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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 14, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta CKtobtr 14, Wt lETHBIIDGf HtRALD 3S Revolutionary Separatists Change Technique British Envoy Kidnapping Marks New Twist In Quebec Terrorist Activity By JOSEPH MacSWEEN MONTREAL (CP) The kidnapping of a British envoy marks a new twist in the ter- rorism that has hit 'the Mont- real area with at least 230 bomb explosions in seven years, making previous Cana- dian history look an age of innocence in this respect. Six pei-sons a youth killed by explosives he was as a result of terrorist activi- ties arising from French-Ca- nadian discontents; All the fa- talities were in Quebec prov- ince but one, an Ottawa woman. She was the second woman to die. By adopting the "diplomatic kidnapping" technique evolved in Latin America and elsewhere, Quebec separatists of the revolutionary type have added an ominous weapon to their arsenal. Unlike the familiar scatter- gun tactics, tlu's action was directed more surely against a coldly selected individual -who was not accused of any personal Interference on the Canadian political scene. The abduction Monday of trade envoy James Richard (Jasper) Cross thus becomes different and in some ways a more spectacular and dulling stroke than the several spo- radic series of violence perpe- trated by, advocates of a Quebec republic. The frequent home of Mayor Jean Drapeau -was wrecked; 27 persons were injured 'at the Montreal Stock Exchange and violent demonstrations of various kinds have put this city on the world map in un- happy fashion since early 1963. But also during the 1960s the Canadian "metropolis" so effectively boosted by Mayor Drapeau has opened a new subway, sproutec1 sky- scrapers, received visitors to Expo 67 and brought major-league baseball to Canada as companion to its hockey expertise. BOMBINGS START A Molotov cocktail discov- ered spluttering in the snow March 7, 1963, signalled the opening of an often agonizing story-within-a-story. At that time Quebec, 80, per cent French-speaking, was already experiencing an unprece- dented surge of political and social Quiet Rev- olution. All the values of Quebec so- ciety were being put to ques- tion. Patterns associated with the long and tough rule of au- thoritarian premier Maurice Duplessis, who died in 1959, were under severe criticism and a new vitality swept French-Canadian affairs. As Canada approached and passed its 1967 centennial, the life of the country of and province of was changed by the drive of French-Canadians for a better place than they had hitherto known in Confederation. Conflict focussed on this cosmopolitan city of some where English- speakers dominate in eco- nomic power despite the French-speaking numbers. Though the great majority of those French-Canadians who have taken the separatist option espouse peaceful meth- ods and eschew violence, some unknown number want an overthrow of society by force and they identify them- the Cross kidnap- pers have revolu- tionary movements elsewhere. Ineffective Molotov cock- filled with kero- sene or gasoline were quickly replaced by dynamite bombs in the initial six-week wave of 1963. The bomb-makers have be- come more expert and reck- less of human life. Early ef- forts compare as firecrackers with a time bomb of 140 or more dynamite sticks, re- cently discovered and disman- tled in a car behind the Bank of Montreal building in the financial district. One expert said it co 'Id have wrecked a city block. Tlie 1903 bombings struck principally at federal build- ings and CNR tracks, a radio-TV tower, army, Canadian Legion and HCMP buildings. One blast spilled gallons of fuel oil at a refinery. Symbols of the British connection also were targets. FIUST CASUALTY William Vincent O'Neill, 65- year-old veteran of both world wars, fell first victim when he was killed April 29, 1963, by a bomb while wbrking as night watchman at an armed forces recruiting centre here. Terrorists concentrated on the wealthy largely English- speaking Westmount district. Sgt.