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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 29, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THI UTHMIDGI HEKAIP ThurfJoy, 1970 Neal Ascherson i Potsdam Agreements And Moscow Treaty Prairie Cheer News of big wheat sales to China has given a transfusion to the West- ern Canadian economy that nothing else could have accomplished. It is a whopping increase over last year and will probably mean that over-all sales for 1971 will amount to half as much again as they were last year, and well above the 1963-64 peak year. Prices per bushel were not disclos- ed but they are probably lower than those agreed upon in former con- tracts, when the Canadian dollar was at a much higher discount rate in terms of U.S. currency. The Peoples' Republic pays for its Canadian wheat purchases in the form of sterling, and the changed relationship between the Canadian dollar and the British pound is bound to have an effect on the price received by the Canadian Wheat Board although the higher exchange rate on the Canadian dollar will not affect the Chinese. The wheat board report of June 25, 1970 says that "the point in relating wheat prices to U.S. funds, the standard used in interna- tional trade, is designed to prevent the fluctuating exchange rate of the Canadian dollar from inhibiting the sale of our wheat on the world mar- ket. The rise in the value of the dol- lar, however, has the effect of lower- ing the return to the price pools which the Wheat Board operates for the Canadian producer." The Canadian farmer will probably get slightly less per bushel under the new contract, but the difference will be very little certainly not enough to erase the smiles from the faces of prairie wheat farmers. Indigestion In Santiago? WARSAW It is 25 years since Potsdam, a quarter a century since Truman and Sta- lin and Churchill met in an ugly, pseudo Tudor country house built for Hohenzollern princes. The fearsome ruins of Berlin were hidden from them by a serene lake and summer trees. Germany had been de- feated: more than defeated, physically and politically crushed as no nation had been crushed since Carthage. The three replaced before the end of the talks by Attlee, General de Gaulle ab- sent but adding France's con- sent later agreed upon the future map and fate of Ger- many. In Warsaw, a group of politi- cal scientists and historians re- cently looked back at Potsdam and asked themselves what re- mains. It is a good time to ask. In a sudden series of huge strides, West Germany and her neighbors are moving into a fresh and unexplored diploma- tic landscape. The Moscow treaty between West Germany The inauguration of the first freely elected communist head of govern- ment in Latin America, Dr. Salvador Allende will take place in Santiago, Chile on November 3. Dr. Allencle is described as a Marxist-Leninist, a term which may mean more to the -Communist world than it does in the West which has recently become be- wildered with the different forms of communism that seem to be spring- ing up everywhere. In any case, Dr. Allende has pledged his government to "create a new society, new morals and a new and he has told Chileans that they must be capable of sacrifice and willing to work for their "ideals" whatever form these take. Chile has joined the leftist camp in Latin America, there can be no ques- tion about that. Nationalization of mines, insurance systems, and bank- ing, plus expropriation of privately owned farming land are all on the cards. It has, not been announced whether nationalization will be out- right, or whether Chile intends to ex- tend some form of reparation to the huge foreign, predominantly Ameri- can copper mining interests. Already forces opposed to Dr. Al- lende are at work. The commander- in-chief of the Chilean armed .forces has been assassinated and suspicion points to rightists who bitterly op- pose the new government. It would be churlish to wish Dr. Allende and the Chileans anything less than good fortune but a new society, a new economy and brand new shining morals all within a per- iod of six years is a very large mouthful to swallow. One can only hope that it won't prove indigestible. Timothy's Travels Dr Timothy Leary, the high priest of the LSD cult, accompanied by a few of his anarchist friends has been on a trip recently. This one has pro- duced no splendid visions or psyche- delic experiences. He hasn't been able to see anything other than airport terminals and immigration offices. Leary ended up in Algeria after es- caping custody in California. Then he decided to take off for Beirut, Leban- on, where the authorities found him and his friends unacceptable. Egyp- tian authorities didn't like them any better and sent them back to Algiers. How long the Algerians will feel it necessary to provide refuge for Leary is not known. But even if they do ex- tend room, board