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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 5, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THt IETHBRIDGE HBiAiO Thimdoy, Ottober 5, 197J Frances Cairncross Dangerous games Tlie point has been made again and again that this is a n election without issues. That seems to have been the case, at least up until now. There is a mailer, however, lliat easily could become an issue, and a very grave one, if some of our political aspirants continue to let themselves be carried away in their vote seeking speeches. Tlie issue is the unity oi this country. This is a matter far more important than Mr. Stanfield's concern for the un- employed and their insurance ar- rangements, Mr. Lewis' "corporate welfare bums" theme or Mr. Caou- ette's somewhat unorthodox finan- cial views. Geography and history both tend to make Canadian unity a fragile thing. Nearly four million square miles of territory, natural dividing lines that run north and south, a climate that strings us out along our four thousand mile southern border, all emphasize our regional differences and liinder our gelling together. Our history as a nation is only a single century long, little enough time in which to meld our French, English and other cullures into a common nationality. And throughout our brief existence we've lived in our mighty neigh- bor's shadow, a shadow that has lengthened and deepened as tlie U.S. has surged to its present posi- tion of economic and cultural domi- nance of the western world. All parties in this election are pledged to our country's unity, and there have been no reports of a candidate advocating anything else. But there has been plenty of. tlie kind talk that sets one region against another. Men who repeated- no doubt quite sincerely deny any thought of dividing tha do not scruple to angle for votes by appealing to factionalist sentiments. East vs West, French vs English, tlie provinces vs Ottawa and there are many others all are familiar rhetorical games that Ca- nadians have played for years. But they can be dangerous games, and the heat of electioneering is no ex- cuse for forgetting it. At long last Finally, it has been done. Some- one has topped the late, great Clar- ence Decatur Howe. It was in the early '50s, if mem- ory serves correctly, that the Hon. C. D. Howe, then minister of recon- struction and supply, made a re- mark that thoroughly startled all dollar loving Canadians. Upbraided by a nit-picking critic for having thoughtlessly allowed some expense or other to run over by something like a million dollars more than had been planned, he is said to have snapped impatiently, "A million? What's a The gasp could be heard from coast to coast. That anyone, espe- cially a minister of. the Crown, would dare to deal carelessly with any sum of money was bad enough. But to speak Irreverently of: a million dollars! Why, that was as bad as as unthinkable as well, as' someone like the prime minister, for instance, uttering four letter words in public. And now, after all these years, the topper has come along. And fitting- ly, it has been supplied by another minister of. the Crown. In Montreal the other day, the Hon. Bryce Mac- kasey was asked to comment on a Conservative allegation that there might be a a mere mil- deficit in the Unemploy- ment Insurance Fund. Mr. Mackasey denied the allegation, asserting that the deficit was no more than million, which he then described as "a drop in the bucket." Mr. Howe, you may rest in peace. Cheaper air fares The British Civil Aviation Authority has just approved a jet air bus ser- vice to North America. If the America control body also approves, by April next year there could be a daily air bus operating between London and New York. Tlie service visualized is to be very similar to the familiar air bus ar- rangement that exists between con- veniently located cities on this side of the water; that provided by PWA between Edmonton and Calgary is typical. It is a matter of basic trans- portation, and little else. No meals, no picutre shows, no complementary champagne, no frills of any kind. And no reservations, either; would be passengers will simply go to the air- port, buy tickets, and board a plane, just as they would a bus or dayliner. The fog of silence World banker campaigns for the poor WASHINGTON One of the extra ordinary things about the annual general meet- ing of the World Bank and In- ternational Monetary Fund is how a handful of rich countries make all the news. It is the do- ings of the Group of Ten and the future of the IMF that at- tract all the attention. But U the developing coun- tries get little notice during the week neither, generally speak- ing, does the speech of Robert McNamara, president of tha World Bank. Every year the bank is in a quajidory: should Mr. McNamara deliver his speech immediately after the The fares are to be absolutely minimal; a one-way ticket between London and New York, either direc- tion, is expected to cost in the winter, somewhat higher, but still under 5100 during the Bummer months. Elimination of all that is not strict- ly needed to get a passenger from here to there may detract somewhat from the comfort of the journey, or perhaps the feeling of importance