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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - October 3, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Tuoidoy, October 3, 1972 THE LEIHBRIDGI HERALD 3 Charles Foley An outsider view of election California busy digging up its prehistoric past The New York Tints r OS ANGELES In the heart of one of the busiest sections ot I.os Angeles, sur- rounded by huge department stores, a few blocks away from the Sam Goldwyn Studios in Hollywood, there is a hole that contains tho remote past of this vity of the future. The hole is called the La Brea Tar Pits, and in it, preserved in their original form by tar, arc tho bones of hundreds of thousands of animals from the Plei- stocene age: mastodons, cam- els, giant vultures, sabrc-tootli- ed tigers, and many more. Some years ago, the climate of Uiis area was cooler and more temperate. Rain, seen In the southern California of today only rarely was fre- quent and forests of redwood and cypress abounded. Cut even then the area was rich in oil and fissured by earthquake faults through which seeped tar; and on tlus semi-solid, slowly drying mass there form- ed pools of rain which hired countless animals to a sticky death. The heavy beasls, coming lo drink would sink rapidly into the sludge and their struggles only emlwrided them deeper in the oily mire. La Brea tar is a perfect preservative for leaf, wood and bone, and thus have an astonishingly com- plete picture, in fossil form, of the Los Angeles area in pre- historic times a picture that is helping to solve some of the biggest ecological mysteries uf the past. did so many of llic grcal mammals become extinct at the end of the ice age, some R.OOO to years ago? At lhat time, like the dinosaurs millions of years earlier, mastodons, mammoths, giant tigers and other beasts wiped out in almost every part of the world. do not yet know why, but La Brea Tar Pits may hold the clue. It is a question of some significance to man in days when many scien- tists believe we are polluting and over-populating ourselves into extinction. Since 1909, the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural His- tory has been excavating the tar pits. To date they have given up moro than specimens and shown them- selves lo be one of the world's greatest stores of Pleistocene remains. Aflcr a hialus caused by a somewhat undignified squabble among Ihe archaeol- ogists which ended in the dis- missal of Ihe dig's director, Ihe search is on again with a new grant from the museum lhat will support operations for another year. No-one is willing to say why Dr. George Miller, a brilliant Californian paleontologist, was removed from a project inlo which he had pul immense care and efforl, equipment from obliging oil- men and Ihe aerospace indus- liy lo pump out slicky lar, and clean the multitude of speci- mens. But it appears thai Dr. Miller and Ihe County Museum chiefs had different ideas about the dig's future and present handling. He was accused of piling too large a backlog o! material without analysis and sundry other failings which scarcely seemed to merit re- moval; but removed Dr. Miller was. tie has taken the Museum chiefs lo court, hul says he would not take the job back now anyway under cirrrent con- ditions. "It is vilal, however, that this work should says Dr. Miller. "Man may be him- self on the verge of extinction, and if scientists can show him Ihe past and explain this great riddle of why certain species became extinct after flourish- ing with great success for 50 Many innovations in education CCAHCELY 'a week passes thai somebody doesn't come up with a new method or a new gimmick to make learn- ing easier, more effective and more certain. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare in fact predicts that "an entirely new range of teaching techniques" will be introduced wilhin the next 15 years, not excluding "the use of controlled nutrition or drugs to raise I.Q., accel- erate reading or enhance awareness." According to University of California education professor Dr. Laurence lannaccone, "there is no question that pub- lic education will undergo a revolution in the next 10 years" drastic change in who runs the schools, what is taught and who learns. Dr. Joel Spring, professor of education at Case Western Re- serve University, charging that public schools follow a ritualis- tic process to "fit" people into society, recommends doing away wilh schools altogether and in their place setting up a voluntary system of education wilhin society. "There wouldn't be school dropouts if I h e r e weren't he says. At the other extreme, a panel of 17 distinguished educators and educational innovators claims that the only reason pro- gressive education has appar- ently failed is because, like Oakley NEA Service Christainily, il has never really been Iried. Had progressive ed- ucation