and privileges, he is not likely to enjoy himself. The Algerians are reputed to welcome committed revolutionaries, opponents of apartheid and Al-Fatah guerrillas other words genuine political ex- iles. But they extend the cold shoul- der to drop-outs and drug addicts from the West. It looks as if the great Timothy were in for an extended bad trip and at the end of it he isn't going to find much sympathy wher- ever he wakes up. Scholastic Standards By Peter Hnnt rpHERE is a great deal of sugar-coated A waffle dispensed in much of the public discussion of secondary education; so here are a few bitter medicinal pills for some soft palates to taste, if not swallow. First let me make a few general admis- sions and then go on to state my main thesis. It is true that 'manpower' pressures on schools and compartmentalized learning vi- tiate even the best efforts of teachers. Schools reflect the big business rcores of society rather than the liberal aims of hu- man education. Creative and imaginative learning is thus inhibited. So much is com- monplace. But it is necessary to re-state it here, because I want to write of standards and rigor in teaching and learning, and some hazy thinkers seem to imagine that more humane schooling means less work and less scholastic discipline. It is my contention that students can accomplish much more in subjects than they do. This is particularly true of Eng- lish. After observing closely the work of which students here are capable and the. work which is often accepted for a pass in the subject, reinforced by information from other centres, it seems to me that stan- dards are too low. It is true that standards of attainment in any class group depend not only on the students' ability and readiness to learn but also on the teacher. But when only vague notions of aims and of standards required for various grades of pass in English, for instance, are extant, rigor is watered down from the start. The trend towards abolishing external exams is a good one; tlw case against external final exams in which students' re- sults are determined by a very limited sam- ple is well known and need not be repeated here. However, any decent system of in- ternal teacher assessment must include a concerted and well-thought-out attempt to make the marks awarded as valid as pos- sible. There seems very little awareness hero in some circles of the amount and quality of the research that has been done on this matter of sound internal assess- ment. Tire research only confirms, however, what any experienced teacher who has done a good deal of correction at all levels of English teaching, already knows. The main points to which I want to draw atten- tion here are: (i) the samples of work should be spread through the semester; Hi) the volume of work should be sufficient to make internal assessments more than a few 'tests.' In any case, learning to write depends on practice based on guidance and tuition; although it is reading that provides the main foundation; (iii) the range of writ- ten material covered by the students should be comprehensive; it should, the particular requirements of any English course, incorporate a broad representative spectrum of expression. This is all mere common sense. But it is also a basic ques- tion of ethics in teaching. There is current in many parts of Alber- ta a practice of simply awarding marks on the basis of statistical pass rates prevail- ing throughout the province, irrespective of the precise achievements of teachers or of students. In this sort of atmosphere, there is no guarantee of actual standards in the subject; and it would be better to restore, with all their built-in evils, the external pub- lic exams unless some attempt is made to ensure more definite aims and methods of assessment than prevail at present. All of this does not deny that in practice many teachers challenge their students and insist on high standards with all the various tech- niques and powers they may have at their command. But it does mean that there is too much scope for lazy, sleazy and sloppy approaches to education. Some students are led to expect, particularly in the diploma stream, almost automatic passes, and some drones manage to creep into the university- oriented courses as well. There is urgent need for subject-confer- ences in Lethbridge and beyond. There is urgent need for more rigor in many ways. Grade 12 English 30 needs to be tightened up. The syllabus is a good one but the city- wide exam, with its emphasis on multiple- choice questions and fragmented approach, is a poor one. Our best students in English need better treatment than that. The connection between the discipline of hard work and the pursuit of excellence on the one hand and mutual respect between teachers and students on the other is closer than is'usually assumed. While standards are haphazard and hazy and internal as- sessments are