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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald (Newspaper) - October 16, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta %8 - THE IE7HBRIDGE HERAID - Friday, Oefober 16, 1970 mm mm.m lETHBRIDGE RESEARCH STATION Pea Disease In Alberta DR. F. R. HARPER, Plant Pathologist Peas are grown for seed and for processing on 15 to 20 thousand acres in Alberta. The crop is mainly confined to irrigated farms in the south. The growing of peas is not without its hazards for peas are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Root rot is the most serious disease of peas in this and Extra Pastme Feed Pays Feeding grain to yearling steers on irrigated pasture increased profits from $7 per head to $16.43 per head. These results were obtained in a trial carried out at CDA's Lethbridge, Alta., research station in wliich yearling steers grazed irrigated pastures that produced about 6,000 pounds of dry matter to the acre. Steers grazed from mid-May until September. The less profitable group got no extra feed; the more prbfit-able steers were fed increasing amounts of grain starting in early June and were on full feed by September. Grain-fed steers on good pasture usually gain half a pound a day more than those receiving no grain, says Alf Erich-een, feeder association supervisor for the Alberta department of agriculture in Edmonton. This spread can increase to a pound or more per day when pasture is poor or dry. Profits fom feediag grain on pasture can be increased by restricting grain intake. Mr. Ericksen points out that, in a trial at the University of Saskatchewan, steers self-fed grain containing animal fat or salt returned about $3 and $1 respectively more profit than steers getting untreated grain. Fat amd salt cut daily grain consumption by 2 pounds and 4 pounds respectively. Mr. Erich-sen points out that cattle fed salt control rations must have access to pl/.ity of drinking water. mamy other pea-growing areas. In fields frequently cropped to peas the soil-borne fungi that cause the disease build up rapidly to the level where pea growing must be abandoned. Land that is heavily infested with these organisms may require ten years or more for the population to decrease to a level where peas can again be profitably grown. All of the common pea varieties are susceptible to root rot. Seed treatment with an effective fungicide will protect the seedlings from attack and delay the onset of the disease. A crop sequence where peas are grown once in four or five years will prevent the build-up of large populations of these root-rotting fungi. Powdery mildew, the disease that produces a white, powdery covering on the leaves, stems, and pods of peas, is frequently severe on late-maturing varieties in the field and in home gardens. Dusting the plants with sulfur as soon as the symptoms appear is effective in controlling this disease. Two newly developed systemic fungicides have been highly effective in controlling the disease in experimental plots but at present they are not registered for use on food crops. Bacteriial blight, a seed-borne disease that causes spots on the leaves and pods, seldom causes significant damage to peas imder the dry conditions of southern Alberta. Its main significamce is that seed from a crop where bacterial blight has been found cannot be shipped to the United Kingdom one of Canada's best customers for pea seed. Bacterial blight can be avoided by sowing disease-free seed in land not cropped to peas the previous growing season. Thie Mycosphaerella and As-cochyta diseases which are often troublesome in moister pea-growing areas rarely occur in Alberta. These diseases cause spots on the leaves, stems and pods. One of them also causes rot at the base of the stem. The fungi causing these diseases survive from year to year in infested seed and in undecayed plant debris. Their infrequent occurrence in Alberta is an important reason why this province is a major producer of pea seed in Canada. Premium Dropped The $1.00 permium currently paid by the Canada department of agriculture for choice Iamb carcasses weighing 36 to 56 pounds will be discontinued at the end of this year. The lamb quality premium was introduced in 1961 to encourage farmers to produce top quality lambs. According to the department two major changes in market conditions since 161 have made the premium less signi-fioant. First prices have risen. A check of prices indicates that good lambs at Toronto in CHOW TIME - Evert Veldhuizen, herdsman of