-Maj. Walter R. Leja, 42, army engineer, was maimed when one of 11 time bombs placed in public mail boxes in Westmount exploded in his hands May 17, 1963. Five bombs went off between 3 a.m. and a.m. The Quebec government posted a reward for information leading to the ar- rest and conviction of the ter- rorists, on lop of the offered earlier by the City of Montreal. Capture of terrorists, plus heavy sentences for some of them, put the bombers out of sight for a time but scores of additional attacks were to come, notably in 1969-70. In the initial period, people generally attributed the bombings to professional agi- tators, probably from over- seas. They were dismayed to learn when some 20 persons were arrested that nearly all were native Quebecers, many scarcely out of their teens. Courts heard for the first time about the Front de Lib- eration Quebecois, now the Front de Liberation du Quebec, which was to become a household word under the initials FLQ. EXPECTED UPRISING Young FLQ members eon- .fided to friends they expected the bombings would bring about a popular uprising against "English-speaking col- onizers" and federalists in the province. Sometimes matters took on a comic-opera look, as when an agitator passionately shouted "the revolution has started" after a CNR building was set oh fire. At Quebec City, a-stone pil- 1 a r commemorating Gen. James Wolfe, victor in the 1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham, was knocked over. The mood is even more sombre now. A television crew was recently told by two former FLQ members drilling in a Palestinian guerrilla camp they would initiate a program of "selective assassi- nation" on return to Canada. Other terrorists trained in Cuba, officials say. The public was able to form opinions of the early FLQ from leaflets left behind at bombings and mimeographed statements mailed to the press. These said the "suicide commandos" were pledged to violence until death to achieve Quebec's secession from Can- ada and the province's eco- nomic independence from "Anglo-American The FLQ asked that "our wounded and our prisoners be treated as political prisoners and according to the Geneva conventions of war." A 1969 communique from the FLQ featuring, as custom- ary, a sketch of a colonial-era patriot holding a.rifle, said the movement now was in- spired by Cuban socialism, and the philosophy and action of Che Guevara, the revolu- tionary who helped install communism in Cuba before being killed in Bolivia. The second fatal terrorist action occurred in the holdup of the International Firearm Co. here Aug. 2, 1964. Two men were sentenced to death for the slaying of Leslie Mc- Williams, company vice-presi- dent, and Alfred Prnisch, a gunsmith. But the sentences were commutted to life imprison- ment. It was established that Pinisch was cut down by po- lice bullets as he came out of a rear room holding a gun. Later, Therese Morin, 64, died hi a bomb blast at her work as a secretary in a strike-bound shoe factory. Jean Corbo, 16-year-old FLQ member, was blown up by a tomb he was carrying under his coat to plant near a textile plant. Last Juno 24, feast of St. Jean Baptiste, patron saint of French Canada, the FLQ made its first major attack outside Quebec. Mrs. Jeanne d'Arc St. Germain, a 50-year- old civil servant, was killed by a bomb in a defence de- partment communications centre in Ottawa. EXPO MORATORIUM Though an unannounced moratorium on terrorist activ- ity was in effect during the May-October period of Expo 67, tombs boomed again in UK following weeks. Targets now took in institu- tions or firms representing COOKING WITH WiNE Wine is the secret ol extra ammo and richer flavor in many a recipe. And Morgo Oliver knows just how lo use Canadian wines lor such extra-special recipes ai Fillet ol Beef In Red Wine, Chicken In White Wine, Sherry Puddinp. and other Good Food ideas IN YOUR UTHBRIDGE HERALD WEEKEND MAGAZINE economic power, the Montreal Stock Exchange tower, the plants of industries having labor troubles and sometimes the tomes of those involved, and the headquarters of politi- cal parties, even that of the Union Nationalc, then in office in Quebec. As in previous waves; raids and arrests carried out by po- lice anti-subversive squads brought bombings to a tempo- rary end. Subsequent attacks, how- ever, seemed to have the goal of interfering with economic development in Quebec by frightening away investment so that some form of revolu- tion might come about through labor unrest aurj a so- cialist separate state might emerge. ELECTION CAMPAIGN' Terrorists remained quies- cent (luring last s p r i n g 's Quebec provincial election campaign, though disdained by Rene Levesque, leader of the Parti Quebecois, which wants a sovereign Quebec in economic association with Canada.. The new party's capture of nearly 25 per cent of the popu- lar vole hi its first lest at the polls was termed a moral vic- tory by Mr. Levesque, who suffered personal defeat. But because much of the party's vote was concentrated in heavily-populated Montreal districts, only seven candi- dates were successful in 108 ridings compared with 72 seated by Robert Bourassa's Liberals. Observers speculated at the time that a serious defeat of Mr. Levesque would result in renewed and more bitter ter- rorist activity because extre- mist views would gain influ- ence over moderate opinion in separatist ranks. A municipal election cam- paign now is in 5ull swing. Though Mr. Drapeau enjoys wide popularity, the