'got a lot more Social Security." "It's nice of you to see it from the ad- vertiser's viewpoint, Uncle Phil." "Why shouldn't he said. "It isn't as If the networks purposely wanted to ex- clude the elderly from their programming. But they have to think of what's good for the country. And what's good for the coun- try is a strong economy, and the only way you can have a strong economy is if people go out and buy things they see advertised on television. Elderly people might go out and buy a bottle of aspirin once in a while, or a can of corn, but Doris Day or Sonny and Cher can't live on that." "I can see your I said. "But why do the networks nib it in? Why don't they just go ahead wilh thoir programming without announcing who they're appealing "The men wlw run Ihc networks are very nervous and worried men, They know for a fact that the people who really have the time to watch television arc Ihe elder- ly, the sick and (he unemployed. The last group is gelling larger every day. "The young people cither don't care about watching TV or they have Ihe money to go to a movie, a hall game or a play. So the networks have to announce what they're doing lo reassure Ihc advertisers that Ihcy're making programs for olhcr people besides Ihe deadbcnts." "And doesn't this bother "Why should il? No mailer what they announce, Ihcy always put on Ihc same junk Ihcy put on the year before." (Toronto Telegram Service) Attica tragedy poses many questions WASHINGTON The cruel denouement at Attica breeds a strong temptation to uraw moral conclusions. But it is a temptation to be resisted. For what happened is too fraught with the accidental, too much in the nature of an emer- ency to afford a perch for reli- able judgment on large issues. What we all need is to ask hard questions about particu- lars. One set of questions has to do with the matter of negotiat- ing with inmates after they have seized a prison. 1 s it a good idea to begin with? Isn'l it much better for the authorities to respond immedi- ately with over whelming force7 Or ere there certain conditions when negotiation is sensible? If so, did these conditions ob- tain at Attica? Did the com- missioner of correction, Rus- sell Oswald, have the support of his superior, Gov. Nelson Rockefeller? Did he have the backing of his staff? Most important, why was his information so poor? How come lie believed the hostages had been killed by the prison- ers? Was he actually misled by some officials supposedly working with him? Did he try to check ill a systematic way on the fate of the prisoners? Or was he, as so many of us, simply pre-disposcd to believe the worst? A second set of questions has to do with what happens when negotiations with prison- ers get underway. Once time has been gained for talk, shouldn't a simultaneous effort be made to separate the hard- core of the rioting prisoners from (he rest? Was such an ef- fort made at Attica? How about the wisdom of a committee to act as a media- tor between the prisoners and the authorities? It there are go betweens, shouldn't they be men with professional know- ledge of prison conditions? What possible use is it to have Bobby Seale, or others with political axes to grind or repu- tations to make? Then there is the matter of breaking off negotiations once they have started? Wouldn't it have been sensible to keep talking for several days more at Attica? Why did the prison- ers' demand for amnesty have to end the dialogue? Couldn't the authorities have replied that, while amnesty was im- possible, favorable considera- tion would be given to a volun- tary surrender' Or how about granting amnesty and then re- voking it on the legitimate grounds it had been given '.X 4u- under duress? Still another set of questions has to do with the takeover by force. Was it done in a careful and discriminating manner? Why was so much fire power necessary when the prisoners were believed to be without guns? Was the force unprofes- sional and panicky? How come so many prisoners and host- ages were killed, and so many more wounded? Another set of questions has to do with the radiealizalion of prisoners evident at Attica and even more in the case of the Soledad brother George Jack- son who was killed in San Quentin last month. Is the radi- calization, us so many prison authorities believe, chiefly the work of outside agitators who have been given more access to prisons thanks to more toler- ant administrators7 Or is there a deeper cause? Isn't radicalization inevitable when large impersonal orga- nizations try to regiment mem- bers of a minority group lately come to a sense of its own rights? Isn't there a parallel between the revolt of the blacks in the big prisons and their behavior in the Army? And isn't the country, unless it becomes sensitive to this prob- lem, in danger of developing a large, hostile under-class? Finally, there is the