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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 3, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta Chile navy revolt was signal to move Wednesday, October 3, 1973-THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD-31 Hostels build on brotherhood dream By ROSETTE HARGROVE PARIS (NEA) Young wanderlust is having a record year. Some 20 million young Europeans are "on the road." In France alone, one out of every two students has cross- ed the frontier, answering what the French know as "the call of the seeking new pastures, new scenes, new customs. It is a fact that youngsters are more eager to travel tar, to explore, to see the world. Thirty years ago such travel was beyond their reach The commonest modes of locomo- tion then were bicycling and walking. But educators tell us that the relaxing o( family ties and parental authority, as well as better economic con- ditions, has led to the upsurge in travel. The inevitable question lor the young travelers is where to stay? A favorite spot is the youth hostel of which there are some in Europe, 250 in France alone. The grandfather of French youth hostels was Marc Sangnier. a prominent in- dustrialist who. in 1930. donated a large plot of land 40 miles from Paris to build a center where young travelers could gather. As Sangnier saw it. a youth hostel should be more than just a place to sleep and eat He dreamed of bringing together adolescents of all nationalities and races, of all philosophies and political opinions, providing them all with a rich basis for under- standing their fellow men. I 1 Variety French youth hostels of- fer traveling students an adventure in old and new forms of architecture as well as an international mix of traveling compan- ions. The illustrated hos- tels are all within a few miles of Paris. What does one need to get into a French youth hostel? First of all a bona-fide student's card issued by his home college is required. In Paris, the maximum stay at the "Auberge de la Jeunesse" hostel is three nights. Here for less than five dollars a day, a student is supplied with a bed. breakfast and two three- course meals. Wine, beer or cider as well as soft drinks are obtainable, and there is a cigarette and ice-cream machine. The Paris hostel, with its 320 beds, is open from 8 a.m. to midnight. There is an infor- mation service and organized visits to various points of interest around the city. A house father and mother are there to help solve every im- aginable kind of problem, as well as to supervise a staff of 20 employees Guests are not even expected to make their own beds. According to Durant. the German and Dutch students are the untidiest. Americans, especially the girls, are usual- ly the first to ask about laundry facilities. The ratio in the Pans hostels is 90 per cent foreigners to 10 per cent French. There are more plans afoot to establish another hostel in Paris and to increase the number of residential hostels in vacation centres at the mountains, sea or river where students can stay as long as they can afford to. Merchandise on Sale Thursday, Friday and Saturday, October 4, 5 and 6. Quantities Limited By JAMES NELSON GOODSELL Christian Science Monitor BJ'KNOS AIRES, Argentina The story ol President Allende's final weeks in office can now be pieced together us- mg well situated Chilean sources in Santiago. The story shows unistakably the onrush of an escalating crisis, bitter confrontations, personal jealousies, and the president's increasing inabili- ty to control even his own sup- porters. Moreover, it shows that the Chilean armed forces, contrary to their 40-year-old tradition on non-interference in politics, were moving steadily throughout the winter months of June. July, and August toward the coup that finally toppled the Allende government Sept. 11. The rebellion was clearly not a sudden affair, but rather a well-co-ordinated effort in- volving all the services. It is not evident that irorn the abortive June 29 army coup to the Sept. 5 mutiny of the cruiser Almirante Latorre. the navy flagship, when it refused to set sail from Valparaiso, the armed forces were in regular contact with each other and presumably with opposition civilian politicians. The story of these final months ol turmoil also shows an increasingly harried Salvador Allende who obvious- ly was well aware of the military's growing restivencss and who evidenc- ed his particular wrath against the navy In one stormy session with the navy's top three admirals, he defied the navy to bring down his government. "I know what you want to do against mo." he shouted. "I dare you. If you think you can get away with it, try it. "I know I am at war the navy." When the details ol session, including Allende's "at war" remark, were reported back to the navy's top brass in Valparaiso, there was shock and disbeliel. Hut one admiral wondered out loud if Dr. Allende had forgotten that "the navy has never lost a war." Actually relations between President Allende and the military began to sour as far back as last October when he brought four military officers into the cabinet at the height of a disastrous nationwide strike o I truckers, shopkeepers, and dozens of other groups The officers quickly found themselves powerless to confront spreading economic decay