Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - September 1, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta
Wodneidcw, iepltmbor 1, 1971 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD 5 Margaret Luckhursl mmigration to the Canadian prairies last month, the J minister for citizenship the Hon. Hobert Slanbury, at the Public Archives Building in Oltawa opened an exhibition cnlillcd "Immigration lo Hie Canadian Prairies, The exhibition, prepared by the Public Archives of Canada, is devoted lo the many nalionali- lics involved in the scltlcmcnt of Canada. Pamphlets, posters, handbills and photographs of the period (loaned by the Glen- bow Institute of Calgary and (he Saskatchewan il- lustrate the measures respon- sible for preparing the West for settlement, the various ethnic groups who immigrated here, and the quality of pioneer life in their communities. While Eastern Canada had been sellling gradually for over two centuries, Hie vast north- west area beyond the Great Lakes known as Rupert's Land, was, (apart from roving Indian trilws and a few scattered fur trading posts) empty, alien land to white people. If belong- ed to the Hudson's Bay Com- pany who had been granled rights of ownership by Charles 11 in JG70. Unlil 1812, when Lord Selkirk (wilh the approval of the company) established a community along the Red River, no settlement existed in the West. This isolated attempt at col- onization was undertaken hy Selkirk primarily because so many of his Scottish country- men had suffered severe loss following the defeat by the En- glish army of the Scottish rebels at the battle of Cullo- den. English landowners moved in and either onsled the Scottish tenant farmers out- right or charged them such exorbitant rents that most of them were ,icar starvation. Any alternative looked good to them and Selkirk's description of the rich Red River Valley along wilh his immigration proposals sounded as promising to them as the land of milk and honey. Thus with nothing io lose anyway, the first ex- pedition left S'colland ill 1811, wintered at bleak York Fac- tory on Hudson's Bay then travelled by open boat lo the region where Winnipeg now stands where they set about es- tablishing their community. This first small contingent was followed by others later, and included wilh Ihcm were a few Swiss immigrants who were interested in the new land. To begin with, then, the first settlement was a slrangc- ]y heterogeneous group; Swiss, Scots and a handful of French- speaking Canadians, connected with the fur trade, but desirous of starting a farming commun- ity. .Selkirk may have had good intentions but he w...s short on familiarity with the West's cli- matic conditions, agricultural possibilities and the sentiment of the native. The first few years became a matter of do or dio for the settlers, and if it had not been for the pro- lifkacy of buffalo, fish and game, the little band would have succumbed in a matter of months. Determination is a strong human characteristic however, and in spile of deep frost, floods, plagues and dis- illusionment, the colony some- how survived, although Ihe Swiss moved temporarily lo Ihe United Stales. For years Ihe colony grew slowly and atlracl- cd the attention of eastern Can- ada only when it was frcqucnl- ed by disaster, and during the Metis disorders. Following Confederation in llili? Canada made a petition to Great Britain to purchase HuptTl's Land from the Hud- son's Bay Company, a transac- tion which was finalized in 1070. Thai year the area known as Manitoba became the fifth province in the Dominion and both Ihe small provincial gov- ernment and the federal gov- ernment began minor cam- paigns lo encourage immigra- tion. Early in the 70s the small S'wiss colony which had moved to the Dakolas lo escape Ihe cold, returned lo Ihe Canadian northwest te found sctllcmenls in Saskatchewan and at Stet- tler and Blumeau, Alberta, At about Uu's time too, (he Mcnnonifcs, who were suffer- ing religious persecution in Ilussia, broke an agricultural trail into the prairie counTy. Living (he Russian Crimea in order lo practise their religion and to escape military service, they made the long trek to western Canada by boat and wagon to establish prosperous farming communities in Stein- bach, Manitoba and also at Rosthcrn, Swift Current and Camduff, Saskatchewan. Be- Tests run on no-fault insurance WHEN