the Ellison farm at Broxburn, dumps feed ration (one third mustard screenings two thirds wheat screenings plus added minerals) into one of the perimeter feeding troughs at the farm. Albert Bourassa, Lethbridge manager of the totdi confinement sheep operation, says the ration is high in protein and fat, and seems to give the sheep a resistance to internal parasites. Sheep Program Near Lethbridge One Of North America's Largest One of the largest total confinement sheep programs in North America is run on the Ellison farm, Broxburn, six miles east of Lethbridge. The four-acre sheep complex is m-anaged by Albert Bourassa, Lethbridge and herdsman Evert Veldhuizen, Broxburn. The farm had its beginning in the sheep industry in 1949, when the flock which then numbered about 200 animals was used as a feed outlet for excess roughage obtained from the Ellison mill in Lethbridge. Today the farm consists of four main pens, built on a southerly slope, open face sheds and sheltered perimeter feeding troughs. At the present time, the flock is made up of about 950 ewes and about 50 rams. (RambouUlet, Corriedale and Suffolk) Breeding is done throughout the month of Oct., with the ewes divided in groups of three. The groups are each tagged with different colored ear tags and each group is bred at a different inteml. This spreading out of the breeding is done to prevent a sudden over burdening load of new lambs on the farm in the spring. Mr. Bourassa says this practise makes for more efficient usage of available facilities. All lambing is scheduled for January. There are two reasons for this says Mr. Bourassa, the first being that the three varieties of sheep raised on the farm will not breed at anytime of the year, and secondly because spring is when the best market prices are paid. Mr. Bourassa says the objective of sheepmen should he to spread lambing out through the year by introducing new sheep breeds which wiU breed anytime. If this was done a more stable market could be established year roimd. At lambing, fotur foot by four foot claiming pens are used to ensure the new born lambs are not separated from their mothers. The lambs are kept with the ewes in these small pens for about 24 hours. Then they are transferred to eight foot by 16 foot grouping pens where eight ewes and their lambs are kept for about a week. The final step in the familiarization program comes after this period, when 250 ewes and their lambs are turned into one pen. Now the lambs are introduced to a creep ration made Crop Report-1970 Figures released by the Alberta Wheat Pool showing acreage yield and production estimates for the province of Alberta: 1970 Grain Acreage Yield Production Wheat................. 2,600,000 27.2 71,000,000 Oats ................ 2,130,000 53.9 115,000,000 Barley ................ 4,700,000 40.3 189,000,000 Flax ................ 700,000 15.9 11,100,000 Rye .................. 215,000 19.9 4,300,000 Rapeseed ............ 1,600,000 18.2 29,000,000 1969 Grain Acreage Yield Production Wheat ................ 5,300,000 26.4 140,000,000 Oats ................ 2,000,000 51.0 120,000,000 Barley ................ 5,100,000 40.0 204.000,000 Flax ................ 450,000 14.0 6,300,000 Rye ................ 180,000 19.4 3,500,000 Rapeseed.............. 816,000 14.3 11,700,000 SNOWMOBILE SPECIALS 1 ONLY 14 H.P. SNO-PONY 40 M.P.H. 12.monlh worrotity en new models. Reg. 699.00................ I ONLY 10 H.P. SNO-PONY 12-montli worranty. Reg. 599.95................ I ONLY 10H.P. SNOWMOBILE Slightly used; new track. ONLY ..................... 499 475 300 TERMS CAN BE ARRANGED. Many other specials on Lawn Mowers, Riding Tractors, Hedge Trimmers, etc. MOTOR MOWER 817 3rd Ave. S. Phone 327-2669 Department Of Agriculture Warns Against Ryegrasses The Alberta department of agriculture is very concerned about reports that farmers are buying annual and perennial ryegrass seed to plant for forage. The fact that these grasses are completely unsuited to conditions in this province is the reason for the concern. Orlan Bratvold head of the field crops branch in Edmonton explains that both annual and perennial ryegrasses require a fairly mild climate and plenty of moisture. Neither species has any tolerance to drought. They are mainly grown.in coastal areas such as the U-S. pacific northwest and the Atlantic coast. Annual ryegrasses are mainly used in North America as a nurse crop for establishing lawns. Mr. Bratvold also points out that no annual forage crops, including the annual ryegrasses, are eligible for the province's forage