as well as a breakdown ol law and order that included the illegal seizure of factories by workers and of land by landless peasants plus a widespread distribution of arms to workers by leftist terrorist groups. Moreover, they saw the dramatic decline of the mid- dle class as a result of an ef- fort by the minority Allende government to impose irrevocable change on the ma- jority. Through May and June of this year, there were numerous rumblings among the military. On June 29 a tank regiment failed m a violent coup attempt to unseat the Allende government. Events then began to es- calate rapidly. On the political front. Dr. Allende publicly offered a dialogue with the op- position Christian Democratic Party. He must have felt the pressures weighing in on him because in the course of the CHILE Three reports on life in Chile under the new mili- tary junta rule. this Dr. oiler he broke down and wept. There was good reason to weep. Economic statistics in- dicated a 350 per cent annual inflation rate, and the nation's independent truckers again went on strike July 26 virtual- ly stopping all commerce. The following day Capt. Arturo Araya Peters. Dr. Allende's naval aide, was assassinated. Then on Aug. 2. the navy dis- closed it had nipped a plot by leftist extremists to foster sedition within navy ranks and aboard the cruiser Almirante Latoree. Seventy five sailors were arrested, and the navy- soon accused Sen. Carlos Altamirano. leader of Dr. Allende's own Socialist Party, and two other leftists of plotting the crime. Against its better judgment, the military again joined the cabinet on Aug. 9 partly because of the insistence of (Jen. Carlos Prats Gonzalez, the army commander in chief. who more and more came to be considered a confidante of Dr. Allende. thus revealing a split in army ranks that was to grow in the days ahead. General Prats resigned Aug. 24 after the wives of army majors and colonels dralted a letter to his wife protesting conditions in the country. When they attempted to deliver the letter to the Prats home in suburban San- tiago, they were tear-gassed and sent scurrying, an inci- dent that incensed their of- licer husbands who in turn demanded General Prats' resignation. From that point, military plotting intensified. The navy agitated tor Admiral Raul Montero Cornejo's resignation from the cabinet, a step the admiral came close to taking several times only to pull back and in the process enrage his fellow nttval commanders. It was during this period, on Aug. 29. that Dr. Allende made his "at war" remark that so embittered the navy Efficiency marks new Chile rulers Discontinued styles for Men, Ladies. Girls and Toddlers Zellers County Fair Centre on Mayor Magrath Drive. Telephone 328-8171. Open Daily a.m. lo 6 p.m. Thursday and Friday a.m. to 9 p.m. By JEREMIAH O'LEARY Washington Star-News SANTIAGO. Chile Chile's armed forces have taken charge of the nation with awe inspiring efficiency and are engaged in trying to straighten out the economic and social chaos left by the overthrown government of President Salvador Allende. There is no question who is in charge of Chile. The nation of 10 million people is ruled no longer by a constitution but by Chile's code of military justice and the proclamations, issued by the junta. The junta stated that all has returned to normal but this is a relative term. Chile is back to normal in the sense that the fighting has stopped. The schools are opening again. The national truckers strike is over so that there is gasoline at the filling stations and food in the stores where little was available in the last 40 days of Allende's rule. But it is not normal for Chileans to live under an 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. curfew, ab- solutely enforced. It is not normal for 4.000 prisoners to be held in custody at the National Stadium with V.I.P. held prisoners on desolate Dawson Island in the far south near the Straits of Magellan. And it is not normal for Chile to live under military rule at all since the last coup d'etat occurred nearly 40 years ago. One is rarely out of sight of the military power. Mobile patrols soldior.s. guns at the ready, tour the streets day and night Countless strategic buildings and intcrcseelions also have their quota of armed guardians. If the backers of Allende's Unidad Popular ever intended to fight either a guerrilla action or a civil war, I hey have not done so. and the question is whether they have already been crushed or- whether they were paper tigers all along. Air Force General Gustavo Leigh Guzman, a member of the junta, told reporters something about what kind of country Chile will be. "We are not he said. "Nor will we enforce a government of that nature. And we do not intend to stay in power forever. We wish to create a new structure so that the people of Chile can decide what kind ol government they want. Leigh said the junta's first acts would be to help those who need it most: the pheasants, the workers and the middle class. "But we are not going to walk backwards." he said: "what properties have been nationalized will remain the property of the state but those- lands that were seized illegal- ly under Allende will be returned to their owners Leigh and other junta of- ficials interviewed by this reporter make no bones about their desire to restore good