a couple o f college professors from a corn- belt university proposed "no- fault" auto insurance, the idea seemed ludicrous to many peo- ple. Who ever heard of an auto accident that wasn't followed by lawyers, lawsuits and evur- !a-lL-g snarls, they were asked? Like the Wright "Brothers, the professors were treated more as a source of amusement than as pioneers. But Die idea has caught on. Slowly, at first, but with in- creasing interest, stale legisla- tures have begun seriously to consider a major alteration in flie method of compensating motorists for the damages that result from auto crashes. To understand the al.lrac- tions of no-fault insurance, you need only look at the figures for the other kind. The kind of coverage we've all been used to uses up about half the mon- ey paid in premiums lo prove responsibility. This leaves slightly more than one buck out of every two lo compen- sate victims for their acci- dents. Why spend so much on liti- gation? A good question, critics said. They suggested going at it the other way. Why not approach it as we do health insurance, they ask- ed? No one spends huge sums trying to prove who gave you By Tiicliarfl Pratl, NEA service hepatitis. The sole aim of the insurer is b pay the cobls of curing you. The new concept split the in- suring industry down the mid- dle. Half saw the new method as a way of cutting back on costs that had gone berserk. The other half worried lhal the permissiveness of the new Noxious litter By Don Oakley, NEA Service "pVER watch someone lake a photograph of a lovely landscape with one of those in- sla.nl-pid.ure cameras and then drop the waste portion o[ the film nn said landscape? Thai's the human animal for you, also known as the litter- bug. But the problem of these cameras is more than just lit- ter. According to Friends mag- azine, the film contains noxious chemicals. If blown into a lake, they poison Ihe water. If dropped in woods or fields, they are oflcn eaten by animals, with somc- limcs fatal results. They also stain clothing. The answer. A plastic litter bag to carry the scraps in until they can be disposed of proper- ly. If anybody really cares about the landscape, that is. system would lead to more ac- cidents. Trial lawyers, naturally enough, tended to d i m-view any system that reduced the number of court cases. So far, Massachusetts and Puerto Rico have such laws already in effect. The expe- rience in both places been short and the laws are not identical but the results have surprised even the new law's backers. During the first three months in Massachusetts, the number of bodily injury claims was GO per cent lower than it had been in the same period a year ear- lier. The average claim paid drapncd to from To- tal claims paid dropped by 35 per cent. In Puei-to Rico, critics of the plan had predicted its first year cost at million in claims and expenses. When the figures were in for 1970, they totalled only million, or one- fifth the projection. No-fault insurance a long way lo go. While some 27 stales and the Dislricl of Co- liMiibia are studying similar legislation, the Massachu.sel.Ls plan 's under atlack. lls con- stitutionality is being chal- lenged m court. Nonetheless, it appeal's that no-fault may well be one of those ideas whose time has come. If so, you'll soou be sec- ing a lot of it. SIMPSONS bears IN IMPERIAL COLOUR for 5 days only Your child's portrait made with Eastman "PROFESSIONAL" Ektacolour Film and materials and our all new DYNAMIC COLOUR background assures you full colour fidelity and breathtaking realism never before possible. You must see this value to believe it! 3x1O PORTRAIT the entire -portrait jriiolograiih is completed in rtnrncom colour! NO OBLIGATION TO BUY ADDITIONAL PORTRAITS EXTRA PRINTS AVAILABLE AT REASONABLE PRICES LIMIT: ONE PL.