entered Ihe mainstream of American education after it was first introduced nt the turn of the century, they suggest, we might not now be faced with such critical problems as the polarization of the races, A common thread linking all these complaints is the unspok- en understanding that when we talk about education, we are talking about education for the young. The underlying philoso- phy is lhat all children begin as eager and receptive vessels, and lhat if they fail lo be filled with knowledge, it is the teach- er's fault or the system's fault. Nobody ever complains about the stale of adull education. Nobody calls for a rcvolulion in Ihe nighl school classrooms or in the postgraduate school, at least as far as teaching meth- ods are concerned. There are, of course, good ways and bad ways to teach adults. It can be mads easy or it can lie made difficult for an immigrant, for exam- ple, to learn English, or for a displaced worker lo learn a new skill. But essentially, there is sim- ply a certain body of knowledge to be acquired and the adult either acquires it or he doesn't. He usually does, because he wants to. He sees a clear con- nection between what he de- sires in life and what he must know in order To pursue his de- sires. He doesn't need to have his awareness "enhanced" or to have knowledge pumped painlessly into his head while he isn't looking. Children, obviously, aren't adults. They are set apart from the adult world, especially in this technological age when adolescence extends into their 20s. They lack the experience and responsibilities which give adults the motivalion and inner discipline necessary for learn- ing. They are rapidly changing physically and psychologically and are prey to all kinds of fears about those changes. They have parent problems, peer problems. Just growing up is hard enough without the added pres- sure of having to learn all the things adult society says they must learn. This has been the problem in education ever since man stop- ped being predominantly a hunt- er or a farmer, and the most ingenious new pedogogic ap- proach isn't going to solve il. Maybe Spring has the right Idea. Maybe we ought to do away with compulsory' school- ing and make education en- tirely voluntary. This would put a lot of edu- cators and "educational inno- vators" out of work. But they could always get jobs leaching adult classes to those who drop out of school as kids and later drop back in witli a vengeance. If you have something that has to be shipped, this man is after your business. He's Trev Jones and he's CP Rail's District Manager in your area Backed by the full resources of CP Rail, Trev is in a unique position to help you with your problems and to provide fast, efficient, on-the-spot servicing of all your transportation needs. tf you ship anything anywhere fresh meats, bulk products, manu- factured goods-Trev and his team can help you. Call him soon. million years, (hen It may the saving o( us." One of the strangest of Iheso riddles concerns the total dis- of the camel and the horse from N'ortli America. Equus occidentals, Ihe West- ern horse, a snorter, tubbier version of today's elegant ani- mal, and Camelops hesternus, the camel, once roamed throughout the land. Many ex- amples have been found in the tnr pits. But over a period of years at the end of the Ice Age both beasts were wiped out. Was it some kind of plague? Did environmental changes prove disastrous? Why did this occur only In the Western Hemisphere? Over tho same stretch, the largest mammal of the Pleistocene epoch, the em- peror mammoth, w h i c h stood 13 feet high and had tusks that weighed Ibs., also became extinct. Again, we do not know why. Dr. Miller says that the I.a Brea relics could help solve the mystery tecause, thanks to the tar, they have not petrified. Other Pleistocene remains have been turned to stone, "but the bones at La Brea are still bone. Look at them under a microscope and you see that the only difference from the bone of animal slaughtered to- day is that the ancient speci- mens have been colored dark brown from tar." Even leaves have been perfectly pre- served, with all their breathing pores and cells intact. The excavators found a stream bed, with the roots of a large willow tree at its side. Cones and grasses gave further indications that sunny southern California was chilly and wet in .those days, which may have af- fected the survival of some spe- cies. Skeletal remains of many vultures have been uncovered. It seems these huge they had a wingspan of 12 feet on parts of the trapped animals lhat remained above the surface after their death, and themselves were caught by the gooey tar. So far the dig has gone down to 27 feet and the oldest relics uncovered are some years old. But core samples have been taken from depths of 50 feet below the surface: they reveal fragments of clam and sea-snail shells