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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 13, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta 24 LETHBRIDGE HERALD Saturday, October 13, 1973 Ask Andy OUR PROTECTION Andy sends a complete 20- volume set of the Merit Students Encyclopedia to (Catherine Carey, age 12. of Albany, New York, for her question: What keeps the atmosphere around the earth? Suppose the atmosphere got fed up with our messy pollu- tion and decided to leave home. We would be stranded with no breathable oxygen and exposed to destructive solar radiations. There would be no clouds, no rain or snow and 'surface water would evaporate under the blazing sun. Naturally, all life on land and in the seas would come to a standstill. Fortunately our atmosphere cannot desert us because the face of gravity hugs it close around the globe. When we say that gravity prevents pur atmosphere from escaping, naturally we wonder about the moon Astronauts assure us that the lunar gravity is about one six- th as strong as the earth's, yet the moon has no atmosphere worth mentioning. What's more, scientists say that if we gave the moon an at- mosphere, its gases would es- cape and get lost in space Obviously the answer has something to do with the strength of gravitational forces The moon's gravity is too weak to hold gases above its solid surface The earth's gravity is strong enough to hug down a gaseous at- mosphere weighing five guardrillion tons which is the figure five with a tail of fifteen zeros It takes stupen- dous force to hold the earth and its atmosphere together and it works because it is a two-way pulling power The force of gravity is a built-in quality of matter and every particle has its in- finitesimal quota It pulls, or attracts, other particles pull back. This silent, invisible gravitation is a cosmic glue that helps to hold the pieces of the universe together. The earth's quota of gravity depends on its mass, which is the amount of matter packed into its size, or volume. Ii acts as if it pulls from a point miles down in the center of the planet From there it ex- tends upward, gaining strength as it goes. It pulls at objects on and above the sur- face and with their lesser quotas of gravity they pull back. This two-way pulling power of surface gravity is measured in weight The earth and its atmosphere hug each other with a force equal to five quadrillion tons. However, as gravity extends above the surface, it dimin- ishes with distance at a set rate. At the surface, 16 ounces weigh a pound. At miles above the surface, the same pound weighs only four ounces. The force of gravity between the earth and its filmy air decreases as we go higher above the surface. This is one reason why the densest layer of the atmosphere is at the bottom and the upper gas- es grow thinner and thinner. The earth is massive enough to hold its shell of gases, steadily through the ages. It is 81 times more massive than the moon because the moon is smaller and also made of less dense materials. The earth's surface gravity is six times greater than the moon's. Also, during the hot lunar day, gas- es would expand and become very light. Hence, the gravity between the moon and its gas- es would be too weak to hold a lunar atmosphere. Questions asked by child- ren of Herald readers should be mailed to Ask Andy, P.O. Box. 765, Huntington Beach, California 92648. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1973) Moon mineral identified CAPE TOWN (Reuter) Armalcolite, a new mineral discovered on the moon in 1969, was identified for the first time on earth earlier this year from a rock sample found in South Africa, a United States geologist has announced here. Dr S E Haggerty, a princi- pal investigator of the U S lu- nar sample analysis program, gave details of the South Afri- can may be significant in studies of the evolution of the moon and a paper presented to a geological conference here Thursday The South African sample of armacolite was found in a rock taken trom a diamond mine near Kimberley, he later told reporters. The mineral is named after Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins, the three American astronauts who manned the Apollo 11 space flight during which the first moon sample was discovered. WORK UNSATISFYING WASHINGTON (AP) -The American Management Association says a recent sur- vey shows no less than 40 per cent of all middle managers and 52 per cent of all super- visory managers find their work "unsatisfying at best." Of 2.BOO participating businessmen, one in 20 says he is "completely successful." Nearly 70 per cent of these are in executive management. Goren on Bridge BY CHARLES H. GOREN Tfu Chlcjio Tribune WEEKLY BRIDGE QUIZ Q. l Neither vulnerable, as South you hold: AK84 0943 The bidding has proceeded: North East South 1 0 Pass 1 NT Pass 2 Pass What do you bid now? Q. vulnerable, as South you hold: AAKQ10 5 ?A10 7 OQ10 5 J 7 The bidding has proceeded: North East South West 1 Pass 1 A Pass 3 A Pass What do you bid now? Q. 3 Neither vulnerable, as South you hold: AQ9642 vQ82 0952 The bidding has proceeded: North East South West 10 IS? Pass Pass 1 A 2 V 2 A 3 3 A 40 Pass Pass .Dole. Pass What action do you take? Q. Neither vulnerable, as South you hold: A7 95 OAKJ4 AAKJ8732 The bidding has proceeded: South West North East 1 A Pass 1 A Pass 111 ABNER 3 A Pass 3 0 Pass 9 What do you bid now? Q. 5 Neither vulnerable, as South you hold: A96 vQ8643 OAJ6 The bidding has proceeded: South West North East Pass Pass 1 CJ TMlN ;