relations with the United States after three years of strain under Allende. All say Chile will bend every effort to attract investment' here by .uiiaraiiloenig its debts, now- over billion, and by es- tablishing investment'laws that permit a fair profit with rules that do not change. commanders who became increasingly rebellious against both the Allende government and Admiral Montero On Sept. 2. officers below admiral rank talked of taking over Valparaiso and triggering a revolt. Naval olficers became even more furious Sept. 3 when Defense Minister Orlando Letelier del Solar told the admirals that Allende would not accept Admiral Montero's resignation. Admiral Montero went to see President Allende that afternoon finding a very dif lernt man Jrom the one who several days before dared a revolt. That afternoon Dr. Allende admitted that "I have made two one. "in in- sisting on the military in the cabinet." and two. "in in- sisting that Admiral Montero not resign Dr Allende promised to rectify "these mistakes." but asked for 10 days because of what he termed "a difficult political problem At the same time, he promised to name Admiral Jose Tonbio Merino to be Ad- miral Montero's successor as commander in chief of the navv. While the admirals were satisfied with Dr. Allende's conciliatory attitude, their junior officers were not and on Sept. 5 when the Almirante Latoree and fleet destroyer Cochrane were ordered to set sail and join United States vessels in joint maneuvers in the South Pacific Ocean off the Chilean coast, their commanders refused, saying they would not sail until Admiral Montero resigned. To the armed forces, there was something symbolic in the Almirante Latorre lying at anchor in Valparaiso Habor a reminder of Chile's impor- tant naval tradition and a to the rest ol the armed forces to move. Non-political general now fighting Marxism New York Times Service NEW YORK Before he became the new Chilean strongman last month. Gen Augusto Pinochet Ugarte scrupulously avoided politics His silence was in keeping with the tradition of Chile's military, which had stayed out of politics for 46 years until a four-man junta deposed President Salvador Allende. But even among officers who had upheld that tradition, Pinochet was regarded as singularly nonaligned. The tall, powerfully built infantry officer became commander-in-chief of the army last month after Gen. Carlos Prats resigned Allende. who was facing strong opposition to his Marxist policies, apparently hoped Pinochet would keep the military in its non-political role. It was the third time in a year that Pinochet had assumed the post. He had succeeded Prats when the general left to head the ministries of defense and of the interior. Pinochet is known to military people who have observed his career as intelligent, ambitious and competent. They describe him as quiet and businesslike, but also as an experienced in- fantry officer with a great deal of initiative. Fellow officers respect him. they say An officer who studied with the 58-year-old general when he taught artillery and military geography in the 1950's recalls him as "very energetic and very disciplined." with a sense of humor as well as a certain "toughness Probably the most unusual aspect of his apparently traditional military career is the general's interst in geography He has written three geography books, including a secondary school text He has taught the subject at the army colleges in Quito and Santiago, and is a member of the Geographical Socie- ty of Chile. Pinochet was born Nov 25. 1915 in Valparaiso, the port city that was also the birthplace of Allende. He was commissioned to the infantry alter graduating from the military academv in Santiago in 1936. IN 1956. Pinochet served as military attache to the Chilean Embassv in Washington. He also visited the United States Southern Command at the Panama Canal Zone in 1965, 1968 and 1972. and made an official tour of the United States in 1968. Promoted from colonel to bngadeer general in 1968 a year before Allende's election Pinochet was named army chief of staff in 1972, a post he held until his third appointment as commander-in-chief. The general has received several decorations, including the Colombia Order of Merit and Chilean Star of Military Merit. He studied law and social sciences at the University of Chile in San- tiago for two years, and speaks some English and French. Pinochet is married to the former Lucia Hieriarte Rodriguez who is said to be charming, attractive and socially at ease. The couple are both Roman Catholic. They have two sons and three daughters. The general first received public attention last fall when Allende declared Santiago a military zone and put it under the general's command to control riots and strikes. Pinochet said he hoped his men would not have to go into the streets because "the army, unlike the police, goes out to kill." Pinochet's own silence on political matters apparently has ended He lias vowed that the four-man military junta he heads will "exterminate Marxism." Merchandise on Safe Thursday, Friday and Saturday, October 4, 5 and 6 Quantities Limited OFF WINTER FOOTWEAR Pile-Lined Boots with with Zipper Closing-High Fash- ion Boots for Ladies. Boots for Men and Boys Zellers County Fair iin n Centre on Mayor Magrath Drive. Telephone 6 P'm' and ;