curious reaction of the political au- thorities. Why did Gov. Rocke- Mler keep such a distance be- tween himself and the events at Attica? How come he refus- ed the prisoners' request for a meeting? Was there a danger I hat he might himself be taken hostage? If so, couldn't he have found at least some way to put in some kind of an ap- pearance? And how about President Nixon and his widely publiciz- ed call in support of gover- nor after the takeover of the prison got underway? Why was the president so quick to make it known that he backed the use of force? Does law-and- order politics mean that army and police are good guys even when you don't know what they have done? Looking back through what I have written, I see that I have not obeyed my own injunction. A moral con- clusion jumps from these ques- tions. It is that in circum- slances where crime, race and violence come together, all of us have an obligation to be mindful of what don't know, and for that reason, slow to as- sert ourselves. (Field Enterprises, Inc.) Max Wilde Pakistan refugees' plight still very critical QENEVA United Nations officials are expecting a fresh flare-up of cholera among the eight million East Pakis- tani refugees now in Iniaa, when the monsoons end about mid-October. Since the last cholera epidemic in June, when cases were reported with deaths, the heavy mon- soon rains have flushed out or diluted many of the centres of infection, but these are likely to reestablish themselves when the dry season starts. As it is, 200 cholera cases are still being recorded every day among the refugees, with a death rate of 60 a week. To cope with the threat of a fresh cholera outbreak, as well as the heavy incidence of other diseases such as malaria and malnutrition, the World Health Organizaion sent 500 tons of medical supplies to India dur- ing August and is now doing so at a rale of 40 to 50 tons a week. These facts emerged from an Interview here with Prince Sad- ruddin Aga Khan, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, who is also in charge of the "focal point" through which in- ternational assistance to India is being channelled. The Indian government has complained that international help is inadequate and slow. Asked lo comment, the Prince agreed that the help given by the international community "is certainly below require- ments." But, lie added, "one must note that in the three and a half monlhs since Ihe secere- tary-general launched his ap- peal (for aid lo India in deal- ing with Ihc refugee problem) an exceptional effort has heen made. It hy far exceeds any- thing that has been done in Ihe humanitarian field druing Ihc 2l> years of the UN's exisl- ance. The problem has also heen escalating at nn unprecedented rale. Last Hay, Ihe Indian gov- ernment said it would need 5175 million lo help three million re- fugees for six months. Rut, Prince Sadruddin said, "lalrr, as the government of India re- ported a continuous rise in Ihc number o I refugees, figures were ndjustcd on the basis of six million people for six months, with a target of help in cash and kind amounting to S400 million "To date, the United Nations, and through the United Na- tions the international commu- nity, has brought together cash and kind for a value of million. When you add to this the bilateral and direct aid given by governments, volun- tary agencies, such as the Red Cross and others, we reach a total figure of nearly mil- Letters to' the editor lion contributed by the interna- tional community to the relief operation in India." Nevertheless, Prince Sadrud- din admitted that add to India has been slow in getting through, but attributed this to the sheer magnitude of the prob- lem, He said: "What they (In- dia) have received so far is the emergency goods such as med- icaments, shelter material for two million people, and high protein food sent by air on a continuous basis. In fact, I be- lieve that we have created llie Wants a truly free press An article published recently by an Ontario group claims we do not really need foreign in- vestment to develop Canada. It uses American statistics to show that in most years more money is being senl out of Can- ada than is being invested here. So actually we are generating enough money to finance our own expansion and still have a rising standard of h'ving. But it is being drained away each year. We are generating the capital that Americans invest here. This is not a report that1 will get space in many business oriented papers. Yet it should be available to everyone so that its accuracy can be check- ed put. For truly it raises some serious questions. This is one more example o( the need for a truly free press. Last year I submitted a brief lo the Davey committee of en- quiry on the mass media. The suggestion was Dial newspa- pers be made inlo Crown cor- poralion cnlilics free from Ihe control