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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 14, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta Otleb.r 14, 1970 THE UTHBRIDGE HERALD 5 Arnold Toynbee The Liberation Of Military Defeat T ONDON Today, a quarter of a century after the end of the Second World War, the two countries that are having the greatest economic success are the two that suffered utter military defeat in 1945. This is not a fortuitous coincidence. A military defeat brings with it a liberation from burdens that a military victory imposes. The ex-victors handicap themselves for post-war economic competi- tion with the ex-vanquished by disarming their competitors while remaining under arms themselves. The victors are also tempted to overtax their strength by trying to maintain a role that has become too big for them (the post-war mistake of Britain and France) or by undertaking hazardous new commitments (the post-war mistake of the United States and of the Soviet Union.) The victors' late opponents have a better chance of talcing some promising new departure. They will profit by the opportunity if they have taken the lesson of military defeat to heart. This ironical reversal of for- tunes is illustrated by the re- cent signature in Moscow of .die treaty between West Ger- many and the Soviet Union. If the Great Elector and Freder- ick the Great and Bismarck could have foreseen this day they would have said that in Moscow in 1970 Reichskanzler Brandt was acknowledging tha liquidation of Prussia and they would have been right. Prussia was liquidated in 1945 by "blood and iron" the instru- ments with which Prussia had been forged. Under Herr Brandt's leadership, West Ger- many has recognized the ac- complished fact and has there- by opened a new chapter in German history. In allaying the Russians' fear of an eventual German attempt at a war of revenge Herr Brandt has .won the Soviet Union for West Ger- many as a field for her .econ- omic enterprise. He has won this because the Russians themselves are inviting West Germany to walk in now that she is presenting herself in civilian garb and not in battle- dress. The most striking fea- ture of the ceremony at Mos- cow was the Russians' publicly advertised satisfaction at the prospect of enlisting West Ger- man skill for helping them to develop the Soviet Union's re- sources. The makers of Prussia might have been puzzled to account for present-day West Ger- many's power. Seen through their eyes, West Germany is a mere fragment of Prussia's dis- Andrew Wilson membered carcass; yet West Germany today has economic prospects that were beyond the horizon of Prussia-Germany at the peak of her power between 1871 and 1914. Japan was at the peak of her power between 1914 and 1941; yet even after their exploit at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese can hardly have expected to force an entry into Australia. Today, however, .Australia is already working with Japan in an econ- omic partnership of the kind lo which Germany and the Soviet Union are now looking forward. Thus, Japan has acquired her "co-prosperity sphere" and Germany her Lebensraum, a quarter of a century after the signal defeat of these two Pow- ers' attempts to carve out em- pires for themselves by force of arms. The military minds that were in the ascendant in both countries before the .two World Wars believed that, in a com- petitive world, only the sword could win a place in the sun for Balance Of Power 1970 T ONDON A warning against over-optimism in the light of current Soviet-Am- erican arms talks and the Mid- dle East cease-fire is contained in the latest issue of The Mili- tary Balance, published here by the Institute for Strategic Studies. The annual document, widely regarded as the world's most authoritative guide on military forces, says the United States has already installed multi- headed' nuclear rockets on some missile cites. The Sbviet Union Is mean- Awhile continuing to deploy its huge SS-9 missiles, and has overtaken America in land- based intercontinental missiles. The balance in warheads is more complicated, however. The Institute says the Rus- sians now have 240 operational SS-9s, which have 20-25 mega- ton warheads. Like the Ameri- cans, they have tested multiple warheads and may soon fit a three-warhead system to (he SS-9. But although Russian land-based ICBMs now outnum- ber American- ones by to the Americans, with their MIRVS (Multiple Independent- ly-targetted Re-entry Vehicles) have gone into a new technical era. According to the Institute, the United States has started lo deploy a three-warhead system on the powerful Mnuteman 3 missile; and is converting its nuclear submarines to take a 10-warhead MIRV in the new Poseidon rocket. The MIRV is now being tested and is due to become operational next Jan-p uary. The installation of Poseidon means that America, though in- ferior in landbased launching vehicles, will increase its lead over Russia 'in the number of warheads its rockets can de- liver. Among other points highlight- ed by The Military Balance are: Arms expenditure: While So- viet arms spending is slowly going up, American spend- ing has gone down from some million in 1969 to 400 million in 1970, and is plan- ned to decline further