assistance program. Under this program the government pays half of the cost of perennial forage seed. According to Mr. Bratvold there are ahoat three species of annual ryegrasses, one of which is Darnel, a weed that has plagued grass growers in the Peace River area. Darnel could well be among the annual ryegrass seed being offered for sale this spring. Of the perennial ryegrasses, the two most common are Italian ryegrass and English ryegrass, neither of which are winter hardy in Alberta. In fact, they are less winter hardy than orchardgrass which is recommended only for the irrigated areas of southern Alberta. Anyone who is hopmg to take advantage o� the federal wlieat acreage reduction program by growing forage crops should bear in mind that th.ese crops have to be inspected in mid-1971 to qualify for the $4 an acre payment. Mr. Bratvold suspects that many perennial ryegrass crops will winter kill, which means that there will be no $4 per acre payment collected next summer. Perennial ryegrasses are grown in a very limited area of southwestern Alberta tor seed production. However, this is a very different proposition to growing them for forage. A thin stand of forage actually increases the seed yield, but can have a devastating effect on forage yields. Wliat should farmers do if they cannot get the forage seed they had planned ou sowing this spring? Mr. Bratvold recommends planting cereal crops for greenfeed or silage rath.er than annual forage crops because the former give better yeilds. Timothy, creeping red fescue and even orchardgrass are all better bets for perennial forage crops than any of the ryegrasses, he says. Calendar Of Farm Events October 21 - Del Bonlta - Master Farm Family Recognition Night 7:00 p.m. - Del Bonita School October 22 - Warner - Extension Open House - (Tree Selection and Landscape Planning; Snow and Wind Control in Shelterbelts).' October 22 - Burdett - Master Farm Family Recognition Night October 26 - 30 - Province-wide - Unifarm sponsored "see Alberta" tour October 30 - 31 - Brooks - Farm and Community Leadership Workshop November 4 - 5 - Winnipeg - United Grain Growers Convention November 5 - 6 - Edmonton - Feed Industry Conference November 13 - 21 - Toronto - Royal Agricultural Winter Fair November 18 - Edmonton - Alberta Turkey Assoc. Annual Meeting November 18 - 20 - Edmonton - Alberta Poultry Industry Conference November 19 - 20 - Brooks - Alberta Potato Commission and Alberta Potato Growers Assoc. Annual Meeting and Potato Harvest Ball November 20 - Lethbridge - 20th Annual Lethbridge Fall pureb(red Cattle Sale November 23 - 27 - Banff - Annual Stockman's Short Course November 25 - 27 - Ottawa - Agrciultural Congress on Task Force recommendations. LIMITED NUMBER OF COPIES NOW AVAILABLE FALL 1970 FARM AND RANCH DIRECTORIES A complete listing of all farms nnd ranches In the Lethbridge trading area. $10.00 EACH AVAILABLE AT The Lethbridge Herald CORNER OF 5th AVE. AND 7th ST. S. LETHBRIDGE 1981 averaged $20.80 per cwt. compared to $32.80 per cwt. in 1969. Secondly, more lambs are currently being marketed through channels where the premium does not apply. The premium is paid only on choice carcasses marketed through federally inspected packing plants. The government began phasing out the premium on April 1, 1968 by dropping the $1.00 premium for Good carcasses and by rediucing thp preinium on Choice carcasses to $1.00. In 1969, the prennium was paid on about 88,000 lamb carcasses. Alfalfa In South Alberta available by special feeders with entrances too small for the ewes to enter. Mr. Bourassa says this method of weaning greatly reduced lamb mortality rate at market time by cutting stress when the lambs are sep-rated from the ewes. Last spring the farm market ed about 900 of its 1,338 lambs, Mr. Bourassa believes the outlook for the sheep industry in total confinement or semi-confinement lots is good, and more small operators may be able to get into the market. "Grazing land is just too valuable today," he said, "and confinmeent reduces the sheep-mans worrj' about predators." Apparently the sheep industry is catching on, as figures released by the Dominion Bureau of. Statistics showed siheep numbers in AJberta were up 1.1 per cent in 1970 over 1969, at 247,000 compared to 218,000. Sheep numbers in all of Canada were up 13 per cent in 1970 over 1969. Mr. Bourassa says the. expansion of the sheep industry will depend on the co-operation of all concerned. "Canada could use seven million more sheep if we were lo supply just what Canada imports every