of any one group or par- ly. A board of directors could drawn up wilh one rcpre- scnlalive nf each polilical par- ty in the area, one from a [arm group, one from labor, one from churches, one from Ihe university, elc. This would not be a cure-all, hut il would give balance In the ideas and view- points. II would cosl us some- tiling to get darted, bul. it would probably repay us many times over in good government. If we are to Ire ft self govern- ing people we need lo know both sides of every, issue be- fore any decisions are made. JIM BURNESS. Lethhridge. Student role Schools are run for the pur- pose of educating students, and yet studenls play an unimpor- tant role in the administration of their schools. A part of the article, "School trustees will tight for divided school in The Herald said, "Dr. Larson will arrange a meeting wilh city high school principals and Grade 12 leach- crs lo seek their formal support for the fight. City teachers in the past almost unanimously approved the divided year." I think teacher support is only a small part of what should be done. The students are the ones they should receive the support from. We are tho important part of the school system and yet we have lilllc to say. To conlinuc a good and efficient system, students should piny a moro important role. JOHN WKVEDS STUDENT-WINSTON CIIUIiCMlLU HIGH SCHOOL. Ixilhbridge. longest and biggest air bridge operation for humanitarian pur- poses of all time." Bulk supplies, however, food, vehicles and so on, were being sent by sea, he said, and are only now reaching Calcutta. It took time to find shipping and to cany the goods from the countries of origin to India. The Indian government had in- dicated that it needed about tons of rice; tons of rice had so far been contri- buted. In the meantime, India has fed the refugees o n reserve stocks established to meet emergencies, such as floods, fami i conditions or the breakdown of transport during the monsoon season, which al- ways threatens India, and par- ticularly the areas to which the refugees have come. "Our con- said the Prince, "was to bring the food supplies to India before the reserve stocks were exhausted to prevent the crea- tion of a starvation gap. On this we have succeeded." But the problem is not solved, he said. "This is no lime for expressing satisfac- tion." Cash contributions to the UN are running out, while con- tributions in kind are all either in India or on their way to In- dia. Governments and public opinion throughout the world must be convinced of tho vital need lo continue Iheir support, he said. Prince Sadruddin continued: "There is no doubl lhat several hundreds of thousands of chil- dren are exposed to severe malnutrition diseases, such as kashiorkor and marasmus (waste due lo It is true that malnutrition is en- demic, both In India and Pak- istan, but the camp situation aggravates the danger. The flooding, the primitive or non- existent sanitary installations, the mud and the weakened phy- sical state in which mamy peo- ple are, often provoke diarr- hoea and other intestinal dis- turbances." Two programs are now in op- eration to try to save fie chil- dren. The first is an emergency one, under which Indian med- ical teams gather children from Uie camps and taie them to medical centres where they can be treated with high-protein food and vitamins. The second program deals with (he preven- tive aspect and is to provide, through the network of Ihe In- dian Red Cress, massive high- proleir nutrition to some 000 children and nursing and expeclanl mothers. The World Food Program, the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Red Cross have already provided a large amount of high-protein food and mere is on its way, while Uie Indian Red Cross is operating 900 milk stations wilh tlie help of the League of Red Cross So- cieitics. Prince Sadrnddin knows and believes that everybody hi In- dia and Pakistan are agreed lhat "the solution to the prob- lem can be no other than the return of these refugees to their homesteads." With the campaign of the Bengali sepa- ratisls in East Pakistan still conlinuing, little progress has heen made in achieving this. According lo the Pakistan Gov- ernment, snid Ihe Prince, only some. have ns yet gone back. The Lethbridge Herald EM 7th St. S., Lclhbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Published 1S05-1951, ty Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN second Class Mall Registration No. 0013 Member of The Canndlan Press ana tnc Canadian Dally Newspaper Publishers' Association and the Audit Bureau or Circulation! CL.EO W. MOWERS, Editor Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, General Manager JOE P.ALLA WILLIAM HAY Mnn.-inlnn Editor Associate Edllor ROY F MIl.GS DOUGLAS K WALKER Mnnoner Edllorlal Pane Edllor "THE HERAtD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;