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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - September 18, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta 20 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD WvdntMay, Septemoer Ask Andy GULF STREAM Andy sends a complete 20- volume set of the Merit Students Encyclopedia to Brian Cook, age 14, of Des Moines, Iowa, for his question. What exactly causes the Gulf Stream? Ocean currents are global events, governed by planetary forces with a helping hand from the starry sun. The Gulf Stream is part of a vast system of surface currents that eddies endlessly in a clockwise direction around the North Atlantic. It is the largest warm current in the global ocean. And below it through deeper waters there flows a cooler, slower countercurrent in the opposite direction. The Gulf Stream is most noticeable'about 50 miles off Cape Hatteras, where its warm, blue-green water sweeps northward through the cooler, greyish Atlantic. Flowing at about three miles per hour, it carried along 50 times more water than all the world's rivers empty into the sea. This is an estimated 50 million tons of streaming water per second. Its path continues clear around the Atlantic Ocean, though it changes somewhat as it goes. Obviously. such a stupendous sytem of streaming water must be caused and kept going by stupendous energies. These energies include the winds, the rotating earth, and the sun, which sheds more heat on tropical oceans. The shores of the continents help to mold the Gulf Stream system into a swirling eddy. North of the equator, the prevailing trade winds blow eastward across the Atlantic, carrying high pressure weather cells that swirl in a clockwise direction. The force and pressure of these steady winds push a mighty current of ocean water in an eastward direction across the Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere, the rotation of the earth deflects moving objects to the right. Hence when the equatorial current meets the mid-American land barrier it veers to the right and proceeds in a northward direction. Off Cape Hatteras, it becomes the Gulf Stream which sweeps northward to Newfoundland. Here it spreads wider and several factors conspire to swerve it toward the east. Off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, it collides with a strong, cold current sweeping down from the Arctic. Rotation and the coastline turn it toward the right. At this point the Gulf Stream becomes the North Atlantic Drift, a wider cur- rent that flows eastward and fingers around the shores of northern Europe. There the main stream swerves right again and flows southward as the Canaries Current. The eddying circuit is completed when this stream makes a right turn to join the original current flowing eastward, just north of the equator. Without a doubt, the planetary winds are the major factor causing the Gulf Stream and all the other global ocean currents. The continents cause them to curve. The rotation of the earth causes them to veer to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This combination of global forces causes similar systems of eddying currents in all the major oceans. Those north of the equator swirl clockwise and south of the equator they swirl counterclockwise. Questions asked by chil- dren of Herald readers should be mailed to Ask Andy, P.O. Box. 765, Huntington Beach, California 92648. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1973) Flashback By THE CANADIAN PRESS Sept. 18, 1974 1895 Former prime minister John Diefenbaker was born. Goren on Bridge BY CHARLES H. GOREN TIM CMiCtit North-South vulnerable. South deals. NORTH A97 VQJ4 AJ109 4KJ2 WEST EAST KQ75 497643 SOUTH AK108632 A10 8 The bidding: South West North East IV 14 2 Pass 4 V Pass 6 V Pass Pass Pass Opening lead: King of 4. Declarer chose a line of play that would succeed three times in four. How- ever, he overlooked an additional chance to improve those odds, and went down in a makable slam. West's overcali made it easier for North South to reach a priori 5iam on minimal -ard valuer. North showed hi-, strength with a cuo-bid of the opponents" suit, and -when South ex- pressed the quality of his hand and length of his suit with a jump to game. North went straight to siam be cause there was no Hanger of two quirk Josers in any suit. Declarer won West's open ing spade lead with the ace. Faced with a certain spade loser, it appeared that the siam on gw-.sMnj; the of 'jari-n of guesser, searched for a bet- ter found it. If East held one of the two missing diamond 75% could set up a diamond trick with the help of a loser-on- loser play combined with a ruffing finesse. Accordingly, he drew trumps in two rounds, then led a diamond towards the ace-jack. West made a brilliant play when he refused to split his honors, so declarer. pur- suing his plan, went up with the ace and ran the jack, dis- carding the losing spade from his hand. He ruffed the spade return. entered dummy with the king of clubs and led the ten of dia- monds. When East followed with a low diamond. South discarded his ten of clubs. Unfortunately, West turned up with both diamond honors, so declarer was down one- South is to be commended for playing for split diamond Shis ,im- of play is superior to a oiub and he dcst-r. e'i a better fate. Nevertheless, he did not play the hand to best advantage After losing j diamond trick to it have rost declarer nothing to cash the are and kinc of clubs be- fore trying U> ruff out the re maining diamond honor. There was a sljijht <-hanre that the queen of clubs would come tumbling down, and sf that happened, the ruffins; finesse in diamonds If (he