that comes with luxury. But there will be at least one very salutary effect; by drastically reducing fares, the air bus approach will help to bring travel even trans-Atlantic travel within the means of thousands more people. Let us hope the U.S. aviation auth- ority speedily approves, and that the idea spreads. TUST over four years ago The Lcth- bridge Herald started its Thursday night education column. Teachers were in- vited to use this column aa a means o! communicating with the general public about the plans and problems of our lo- cal schools. The Herald placed no restric- tion on the topics that could be covered and made it clear that articles from non-teach- ers would be welcome. The response to The Herald's invitation has been very poor. In four years we have never been able to persuade more than five people, ail teach- ers, to write on education. There are many interesting things hap- pening in our schools. There are nesv courses, ancillary services, and innovative programs that are being tried out in differ- ent schools. There are also some problems in education that would benefit from a pub- lic discussion: drugs in school, salaries and conditions of service for school personnel, and the waste or misuse of much of the money and time that are alloted to our ochool systems. Not only is there plenty to write about but teachers have also been exorted to make their views known. Dr. Myer Horo- witz, dean of the faculty of education at die University of Alberta, has urged teach- ers to ask embarrassing questions about the new educating techniques that are be- ing instituted in our schools. The provin- cial government has encouraged ali those concerned about education to provide as much feedback as possible about the Worth Report. Involvement arid dialogue are popu- lar words in our educational systems and yet there Is a strange reluctance on tha part of educators to make their views known either in print or verbally. This reluctance to get involved in v, hi. more newsworthy managing di- rector of the IMF, Pierre-Paul Schweitzer? Tliis year, however, Mr. Mc- Namara's speech was particu- larly important because it con- tained not only a bitter indict- ment of the rich countries which have dragged their feet over aid, but a warning to the Third World alwut the need to iron out its own massive in- equalities of income distribu- tion. The World Bank is clearly deeply concerned about the utter lack of interest that tha rich world is showing in the target set by the United Na- tions for tho second develop- ment decade: an increase in of- ficial aid to 0.7 of the gross na- tional products of the wealthy nations by 1975. It is now dismally obvious that this target will not be met. By 1975 the rich world will be only half-way to (lie tar- get. Only one of the rich coun- tries, Holland, gives 0.7 per cent of its GNP at the moment, and only two others, Norway and Sweden, have plans to reach the target by 1975. Worse, the biggest donor of all, the United States, actually has plans to decrease its aid by 1975, to less than a quarter of one per cent of its GXP. The failure of the rich world to share its wealth with (he poor will not, as Mr. Mc- Namara pointed out, create "an international a t m osphere con- ducive to tranquillity." But the failure of the Tiiird to deal with its own poor is also a threat to peace: in tlie words of the president of tlie bank, a situation which "cannot be tol- erated for too long a lime, by any government hoping to pre- serve civil order." The bank is increasingly alarmed by evidence that tho income disparities in develop- ing cmmtries are in many cases actually growing, and that the main effect of development aid By Terence Morris when we realize that there is so much emphasis today in our schools on question- Ing strategies or the discovery approach to learning. Surely, If we feel that our stu- dents should become critical thinkers then parents and teachers should try to culti- vate the same attitude. Perhaps it all depends on who does the questioning and what or whom is being questioned. As a colleague said recently, "If you agree with what is going on in school then it is called involvement. If you question or disagree with what is happen- ing then you are guilty of uninformed criti- cism or rocking the Neither can the reluctance to write be put down to ignorance or inability for tho teaching profession represents an awesome amount of university training and there are many highly gifted parents and stu- dents who could write a really good article on education. However, the fact remains that we just can't get people to write any- thing about education. Why this fog of silence should settle over the activities of one of the biggest, most important, and most expensive public en- terprises is a mystery. Perhaps there is something that is causing people to ho 'defensive, fearful, or in.wcure.' Perhaps teachers and parents have decided that not only is silence golden, it is also safer. What- ever the reason, it is very sad that we cannot get more public dialogue about the problems and purposes of our educational systems. We know that questions do not please some if those who dwell in our educational ivory towers, but questions and answers might help our schools develop a more