still. Europe: A comparison of NATO and Warsaw Pact forces shows marked imbalances. The Pact has some more tanks and. more tactical aircraft than NATO; and al- though the West remains su- perior at sea, Soviet fleets are now able to challenge it at ev- ery level of military or politico- military action. China: Despite China's launching of a satellite last April, Chinese operational abil- ity to deliver nuclear weapons is still limited to elderly bomb- ers. China's missile program continues, however, and she may now be giving priority to early development of an inter- continental missile. Middle Eist: Military con- frontation is costing Israel one- quarter of its Gross National Product, and Egypt one-fifth. The Egyptian army is men stronger than a year ago, and its air force larger and bet- ter, equipped than at the start of the 1967 June war. Soviet advisers in Egypt have gone up from to in 12 months. T h e r e are now some 100 Soviet-flown MiG-21 super- sonic fighters there, and about 22 Soviet-manned SA-3 missile sites. Many more anti-aircraft missile sites are under con- struction. The Arms Trade: A sub- stantial market has persisted in Latin America, w h e r e Ar- gentina and Brazil spend more on defence than many smaller European countries. The big- gest arms transfers are still in the Middle East, however. Ex- tensive military aid has been given by the United States to Taiwan The Institute for Strategic Studies was founded in 1938 as an international centre for re- search on problems of defence, world security and disarma- ernment. It is independent of governments, international in its sources of finance and pro- grams, and has members in 42 countries. (Written for The Herald. and The Observer, London) PRICES EFFECTIVE THURS. FRI. SAT. OCT. 15r 16, 17 CREAM CORN CHEEZ WHIZ 4 PINEAPPLE JUICE I AM Beller Buy 70r JMlf I Apple and Strawberry 48-or. tin I ONIATUtJ Contodina Choice..........28-oz. tin g for "0 DCAfUCC 0 I CnVnC J Clarita Std. sliced .._...........28-oz. tin L for INSTANT 49' GRAPES BARTLETT PEARS Kon Tiki VSs 28-or. tin GREEN GIANT WAX BEANS 14-or. tin 4 Block U ib, I .00 CABBAGE Alberta grown green, Canada No. 1 Ib. ONIONS Yellow cooking, Canada No. 1 3-lb. bag PEPPERS Green Bell Canada No. 1 2 49' CARROTS Alberta grown Canada No. 1 3-lb. bag Sides of Beef Red Hinds of Beef Brand ib. 59c Red Of BIUB Brand ib. 73c CUT AND WRAPPED FOR YOUR FREEZER FfOHtS Of 0661 Red or Blue Brand Ib. 49C Sirloin or Club Steak Red or siu... ib.1.19 Ground Beef ,b. 65c T-Bone or Porterhouse Round Steak full 89c Frying Chicken Frnjh ,b. 45c Coil Garlic Sausage 65c Sausage rm.............................. ,b. 65c Stew Beef lb, 89c Chuck Roast or Steak ,b. 59c Boneless Rump or Hip Roast Red u...... ib.1.09 Bftttnn RuH Pnrlr Rnnct Beef Liver.................................... 47c GRAHAM'S FOOD MARKET 708 3rd Avenue South PHONE AND SAVE FREE DELIVERY GROCERIES 327-5434, 327-5431 MEATS 327-18U OPEN THURSDAY TILL 9 P.M. late entrants into the world's economic arena. This program was foredoomed to fail. Sooner or later military aggression provokes a counter-coalition of sufficiently superior strength to ensure the aggressors' defeat. This fate has overtaken aggres- eventually again and again. A prudent aggressor there- fore sets himself a limited aim, and he makes a minimum use of war as an instrument of liis provocative .policy. This was Bismarck's way. After Prus- sia's brilliantly successful war with Austria in 1866, Bismarck contented himself with exclud- ing Austria from the rest of Germany, and though he did make annexations in North Germany he took nothing from Austria and nothing from Aus- tria's South Gennan allies. Bis- marck's objective was to unite all Germany except Austria un- der Prussia's hegemony and he completed his achievement of this aim when in 1870-71 Prus- sia .defeated France, with all the. German states .except Aus- tria fighting, this time, on Prus- sia's side. However in the peace im- posed on France in 1871, Bis- marck as well as France was worsted. If in 1871 Bismarck had been free, to treat France as leniently as he had man- aged to treat Austria in 1866, the Second German Reich might have remained intact down to the present day. Bis- marck did prevent the Prus- sian General Staff from annex- ing Belfort, but the annexation of .Mete and Alsace left a rank- ling wound in French hearts. After that, so long as Bismarck remained in office he was haunted by "the nightmare of and. this nightmare became a 'fact when Bismarck was dismissed by the Emperor William II. The annexation ot Alsace-Lorraine to the Second German Eeich had sealed the Second Reich's late, and with it Prussia's. Yet, suppose that in 1914 Ger- many had restrained Austria- Hung ary firmly enough to off the outbreak of the First World War; it seems probable that in that case Ger- many between then and now would have become the fore- most economic Power in the world; Britain would have been resentful and sulky at seeing herself peacefully deposed from her former proud role of being "the workshop of the world" but she would not have gone to war with Germany on this account and the Americans would have been content with their own Lebensraum in tha New World, even when the Uni- ted States had grown to her full economic stature. The Second German