which indicate that only years ago Southern. California was cover- ed by ocean. What scientists are hoping for above all is, of course, some trace of mankind; hut although Dr. Miller, in studying bones turned up by earlier digs, ob- served holes and marks that might have resulted from hu- man attempts to make tools, the present excavation has yet to uncover human remains. The oldest sign of homo sapiens to emerge from Ihe tar pits was discovered by a dig in the 1920s, when parts of a skull and soma skeleial fragments were found. They belonged to a young wom- an believed to have died some years ago. One remarkable feature of the dig is the way Angelenos have reacted to it. The project survives on public support and freely-given labor. To data some people, many of them students, have given 000 hours of their time to the exacting, often exhausting work, while local businessmen have given more than S200.000 in supplies and equipment alone. Almost the only official grant has been from the National Science Foundation, which rims out this month (Sep- To keep the excava- tion going will now require a month, and once again the museum chiefs are relying largely on contributions from Ihe public. Having lost in Dr. Miller not only a dedicated scientist but an acute public re- lations man, they may not find the task so easy (his time. Written for The Herald anrt The Observer In London) capers' JDELATIONS with the United Stales are certain to figure prominently In the election campaign now under way in Can- ada, hut probably in a political climate much calmer than that prevailing north of the border just a year ago. At that time, Canadian resentment at Presiden Nixon's import surcharge, tho pres- sures of Treasury Secretary, and the underground nuclear test at Amchitka Island, was at its peak. Since then, the removal of the surcharge, Mr. Connally's departure from the cabinet, Prime Minister Trudeau's White House vis- it and Mr. Nixon's successful return call at Ottawa have helped to lower tempera- tures in Canada. Tough negotiations lie ahead on such delicate matters as revision of the automobile trade agreement of 1965, which has worked to Canada's advantage; Canadian policy on American investment and oviiiersliip, and the United States' de- sire for joint exploitation of Canada's nat- ural resources. Ottawa will be bitter if Washington push- es ahead with a trans-Alaska oil pipeline that will result in vastly increased tanker traffic down the British Columbia coast, inslead of exploring the proposed dual sys- tem of oil and natural gas pipelines along Canada's Mackenzie River valley to tho American border. But these matters, criti- cal for longrun American-Canadian rela- tions, are unlikely to be major Canadian election issues. Establishment of relations with the Peo- ple's Republic of China and conclusion of Call Trev Jones at 328-3373 Lethbndge. (Out of towners call Zenith Hewantstogotoworkloryou. CP Ran ft! a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union are election assets for Mr. Trudeau's Lib- eral government, and his decision to cut Canada's forces in Europe while remain- ing in NATO has evidently not liurt him. Whatever feelings existed thai inese moves could jeopardize Canada's ties with Die United States have vanished with time and with Mr. Nixon's own efforts to improve relations with Peking and Moscow. Washington is fortunale that at this polst In Canada's history the two biggest parties are led by men who strenuously reject appeals to the anti-Yankee residue always present in the political subsoil, Both Mr. Trudeau and the Progressive-Conservative leader, Robert StanFicld, not only shun cheap anti-Americanism but consistently disappoint even some of (he more respon- sible Canadian nationalists, who fear that unchecked American penetration will bring the loss of Canadian sovereignty. Mr. Tnideau is obsessed with (he notion of preserving and strengthening a distinct Canadian identity especially an identity that can shared by French-speaking cit- izens of his native Quebec province. But neither he nor Mr. Stan field believes a con- comitant of national ideritity is hostility for Americans. It says much about Canada and Cana- dians that, after severe strains on rela- tions bstwecn the two countries, the United States can view Canada's 1972 election with interest but concem. It Ls a moro favorable situation than Washington, on its record, had a right to expect, The pressing problem By Doug Walker "OAHTICI PANTS in American Press Insti- lute seminars at Columbia University in New York City are put up in an ancient hotel a half block away from the univer- sity gates on Amsterdam Avenue. A secur- ity officer fits in Die narrow entry way throughout Hie night a reminder to out- of-town visitors that New York is a danger- ous place in which to be. Seminar members are warned on their arrival to: (1) -stay out of