} CHILD-TWO PER FAMILY AGE LIMIT: 5 WEEKS TO 12 YEARS GROUPS TAKEN AT EACH ADDITIONAL CHILD CHOICE OF POSES. Plus 50--Handling and Delivery CHOOSE FROM FINISHED PORTRAITS-NOT PROOFSI TUESDAY, AUGUST 31st thru SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 4th, 1971 SIMPSONS-SEARS Iwcpn 11174 and over Mcnnonilcs arrived Lo help set- tle Uic West. In the 70s also, Sigtryggur Jouasson, the father of Jslanclic settlement in Canada eame to Manitoba with 2115 of his fellow countrymen. They settled in the Giinlj di.slrict on Ihe shores of Lake Winnipeg. Despite Hie ravages of a smallpox epi- demic and a severe winter, llm community of Gimili survived. Ten years later a sceond group of some arrived and settled near Ihe carh'cr community. It wasn't until the railway went through Hie west in 1885 that immigration really moved ahead, and campaigns to luro people to Ihe West were set up. Hungarians, Poles and Rus- sians (represented largely by Mcnnonilcs) began to move in large numbers. In 1B8G the first organized group of Hungarian settlers came from Pennsylva- nia under the auspices of Ihe Hungarian Immigralion and Colonization Society. Under the leadership o( Count Paul d'Esterhazy, they settled in the southeastern area of Saskatch- ewan now known as Ihe Ester- hazy district. Often the original settlers returned to the United States, but they were quickly replaced by new settlers immi- grating directly from Hungary. In 1391 the first Ukrainians arrived. Most of these people were of old peasant stock and experienced in farming. The men took employment in rail- way construction and lumber camps while the women were occupied with the farms. In Ihe next twenty years, the original group was followed by thou- sands of their countrymen, most of whom went directly to farm land The first group of Douklin- bors, numbering about ar- rived in the prairies in 1899. Like the Mennonilcs they were attracted by the freedom in Canada and with Ihe financial backing cf the English Quakers and the Russian Count, Leo Tolstoy came (o Canada. Once they arrived they also received aid from Ihe American Quak- ers, 'llicsc people settled in Vorklon and Prince Alberta in .Saskatchewan, while another group under their spiritual leader Peter Veregin, eventual- ly moved to B.C. where they took up fruit farming. The influx of settlers from western Europe stepped up also on the completion of the railroad. A large group from Germany arrived in !B99 and settled at what is now Hum- boldt, Sask., while about the same time a group of Dutch arrived, settling in Alberta where it is said, they were the first Lo introduce the concept of strip farming. Thus with the west opening up, the immigration campaign was also stepped up. In 1896 Clifford Sifton from Manitoba was appointed minister of the interior. He began an active campaign for increased immi- gration lo the West by opening offices in the United States and by advertising in periodicals and newspapers in Ihe British Isles, Europe and the U.S'. Im- migrant scLtlers and farmers were sent on speaking tours throughout North America and Europe lo publicize the appeal and benefits of the West and deals were contracted wilh booking agents and companies whereby a bonus would be paid for each person transported lo Canada. The result paid off. An immigration boom began which would continue until the begin- ning of the First World War. By that lime it was estimated that some people bad immip-atcd to Canada, with the largest percentage of (hem sellling in Ihe Cur life style today was dc- Icrmincd in pioneer days. Al- Ihough the early settlers suffci- ed from isolation, crop riisns- ler. and contagious epidemics where families sometimes lost several members in a mailer of days, (here developed a practical acceptance of life re later! lo Inch- surroundings which was inculcated in the de- velopment of the lilllc com- munities. Uncertainly, hard work, sharing of one's gnnds and Lhc inlerwoven cultures all served as a background to our society today. If we claim have no true identity we do a great injustice lo Ihose people, many lying in lonely graves across the prairies, who knew without any doubt that they were laying the foundations for a lively ramify based nn a truly ethnic mosaic. At the exhibit in it is all there lo be sern. 'Hie hard nork, the isolation. Ihe slark landscape and fhr promise. r.nMcrn Caiwlians will no doubt be mlereslrd in follow ing Mm development ol Ihe west, but it is lo Iw hoped (hat Ihe public archives will send the exhibition on a lour of the prairies so thai, it may be appreciated by I h e people w hose torrfalhers fticin- M'lve.s invohtd in settle- ment. Understandin money The London rPHERE always seems lo be an air ni unreality alxnil Uie world's great monetary crises. The headlines are black: statesmen and leader-writers talk strident- ly; bankers gather and confer. The mar- kets in foreign exchange shut their doors. Obviously something important is afool'.' But