Keich would have ar- rived, with the world's acquies- cence, at the point from which West Germany is taking he? new departure in 1970. Suppose, too, that in 1894 Ja- pan instead of attacking and despoiling China had offered lo help China to make herself proof against European aggres- sion. Japan had done this for herself since 1868. Together Ja- pan and China could have held their own in the world and could have traded with each o t h e r to their mutual advant- age. Japan's military victory over China in 1894 sowed the seeds of Japan's military de- feat by the United States in 1945. The accumulated fruits of Japan's ascending scale of military victory in 1894 and 1941 were all forfeited si- multaneously. In 1945 Japan had to start again at the point at which she had stood before 1894, but with the difference that she had now to win China's confidence. T h i s is going to be difficult for Japan. She has to live down China's memory, not only of 1894, but of Japan's conquest of Manchuria in tlie 1930s and her subsequent attempt to conquer the r e s t of China. So far pres- ent-day Communist China's in- tentions are as great an enig- ma for the Japanese as they are for the rest of the world; yet it would not be surprising if one day a counterpart of the Russo German treaty of 1970 were to be signed in Peking by representatives of China and Japan. Peaceful co-operation for the develop- ment of a huge country's latent resources would obviously be as advantageous to the two parties to this enterprise in Eastern Asia as it will be in Eastern Em-opc. It looks as if Japan and West Germany had learnt the lessons of 011111817 defeat. It is high time for the ex-victors in the two world wars to become aware of the traps set by mili- tary victory. Tlie lesson for the ex-victors may be more diffi- cult to decipher, but the price for tailing to read it may be high. (Written for The Herald The Observer, London) High Cost Of Disruption From The Christian Science Monitor rPHERE are costs to disruptions asso- dated with campus youth which if more clearly seen, would go far toward discrediting the cult of disruption. On a single corner in Boston for ex- ample, are usually stationed six or seven policemen. It is a corner in Hememvay Street, where last spring youths and the city's police force had a vicious set-to after a noisy late-hours street party. It costs the city of Boston about a year to keep a stogie policeman on the street. This means that on an annual basis, some are tied up by a single street cor- ner near a college district enough to feed and house 60 poor famlies at a year. President Nixon has asked Congress lo let the FBI add another men to the current man force, specifically to deal with campus disorders, as well as help with the recent crisis in aerial hi- jackings. There are mixed reactions to the President's request.. The chairman of, the House Judiciary Committee, Rep. Eman- uel Celler of Brooklyn, was angered that the President didn't consult him in the matter though he will support the re- quest. Many university leaders arc un- happy because it looks like a grasping government hand on campus life. But the feeling.around the nation is that govern- and local, must be harder on crime, and specifically on that associated with the universities. The FBI claims that the Students lor a Democratic Society alone was involved in incidents of arson, personal injury, and other destructive episodes in the last academic year. When one adds in other radical factions, the number of incidents is far higher. Even avoidance of a single campus disaster such as the bombing of the University of Wisconson's math centre, its cost put at million, could offset the costs of beefing up police security. There are psychological as well as dol- lar costs to disruption, of course. Many ot the residents of Hememvay Street in Bos- ton are troubled or frightened by the great number of students around them and others by the police. The police also are much needed in the black ghetto districts nearby. Resentment builds all around. One feels that the free running of dis- ruption in and around campuses must end quickly. The costs of it are greater than the country and certainly its youtly, should be willing to bear. Search For Neiv Grain Markets From The Saskatoon Star-Phoenix Canada Grains Council has launched an ambitious fact-finding mission to search for new grain markets for the Prai- ries. Later this month, four technical ser- vice missions of five members each will leave Winnipeg to visit 25 countries in Cen- tral and South America, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia. It should be made clear that the Canada Grains Council mission has its sights set on the long-term rather than the immediate. It will try to eftablish" whether certain countries want our grains, particularly barley, and it will be part of the mission experts' tasks to record those who want to trade with us as well as those who do not. The Canadian observers will also try to determine whether or not a Canadian "presence" should be established in any or all the countries to be visited. George Heffelfinger, vice-chairman of the SGC, and an experienced grain trader, said the missions will be asked to determine "What kind of permanent presence should Can- ada have in these