principal reproach directed against his administration is neglect of such matters as housing for Montreal's underprivileged. City Hall and the mayor's home were among targets of some 50 bomb blasts in Mont- real in 19C9. A different kind of sensation flared in that year when Lu- cien Saulnier, the mayor's right-hand man, unsuccess- fully demanded that the Com- pany of Young Canadians be investigated by a royal com- mission. Stating that Canada is in danger of destruction from within, Mr. Saulnier charged that subversive material, such as terrorist pamphlets show- ing how to make Molotov cocktails and bombs, had been found on CYC premises. Montreal is paying the price of being a "great interna- tional city where anarchy and terrorism in the words ef Mr. Drapeau. DYNAMITE THEFTS The Quebec government re- cently put back into force for Nov. 1 Second World War reg- ulations regarding dynamite, following theft of some sticks of the explosive in var- ious parts of the province. And Pierre Vallieres, a hero of the FLQ, charged in an Au- gust speech that approxi- mately 100 persons are serv- ing lengthy terms in Quebec jails for "political crimes." Vallieres, arrested in 1966 on a variety of charges con- nected with bombings, was released on bail in May pend- ing trial on a charge of man- slaughter. Earlier in the year, demon- strators called for the release of such "political prisoners" as Vallieres and Pierre-Paul Geoffrey, who was given 124 life sentences and five five- y e a r to be served connection with 31 bombing episodes. Until mid-July this year, there were 17 bombings i n Montreal and including McGill University and the home of financier Jean-Louis an- other in a Quebec village. Eleven other bombs were dis- mantled or defused. Det.-Sgt. Robert Cote, the husky 34-year-old head of Montreal's seven-man bomb squad, takes a laconic attitude to his hair-raising job. Re- garding the dismantling of bombs, he commented: "Our score is very good, especially during (he last wave. We've recovered close to 700 pounds of dynamite- most in the form of bombs ranging from 40-pounders up Schools have frequently been evacuated because of bomb hoaxes. It was against this back- ground that the kidnapping of James Richard Cross oc- curred, an act undoubtedly re- pulsive to the large majority of Quebecers. Jean-Paul Desbiens, chief editorial writer for La Presse, North A m e r i c a 's biggest French-language daily, viewed the abduction and ran- som terms this way: "We can imagine any other terms: tho list is wide open. We can also any other victim. A little girl would serve the purpose very well If there is anything more vile than blackmail it giving in to blackmail." Louise tie Bellefeuillc, 31- year-old receptionist, and Xo- nique Caslonguay, 20, assist- ant bookkeeper and part-time model, expressed sorrow to i newspaper reporter about the plight of Mrs. Cross and her daughter, Siisan. ADVERTISED ITEMS ON SALE OCTOBER 15-16-17 PEEK FREAN CRIMES 3 Oz. Pkgs. Garden, Fruit, Coffee, Maple Wal- nut Creams; Bourbon; P.F. Assortment KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURE.FRt.SftT. PATTERKRISP TWINPACK RESGE SPECIAL PRICE BOX 16 Oz. Jenny LInd Twin- pack! Crisp candy that's a favorite with alii 7HURS. FRI. SAT. COFFEE CRISPETTES 6.10 Oz, Pkg. Bite size pieces to pop into your moutfr THURS. FRI, SAT, CHOCOLATE BARS A multi-pack of four as- sorted 10p chocolate bars! KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURS. FRt. SAT. CHOCOLATE BARS Choose tar, a specif SPECIAL PRICE selection of 10p Neilson B3rS bars. THURS, (RF, SAT. 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KRESGESPECIAL PRICE THURS. FRI. SAT. PEANUT BRITTLE Caiiuy- _ .rind choose your iM.UU 1 Lb. poucli containers! D'Mallcys Olcle Tyme pMriilt brittle. KRESGE SPECIAI PRICE 1 Pouch WHIZZERS LACES 12 Oz. bags! Licorice or Strawberry Whizzers and Laces. KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURS. FRI.SAT. BRIDGE MIXTURE Little with hard and soft centres so ap- propriate for parties and special KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURS. FBI. EAT. PEPPERMINT PATTIES KRESGE SPECIAI 49< cool mint sur- rounded with creamy chocolate makes a popu- lar sweet. KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURS. FRI. SAT. BULK SPECIALTIES 'ESGE SPECIAL Pick your favorite! A'! from Neilson! Buds KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THliRS. FRt. SAT, CHOCOLATE CARAMEL The smoothest of cara- mel topped with choco- late makes a tempting treat! KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE; WAGON WHEELS at tnisiow JENNY LIND CHERRIES 120z, Freshpack! Plump 'red cherries smothered in smooth cream and covered with chocolate. KRESGE SPECIAL PRICE THURS. FRI. SAT. 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