what? Life goes on much as usual. Tourists sometimes suffer, but most peo pie get on with Iheir work and Iciive it lo others lo worry about these things. Part of the trouble is that Ihough we nil know about money and what il will buy, llic money market is a mystery. Parities and foreign exchange rates don't mean much to many. Crawling pegs arc a minority taste. Compared wilh (he intelligent Mer- est we try lo take in wars and threat of wars, our stale of ignorance about, high finance is shocking. And yet it is not, surely, all our fault. There is not only mystery: there is a good deal of myslificalion. Economics is an in- cxacl science. More than that, [here seems lo be something specially irrational about nations' attitudes to Iheir currencies. The dollar is as good as 'The pound can look Ihe dollar in Ihe face' Iherc is pride and chauvinism here. It cannot be simply a technical mailer. Nor is il. II reflects power and power relationsliips in the world. The Japanese since the war have devoted [o Lheir indus- try and trade Uie resources and energies Ibal formerly went on military prowess and they wish to retain the advantages Ihis has brought them. The French have large stocks of gold and want its value to appreciate; they also resent domination of their industry by United Stales capital. Wilh an election coming, Mr. pre- fers not lo devalue the dollar. Instead, he wants oilier countries lo revalue Ihcir cur- rencies in terms of the dollar which comes lo the same thing. Such rivalries and differing inlcvesls make agreement on what should be done about the monetary system difficult lo "n Olise.ru- reach. But there aught hi be no dispute about, (he dangers we ir.usl all moid. A trade is in no counln'.s inlcro.t: and this could easily follow a say, by Ihe Japanese to revalue the yen. Nor are restrictions on trade in anyone'1- interest; and the American surcharge on imports i'i unlikely lo be removed unless the nntiom, agree nn an acceptable reform ol Ihr? scnt system. So far they arc; not ma kins much of a job of it. Vet there is very little dispute about the system has gone wrong. When it was devised at Brelton Woods at the cud of Urn last war, American power was dominan'., Ihe dollar was made the world's reserve currency and exchange rates were fixed nil her npidily in terms of the dollar. Tslow, a generation later, the distribution ol eco- nomic power in Ihe world has altered but the value of Ihe dollar has not. Currency speculators, who are usually quite respect- able people, have lakcn advantage of this situation. One crisis after anoLljer is the result. Surely, in this situation, there oupht to be little difficulty in deciding what should done. Jn the short term, rates should be made more flexible either by allowing them to 'float1 upwards against the dollar, thus finding (heir right parity when it is seen what traders are prepared to pay, or by widening the present limits within which the rales may fluctuate. (It. is unfortunate thai Ihe Comiron Agricul- tural Policy, by which the French set such store, assumes fixed exchange rates with- in the Community.) Ultimately, the world needs a new re- serve currency, divorced from national considerations of prestige. A beginning has been made with the institution of (he Spe- cial Drawing Rights administered by Urn Intel-national Monetary Fund. But only when tins has hccn developed sufficiently take Ihe full strain will the world in a monetary sense, have really grown up. Support American action By Jean Pallerin, in Montreal La Prcsse TN face of this mess precipitated by President Richard Nixon's economic pronouncement, what atlitude should we pdopl? ft certainly seems that over the short Icrm, there is nothing belter lo do than to support the American action. What is good for the Unilcd Stales can only be good also for Canada, a country where inflation, unemployment, excessive government spending, the spiral of sala- ries and prices as well as the extremely high rale of taxation continue lo ravage us, despite the attempt to introduce pana- ceas. According to an English-speaking con- frere, Ottawa also should decree a freeze on salaries, prices and rents, which would perhaps oblige the big unions and big busi- nesses to sit down around the same table lo discuss Ihe advantages for all citizens to be found in putting an end lo ruinous rivalries. Long-lerrn action would also be