not moderated in a profes- sional manner by those qualified to do so, schools here will continue to function at a level below tin; capacities of the young pco- plo they serve. and the Soviet Unhr has been signed and industrial co-opera- tion between the two countries is swelling. A treaty finally ac- cepting the border as Poland's western frontier is under negotiation with Ger- many, and, in spite of a post- ponement of the talks that were due to go into their next round in Bonn in he first days of September, should be con- cluded by the end of the year. On the horizon now are similar West German treaties with Czechoslovakia and with East Germany. What relevance has Potsdam to all this? It is like the wreck of the Reichstag in West Berlin, a symbol of the lost hope of Germany's survival as a single State. Most of the Pots- dam structure was in ruins within a few years. The centre of the Potsdam agreements was the intention that Ger- many should be jointly ruled by the Soviet Union and the three Western victor Powers as a disarmed, de-Nazified but united area. In this sense, Pots- dam was the end of a period rather than the beginning of a new era. It was a brave but doomed attempt to prolong in peacetime the co-operation in war of the great Powers, and to make the anti-Hitler coalition the foundation of 'European se- curity. The coming of the Cold War destroyed this central arch of the Potsdam structure. None of the four allies was free of blame, but ten years later two heavily armed German States were in existence. West Ger- many was challenging the clear intention of Potsdam that the transfer of the old German east to Poland should be per- manent, and the Western alies uneasily underwrote that chal- lenge by emphasizing their statement at Potsdam that the final determination of Poland's wesern borders would be made at a peace settlement. That German peace treaty, as the Western Powers visualized it, has never been negotiated. In all probability, it never will be. And yet something of Pols- dam remains. The clear inten- "Stay On Long Enough To Have Your Picture Anthony Westell tion of the Powers that Poland should be re-established as a state with iU fronier on the Oder and the Lusitanian Neisse, has been fulfilled, and have fulfilled the letter of Pots- dam is rejecting the existence of the Polish State as well. That much of the Potsdam architec- ture survives, and from the ruins, something of the spirit of Potsdam has also been sal- vaged. This is not merely the insistent East German claim to have fulfiled iiie latter of Pots- dam by thorough de-Nazifica- tion and by suppressing the private industrial nexus which was supposed to have been the source of German imperialism. It is the more general- admis- sion at Potsdam that peace in Europe can only be preserved by recognizing the integrity of states and frontiers, and by co- operation between the Commu- nist and capitalist social sys- tems. But not all the Potsdam spirit was benign. To resurrect Potsdam as a structure or model would be as senseless as West Germany's long and ex- pensive restoration of the Heichstag to serve as an all- German parliament. Potsdam was a system in which the peace of Europe was to be guaranteed by joint Great- Power control of a particular part of Europe in this case Germany. The smaller coun- tries had secondary status, and could only make their needs felt through their client rela- tionship to one or more of the Great Powers. Today, Europe is moving to- wards a security system with a different architecture. The va- rious proposals for a European security conference envisage a collective security arrange- ment in which all countries would nominally have equal rights and in which the Great Powers would withdraw then- troops and weapons gradually from foreign countries. The idea of a permanent se- curity commission of some sort, as proposed recently by the Budapest declaration of the Warsaw Pact countries, might provide an institution in which smaller counries could make that formal equality to Great Powers like the Soviet Union a little more of a political reality. This is why the Poles, al- though still loyal to the'Validity of Potsdam as the charter of Poland's present frontiers, are anxious about certain survivals of the Potsdam spirit among the Western allies. Formally, Britain, France and the United States still consider themselves victor Powers entitled, with the Soviet Union, to maintain a military presence in Berlin and to preside over the final settle- ment of the German quwtioo. Did the Western allies pre- serve this status merely to assure a nervous West Ger- many, to keep up the appear- ance of pressing for a reunited Germany as half of the bargain which rearmed the Federal Re- public on the Western side? Or do the Western three valut these rights in themselves? It looks as if these which the Western allies base not directly on Potsdam, but