countries? "Should he be a farmer of technician? "Should he be a salesman or a finan- Mr. Heffelfinger and Dr. Donald A. Dever secretary general of the CGC, are aware that the United States, through the medium of private grain trading organiza- tions, has sucli a presence, a permanent resident in a foreign country with perma- nent offices established there. This arrangement gives the United Stales a particular advantage because its offices are informed on the grain needs, and the technical and financial aid needed. So the Americans have an important standby advantage over Canada and other exporting countries; and the Americans are on the spot to seize upon marketing op- portunities as quickly as they arise. The Canadian missions are made up of Prairie farmers, and Prairie experts who are fully informed on grains, and how they may, be utilized abroad for feeding live- stock, and for oilier purposes besides feed- ing. The budget for the mission will amount to about which is a modest sum for sending 2o persons to 25 countries for about a month of visits. The federal gov- ernment is paying BO per cent, the three Prairie provinces contributing the other 50 per cent. Mission members are giving their lima free of charge and some of the organiza- tions are donating personnel as well as funds. Hopes are high for the success of this undertaking, which may lead the way to- wards more balanced farming programs on the Prairies in future years. America In Trouble By John S. Knight, Editorial Chairman, Knight Newspapers TN earlier wars, and as I am sure John F. Kennedy would have done, the American people were called upon to make sacrifices deemed essential to the preser- vation of a stable economy. We had meat- less days in the First World War, rationing and other restrictions in the Second World War. Yet in Vietnam and now in Indochina, no one other than those who have lost their loved ones has made any sacrifices what- soever. President Johnson repeatedly assured the American people that we could afford both guns and butter more weaponry and welfare, higher government spending, greater appropriations for projects of du- bious value and never mind the cost. So we have been living it up enjoying the luxuries and totally oblivious to the day of reckoning. When a nation can send men to a bloody conflict in South- east Asia while suffering no deprivations at home, something very fundmental has been drained from the American charac- ter. President Nixon, who has attempted to curb inflation by traditional methods is now the target of every demagogue who prates about the evils of inflation while promising the people even bigger benefits from the government. In my judgment, the President should have asked for wage and price controls long ago. Now, even the Federal Reserve Board is increasing the money supply thus giving evidence that Washington has lost its courage in the fight against inflation. The devastating cycle of cost-push infla- tion continues as Nixon exchanges toasts at the White House with leaders of labor, school teachers in Philadelphia are de- manding as much as a year for a day and construction costs are so high that a medium income citizen can- not afford to build or buy a new home. In an otherwise excellent speech at Kan- sas Stale University, President Nixon said "We see a nation poised to progress more in the next five years, in a material sense, than it did in 50 only a short time ago." Yet what America needs is not "ma- terial progress" alone but a rededication to tlie ideals held by President Kennedy that a nation endures only so long as its citizens work, strive and sacrifice to keep it strong. Or, as expressed by Jean Jacques Rous- seau some 200 years ago, "As soon as any man says of the affairs of State, 'what does it mailer to the State may bs given up for lost." The Benefits Of Federalism By Rcjean Lacombe, in Trois-IUvicres Lc Nonvellisle JOURNALIST. POLITICIAN Jean Jacques Servan-Schreiber, author of Tlie American Challenge lost no op- portunity to point out the benefits of fed- eralism during his recent visit to Can- ada The worts of JJSS tend to counterbal- ance the statements made three years ago by another eminent, French citizen Gen. Charles de Gaulle, then president of the republic. However, we think it clumsy of Sum to come to Canada and try lo make Canadians believe that federalism is the only solution to Uieir present problems. Canadians are certainly better qualified than Servan-acureibcr decide o n their own future. Just as the former president of France had no business encouraging the idea of Quebec separatism JJSS had no business presenting federalism lo Canadians as the only solution to their problems. It should not be forgotten that Canadians discovered federalism long before the for- mer publisher of L'Express, and they know better than anyone else what slwuld be added lo or taken from the present formula. to make it profitable for all Ca- nadians. This docs not mean that the secretary of the French Radical Socialist party did not bring up some interesting points on his recent visit: to the country. Far from it. But nevertheless it can be said, bcyonci ihe shadow of fl doubt, that he acted ir- responsibly, when ho attacked Quebec na- tionalists and separatist in suclr presump- tuous tftrms, ;