neces- sary. Even world action might ho needed, wilh governments, businesses and unions carrying out a re-examination of UT? system. The economy can no longer C'lnlinue on a 1930 basis. Unions must unload Iheir lurn-of-lhe-cenlury nienlalUy and slop pre- tending (o be "little guys" when they are "big guys" in fact. They have become all- powerful, and arc, as much as business, responsible for economic ills, Business must understand that an eco- nomy which lias become infinilcly complex and diversified can no longer depend on laisser-faire or "wait-and-see" policies. Governments, for their part, must stop isolating themselves in national pride. The world economy must be rclhoughl, no long- er in terms of national or ideological bar- riers, but in terms of a planet Dial ha.i become too small to be split into bits and pieces. Economic realism By Claude Lemclin, in Montreal La Devoir 'T'HE fundamental fact about the present economic crisis is thai, despile the changes and snubs that have been inflicted on it with more or less impunily, (he American economy remains the most pow- erful industrial machine in the world. However, in scuttling the Brellon Woods monetary system, in voluntarily sacrificing the increasingly onerous privileges thai this system conferred on them, the United Stales has again taken the initiative and placed its partners on Ihe defensive. But the masters of Washington know full well that henceforth they will no longer be able lo make others finance tile deficit in their balance of payments is lo say Ihcir invcslmt'nls and military pre- sence in foreign countries. Perhaps the Unilcd Stales will be able lo oblain a more efficacious method to in- crease liquidity than the min- mc. of South African gold or Ihe tolerance of imbalances in payments. Perhaps they will win more flexible exchange rales for currencies, and rales which will be re- vised more frequently. All these measures favor economic growlh for their own economy as well as others. But from now on, Ihe dollar will havo lo be content with being a currency lika Ihc others. U.S. enterprises will nnl be able, lo invest more in foreign countries lhan Ihc commercial siuplus eventually realized will permit. The Ircasury will have lo find a mean-; of reimbursing Ihc billion it has bor- rowed from nearly even" source prob- ably through liquidating a part of its "ex- tra-territorial" economy. And the While House will no loncer be able to speak louder in the assembly of monetary powers than is juslified by Ihe real power of Ihe economy il directs. Dief conjures a Yankee plol Thp Ollana Cilizrn rplIAT old mischief-maker, John Dicfe-n- bakcr. is at il again, tearing apart Ihe memon' of President .lolin Kennedy in his supposed role of bringing down tho Con- servative government of Canada in (he general election. Mr. Diefcnb.'iker. whose rifl will) the laic American president began in a peevish discussion about who had caught the big- gest fish off the coast of Florida, claims Mr. Kennedy sent one of his (op Demo- cratic party organizers lo work for the Li- berals operating out of Toronto under an assumed name. If the story is true and proof has never forthcoming il is vci'v small beer indccl, In a society, any- one, even a foreigner, is cnlillcd lo cam- paign for n parly or parly leader he bc- I in. If may indeed been unwise or indiscreet, but hardly worth Ihc cndur- iim noloricly of an international incident. The frulli is thai Mr. Dicfenbakcr's gov- ernment defeated in a free election hy Canadians who were sick and tired of the erratic and amateur administration Ihry had endured since They didn't need any advice or help from UK Ameri- cans lo make up their minds. Mr. Dicfcnbaker would be betlcr advised lo get back lo work on his memoirs, if in- deed ho car; l-'cep Hie record siraichl. Lis- tening lo his meandering, one wonders. Unne experience lly I inn; U.ilkrr armed one afternoon just alter I got, in from work. I had (lie pleasure of greeting Ihcm nf the door and inviting them in so Ihnl they could make slips fjr ll.rcc nf us: Jiidi. l-jlspclh, and mo. I'arl way lln-migh Ihc proceedings Ihc lady who was doing llic writing connected. nip up with these fillers was flustered. She probably wondered what she, might have said or done (hat would pro- voke me lo fealure her in a filler. Hie has been .saved lhal tale only by i'f Ihe fact Ihnl 1 coukln'l decipher her signature.