on Immediately previous declara- tions of the victorious Powert- do in fact have a magic of their own for the West. Not only da they give a basis-for the pres- ence of the Western troops in Berlin: they preserve for the allies a semblance of Great- Power status and an undefined, ultimate influence over what a West German State does in- cluding what it does wito Rus- sia. To renounce these' rights might seem to break the old Cold War bargain, and to grant West Germany the moral op- portunity to withdraw from NATO integration. The Moscow treaty between the Soviet Union and West Ger- many was followed by notei from the Western Powers stat- ing, certainly, that they did not consider the treaty to infringe their own prerogatives but de- scribing those prerogatives in extremely vague and broad terms. Is there, then, a danger that the Western allies could act as a brake on Chancellor Brandt's Eastern policies? Probably they will not do to: with whatever concealed mis- givings, .they are endorsing the Brandt policy. One can guess that if tomorrow he announced that West Germany regarded the division of German as final and the prospect of an all- German peace treaty as nil, the Western allies would be ap- palled. Brandt, however, is too clever to shock either his allies or his voters in that way. To Poles, the danger is rath- er that West Germany is carry- ing too much of the burden of rebuilding the .economic and political links between the two halves Europe. No country wants to depend almost exclu- sively on West Germany as a Westward outlet, and the Poles argue urgently that France and Britain, especially, must start playing their own full part in the European search for a new pattern of relationships. To leave West Germany iso- lated in its Eastern contacts would be dangerous. To remain aloof on the plinth of the Pots- dam ruins, posing as Great Powers who need not concern themselves with minor treaties, would be for France and Britain absurd. (Written for The Herald an4 The Observer, London) Pauline Jewett Could Be Next Liberal President Leading Liber- als are urging Pauline Je- wett, a Canadian nationalist and women's liberation supporter, to take over as party president at the national conference in November. The post, would make Miss Jewett, 47 now a professor of political science and direc- tor of the Institute of Canadian Studies at Carleton University the most influential woman in the history of Cana- dian politics. Under the new Liberal or- ganization, the president is the key figure linking the party to the government and interpret- ing one to the other. Miss Jewett would have reg- ular private talks with Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, meetings with the full cabinet Letter To The Editor to discuss political issues, and command of an aggressive par- ty machine seeking to build mass participation in politics. With Trudeau's emphasis on participatory politics and the modern party's determina tion to be more than a machine for dispensing patronage and gath- ering votes, the Liberal presi- dent has wider contact and more pervasive influence than most cabinet ministers. The present president is Sen- ator Richard Stanbury, 47-year- old Toronto lawyer who made his way up through party ranks as an Ontario bagman. He is widely respected for his straightforward ap p r o a c h to collecting party funds and for -his ability as an election organ- izer and party policy-maker. Irresponsible Action As a recent graduate of the University of Lethbridge, I am angered and disappointed with the irresponsible actions of i'nose responsible for the October 15 issue of The Meliorist. The student newspaper at the University of Lethbridge has been a constant thorn in the side of the administration, the fa- culty ind the majority of the students since its inception. In addition, it has, on many occa- sions, served to antagonize citi- zens of the City of Lethbridge. I am proud to have attended the University of Lethbridge and feel that. I received a fine education there. However, situ- ations like this one tend to les- sen the stature of the institution and therefore lessen the atature of my degree. With these thoughts in mind, urge the attorney general to do his duty and bring action against those responsible for this deplorable breach of the law. PATRICK J. WINDLE. Calgary. Protest Registered I would like to register a pro- test to the showing of the film "Alaskan Siifari" in Lelhbridge. This is not a "nature" film, as some of the advertisements lead one to believe it is a film about hunting. It is made and distributed by a United States company wliich intends to make money out' of the Canadian pub- lic by glorifying ths slaughter of the wild Ufa of Alaska. We in Canada are concerned With the preservation, of these species, which scientists tell us may be approaching c x t i n c t ion. Our neighbors may not see anything wrong