def- inite sonse of direction. They might also suggest wiser ways in which to hDcnrl oi" Fall race meet Is to help the rich get richer. Hence a plea from Mr. Me- Namara for land reform, tax reform and credit reform policies which are hardly lika- ly to please the developing countries' delegates, most of whom come from the tiny wealthy minority of the Third World rather than the vast and desperately poor majority. In calling for radical changes in income distribution in the Third World, Mr. McNamara is taking the bank Into new ground, ground which might have surprised the young peo- ple who demonstrated two years ago at the annual meet- ing in Copenhagen against tha appointment of the former U.S. secretary of defence. But he is also taking the bank into an area where it has relatively lit- tle power. It can use leverage, leaning on countries which drag their feel. But the first es- sential for the sweeping social reforms that Mr. McNamara is talking about is, as he rec- ognizes himself, political will. What can the bank do when tha Eiliiopian P a r 1 i a ment, com- posed mainly of large landown- ers, turns down over and over again proposals for land re- form? And is the bank really pre- pared to accept the corollaries of the sweeping reforms it ad- vocates? Towards the end of the week in Washington, one developing country made the meeting sit up. Cliile delivered, a bitter attack on the bank. It claimed to have achieved, through land and credit re- form, just the sort of redistri- butive policies that Mr. Mc- Namara had talked about. It claimed, too, that over the last 22 months it had received not one new loan from the bank, although it had submitted a number of projects for the bank's consideration. "The origin of this said the president of the Chilean Central Bank, Alfonso Inostrozza, "is the situation re- sulting from the decision of tha government of Cliile to na- tionalize five private U.S. en- terprises which are exploiting our principal copper deposits." If Mr. McNamara is really serious about the redistributioB of income in the Third World, he may end up leading the bank into some very unfamiliar territory indeed. (Written for The Herald :rt The Observer, London) Anthony Lewis Political scandal: an end to caring in the U.S. a minor official of the Truman administration was found to have taken a deep freeze from a favor-seeker, or his wife a fur coat, the country rang with cries of scandal and corruption. In the administration, the assistam attorney general in charge of the justice depart- ment's criminal division the man meant to be one of the country's main watchdogs against corruption and crime- was found to have taken a 000 loan from a figure in a Texas bank scandal. His resig- nation caused hardly a ripple. When an over-zealous FBI Bgent awoke a newspaper re- porter at night In the Kennedy administration's Investigation of steel prices increases, the in- cident was treated in some quarters like a storm troopers' raid. In this administration a Har- vard Law School professor who had looked into the records of three possible nominees to the Supreme Court was questioned three times by FBI agents. How many Americans have even heard of that episode? Artluir Krock wrote years ago of what he termed "the superior articulation of the left." The phrase expressed the feeling of conservatives at the time that their viewpoint was not getting adequate expres- sion, at least in some parts of the press. Old fashioned lib- erals feel a similar frustration now as they see Nixon sail smoothly on through scandals that would have sunk a Dem- ocratic presidency. Just imagine a Democratic justice department settling a great antitrust suit after the de- fendant corporation made an enormous contribution to the party convention. Imagine the department being evasive when asked questions, and a princi- pal official giving contradictory explanations, and then the whole affair blowing quietly away but it is unimagin- able. It is not just the case of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. It is the change in official milk price policy after political gifts. It is the slippery handling of the So- viet grain deal. It is the bur- glary and bugging of Dem. ocratic headquarters, the pay- ment of those who did that dirty work with Republican cam- paign money lhat had been "laundered" through a Mexican bank. Perhaps the average citizen can focus his outrage more easily on a deep freeze than on some great piece of corporate financing. Perhaps Americans historically are just more sus- picious of politicians than of businessmen and tend to put Democrats in the professional politician category. But there is more than that Why Moscow is backing Amin By Dev Murarka, The London Observer Ing about education is all the more itranga education dollars. The Soviet Union has come out in fa- vor of supporting the Amin re- gime in Uganda. In the NEW TIMES weekly, it is claimed that attempts to overthrow Amin are being made by Is- rael and Britain. It is argued that the Israelis are acting because their mili- tary and technical experts have been thrown out and Britain is acting because measures taken by General Amin are directed against Western interests, par- ticularly the "liquidation of military and economic