year in mutton, lamb and wool." C. S. BRANDLEY, P. Ag. District Agriculturist Lethbridge Alfalfa and alfalfa - grass mixtures are producing high yields on many farms in South-em Alberta- But it takes keen forage nuanagement know-how to get the job done. What kind of tonnage goals should we shoot for? Many farmers in our area are harvesting five to six tons of alfalfa per acre. The average for southern Alberta is about one-half this yield so many farmers still have a long way to go. One successful alfalfa grower in the Lethbridge area states, "My alfalfa yields have been consistently high when I give this ci-op the same attention and management that I give to row crops." ' ... Many of the row crops in our irrigation areas are gradually moving from the heavj' soils to the sandy soils. Land subject to this change is in many cases, being planted to alfalfa. This substtotiMi aM>ears to be quite sound as the yield and quality of alfalfa are superior to the yield and quality of most other forage crops. Alfalfa makes an excellent cattle feed because of its high protein content. It is also very palatable and livestock like it in any form it is fed. The cattle population is increasing in Southern Alberta. Our large commercial feed lots have added additional cattle and addMtonal demands for feed in our area. Two of our larger commercial feedlots yearly feed approximately one million bushels of barley apiece. Has tfcfi increased cattle population increased the demand for alfalfa hay? Most alfalfa growers inform that re-gai'dless of the increase in cattle numbers, the demand for their product is not increasing. "No matter how good the product is, it will not have a future in Southern Alberta it if cannot be sold." This statement is common among alfalfa growers of Southern Alberta. The next question is, Why can it not he sold to the large feedlofcs? In discussing the problem with our larger feed-lots they state that their rations contain from five to ten per cent alfalfa hay. They would increase the amount of alfalfa hay if it fit into their mechanized feeding systms. With the present system of handling hay and the work involved, most of them stated that they would like to drop alfalfa hay from their rations. The feed processing plants ta our area are preparing an ever increasmg amount of our cattle feed. They find the same problem with alfalfa hay as do the feedlot operators. Baled alfalfa hay does not fit into their processing mechanism. If alfalfa is to have a future in southern Alberta it will have to find a system that eliminates manual handling- It will have to fit into mechanized handling. Hay cubes, which puts hay into condensed packages, may be one method of increasing alfalfa sales. These compact packages, or cubes, mean that the hay can be mechanically handled in the field and fit into the mechanized systems of the feedlots and feed processing plants. Alfalfa wUI continue to have a future in southern Alberta if we solve its production and marketing problems. We can increase production with new technology and management techniques. We must also get the product in a saleable form -namely, one that will work with feeding mechanizatiwu Dairy Surplus If the present inuport of dairy products into Canada were replaced by domestically produced products, the present surplus dairy problem would' disappear. Merc. It goes. The new one. One piackage, two sensational new engine models. A 30-hp Lightning and a 25-hp Rocket. Both machines go! Lightning-55 mph Rocket-45 mph. A lightweight alimiinum chassis hugs the ground. Low center of gravity provides maximum stability and maneuverability. Instant-action steering responds quick and easy. And the spoiler windshield offers more wind protection with less drag-producing frontal area. Go with the new Merc. Leave the others behind. KlekhuBfer Mereurr of eansds, ltd. Toronto. DivisiMi of Brunswick Corporation. Merc. The new one is here. ROGERS SALES AND SERVICE Bindloss, Alberta ANDYS FURNITURE AND SPORTING GOODS Bonnyville, Alberta ANDERBERG EQUIPMENT Brook*, Alberta FOOTHIllS BATTERY AND MARINE Colgary, Alberta RUDYKS SERVICE Duvernay, Alberta HOLIDAY MARINE Edmonton, Alberta SCONA MARINE CO. LTD. Edmonton, Alberta ERNIES SPORTS CENTRE Grande Prairie, Alberta HARDISTY HARDWARE LTD. Hardisiy, Alberta SILVER STAR INDUSTRIES Lethbridge, Alberta SKYWAY TERRACE Medicine Haf, Alberta DOWNTOWN SPORTS shop Peace River, Alberta BRIDGE CITY MARINE Red Deer, Alberta ST. PAUL AUTO AND SPORTS SHOP St. Paul, Alberta McDonalds hardware AND BLDG. Valleyview, Alberta ;