with this film, but we utterly reject this irresponsible attitude. MARSHA REILLY. LcUibridgc. Prune Minister Lester Pear- son rewarded him for party services with a senatorship in February, 1968, and this cleared the way for Stanbury to become virtually a full-time president a few months later. He cut his law practice to a couple of days a week, skimp- ed in family life and, with Tru- deau's active encouragement, worked both to democratize the party and to link it more ef- fectively to the government and the parliamentary caucus. Stanbury has been suffering severe disc problems in his back, and although he now seems fully recovered, still treats himself with care. After the November national confer- ence, he would like to take things more easily, paying greater attention to his family and Senate duties. He has assured Trudeau, how- ever, that he will not leave the party in the lurch. That means that there has to be a good successor available or per- haps several candidates to con- test an election at the confer- ence. Party presidents in the past have been in effect, appointed by the party leader, who usual- ly followed through by putting his man on the public payroll by appointment to the Senate. A measure of the changing style of Liberal politics is that delegates at the November con- ference will have the final word in selecting a president. And as there is no longer a guarantee that the Prime Minister will make the president a senator, the party will provide a salary of to plus full expenses. Stanbury and others have been scn'iMng possible presi- dents, and Miss Jewett is high on the short list. A handsome, dark haired woman with a brisk, outgoing manner, she frankly enjoys pub- lic recognition, was an MP, from 1963 to '65, when she was defeated by George Hees, and then started her own public af- fairs TV show iu Ottawa. She has remained vice presi- dent of the Liberal Federation. On the left of the Liberal spectrum, she has been associ- ated with Walter Gordon's eco- nomic nationalism, and she par- ticipated a year ago in the Ed- monton teach in protesting the Americanization of Canada which was a landmark in the recent revival of political na- tionalism. Miss Jewett says that she has come to terms with the world as it is, a man's world, but she has been a speaker at women's lib rallies at Carleton. As party president, she would help to make up for the lack of women on the Liberal side ot the Commons and in the cab- inet. The party is proposing also, at the national conference, to change the constitution to abol- ish the separate women's fed- eration and to guarantee equal- ity of representation for men and women at future confer- ences. All this indicates the growing awareness that women, prompt- ed by the liberation- radicals, are seeing themselves in a new role in politics and demanding more serious attention. Tru- deau's image as a playboy, which was attractive to women in the last election, could become a liability if it appears that he has no respon- sible relationship with women in either his private or his pub- lie life. A woman at the head of the party, serving as a close advis- er to Trudeau, the cabinet and caucus, would improve the pub- lic image. Miss Jewitt is said to be in- terested in the party presiden- cy but reluctant to take over this year, perhaps because of commitments to Carleton and her academic career. She would prefer to wait a year or two. The solution may be for Stan- bury to remain in the job for the present, with the under- standing that lie will resign be- fore the next convention, enab- ling the executive to appoint Miss Jewett. LOOKING BACKWARD THROUGH THE HERALD 1820 City commissioners have granted increases to em- ployees. All clerical staff on monthly salaries will receive a month and hourly work- ers 13 per cent. a special meeting of city council, the mayor and council Were instructed to sign the contract for the purchase of the turbo generator. 1940 Germany has concen- trated about 70 army divisions in southeastern Europe, ac- cording to a British military expert. This would bo about men. 1950 Operations at Leth- bridge Collieries' No. 8 mine west of the city came to a full stop as 300 miners went on strike. The action follows a dis- pute over coal cars which have to be pushed by hand. The Lethbridge Herald 504 7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published 1905 1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mail Registration No 0012 Member of The Canadian Press and the Canadian Dally Newspaptr Publishers' Association and the Audit Bureau of Circulation! CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor r.nd Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, General Manager JOE BALLA WILLIAM HAY Mananlng Editor Associate Editcr ROYF. MILES DOUGLAS K. WALKER Advertising Manacer Editorial Pago Edilor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;