in- fluence." The NEW TIMES article maintains total silence about General Amin's orders to throw out British Asians. It also does not mention the activities of Libyan military elements sent to Uganda to help Amin. Tho Soviet authorities are making it clear that they arc interested in General Amin staying in pow- er. It is presumed here that So- viet silence on the plight of the Asians is Ijecausc of their hopes of profiting from friend- ly ties with Amin. They cannot criticize him on the issue of the Asians without appearing to support his opponenls. At the .same time they cannot support the measures against tho Asians partly because they are racialist, and partly because such Soviet support would cause adverse reaction in south Asia, where countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are sensitive on the subject. One curious aspect of the ar- licle in NEW TIMES is that it justifies the coup by Amin in 1371 by referring to the British press of the lime and claiming that the army acted because of the lawlessness prevailing un- der Obote, and because of his "abuse of The implica- tion is that Amin's takeover is a progressive political step and Dr. is a reactionary. This rolrospcrlive enthnsl- So They Say The crucial characteristic of the parental role is its partial- ity for the individial child. Dr. Elizabeth Ncwson, joint Director of the Child Develop- ment Research Unit, Notting- ham University asm for General Amin, particu- larly his virtues as an upholder of law and morals, contrasts very strangely with the uncaso and suspicion with which his coup was viewed in Moscow at the time. In fact the NEW TIMES ilself wrote on ?'ebru- ary 10, 1971, that it was diffi- cult to foresee anything but in- stability for a long time in Uganda after the takeover by the mililary junta. The reason for Soviet support of Amin is Russian inlerest in Uganda as a counterpoint to Chinese influence in neightmr- ing Tanzania and Zambia. Amin's willingness to become friendly towards Moscow came as a relief here because of tho anxiety felt over the growing Chinese presence in the The reasoning liohiml the pol- icy of declaring support fnr Amin must he that there is ad. vantage to be gained by such support if Amin stays. If Amin goes his successors are likely to be more pro-West or pro-Chi- nese rather than pro-Russian. So Moscow has litllc lo lose by supporting Amin and in any case no other alternative. in the present public Indiffer- ence to corruption of authority and of democracy. There is something very strange and disturbing in this country: a deadened quality, an end to caring. People talk about it ali over, and leaders write letters. A United States senator feels even on Capitol Hill an ebbing of energy and concern. A wom- an who has been abroad for some lime writes of the empti- ness she finds on her return, the resignations; even the time of student dislurbances was bet- ter, she Bays. In Ncwsweeks, Stewart Alsop writes of tha Watergate affair, tha bugging and burglary of Democratic headquarters. It reached 1 n t o the White House, he says; "It was just about the scariest and nastiest thing that has happened in Washington since Joe McCarthy was In his heyday." Yet nobody seems to care; with concern, Alsop asks why. But he does not look at the deepest reasons for cynicism and despair among Americans. Fnr nearly eight years, now, the United States has been massively engaged in a war in Southeast Asia. One president got us into that war without ever telling the public that he was doing so, indeed while giv- ing repeated assurances that the American role was not chang ing. Another president has assured us again and again that he was ending American involvement, even while in- tensifying the destruction of In- dochina. No people can survive eight years of such deceit without a mark on their collective psyche. Among millions of Am- ericans, lire hope of changing official policy has been crush- ed. Millions have become de- sensitized to the fact of death by our instruments in Indo- china. Vietnam may not be the only cause of the contemporary in- difference. But when leaders teach that war is peace, it is not surprising to find a large measure of public cynicism generally. A young man wriles of "lha contagion of acceptance" and its danger to the United States. "What he asks, "when a people attend to their everyday lives and of their country, and ignore the unset- tling truths? What happens when a people believe that war is peace? What happens when ordinary people, without evil or hate, come finally to support a policy which annihilates anoth- er people at no cost to them- selves? (Now York Times! crazy capers And how long have you had this fear pf heights? The LetMnridge Herald SOJ 7Lh St. 5., Lethbrifige, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALb CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published 1905-IK4, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Man Rtglsfratlon No. 0012 Member of Tfie Canadian Press and me Canadian Dally Publisher' Association and tha Audit Bureau ol CrculaHoni CLEO W, MOWERS, Editor and PubMsher THOMAS K. ADAMS, General Manager DON PILLING WILLIAM HAY Managing Editor Edilar ROY F OOUGLAi K. WALKER Wvertlsfng fidilonaJ Pens Edifor "THE HERALD THE SOUTH" ;