Morning-side Park, a half block east of the Kings Crown Hotel; (2) avoid Riverside Park, two blacks west of the hotel; (3) shun the ex- press train returning to Columhia from downtown, lest one fail to transfer to the local at 96th Street and be swept away into Harlem; (4) take a taxi, whose door locks are controlled by the driver, rather than a train if alone at night. All this seemed to reflect an irrational fear of mugging until the night of Sep- tember 20 when the New York Times top- ped a fine evening by presenting seminar members with complimentary copies of papers just off the press. There on the front page was the account of the mugging and murder of Dr. Wolfgang Friedman, dis- tinguished professor of international law at Columbia. He had been stabbed fo death in the late afternoon on tlie same Amsterdam Avenue that separated our hotel and sem- inar location a few blocks to the north. My own composure was a bit shaken by this, I confess. The next night, rather than go back to the hotel alone from the subway station, I endured two miserable hours in a saloon until one of the fellows had had enough and was ready to accompany mo to our quarters. Carey McWillhims, editor of The Nation. n few days earlier had recounted in Tho Times he had been mupgcd by four young hi rick men in the1 plevritrtr nT his of- fice building. He had been roughed up so badly that he was taken to hospital for treatment. As a long-time champion of underdogs, Mr. Me Williams said he in- tended to continue his course a.s evenly as possible but he admitted lie did not know IKW he would react the next time he faced an elevator occupied only by black youths. The New York author and critic Marya Mannes, who addressed the editorial page editors and writers seminar one afternoon, said that the mood of the United States today is one of "protective reaction." "If anjKliing unifies our society it is unease about lack of she said. It is not a kind of unity that is of any value, however. A sense of confidence in both self and so- ciety is needed, Manifestations of violence was frighten- ing to the seminar members but more dis- quieting was that speakers such as Ralph F. Salerno, for many years a member of the New York City Police Department and expert witness on organized crime, is not very hopeful about resolving the problem. The 3ack of faith in self and hope for the future is endemic and permits, if not courages, the attitude of disregard for values that once undergirdcci society. A merely negative approach to the prob- lem that of physical restraint will not do. Some positive approach to restoring confidence has to be found soon. Political indecision Bv Eva Brewslcr -Then in hole pOUTTS With general elections al- most upon us, I am not quite sura which party I would like to see elected. The very thought of voting makes me hear mother cry. I remember her cry- ing twice during my early childhood; the first time because she had voted for an honest man (Streseman of the short-lived German Weimar Republic) wljo was later murdered. Had she not voted for him, sho reasoned with feminine logic and an exag- gerated belief in the power of her vote, lie might have remained in opposition and would not have been assassinated. The sec- ond lime for not voting in n general elec- tion because we happened to he abroad on holiday. Flad she been home, she waa again convinced, her vote might have pre- vented dictatorship and tints, possibly, lha Second World War. I must have inherited her political con- science and will therefore have to gel over my indecision to ensure, history does not repeat itself. However, if party politics nor- mally appear a clear cut matter of indivi- dual choice, just before voters go to Hi9 poll ihje picture becomes confused for many people. Politicians, often regarded as villains, accused of self-interest, disregard of pv.V lic opinion, exploitation of the taxpayer anl a multiplicity of other sins, suddenly tun, into angels of righteousness, full of tender' ness and concern for the individual. Noth- ing is Loo hig or too small an Issue, noth- ing too difficult to achieve once the elec- tions arc over. Promises and good inten- 1ions and a ista of heaven on earth opens up the astounded eyes of the potential voter Wearing themselves out for Ihe common good, candidates seemingly pet nr> ITS I in order to spread their sincere belief thai everything is all right or ;ill wrong our world, depend- ing on v-liidi side of the platform thoy ;iro seeing things from. However, no mailer how rosy r how their present out- look tivey il agree our future will bo guaranteed tncc they are voted info power and all arc soing I" become all things tu all Iri marked hi ,so imich dedication and pacrifico, Urn tmiaHy pa- tient, long suffering electorate suddenly becomes power conscious, sometimes hold- ing present and, possibly, future govern- ments to ransom. The most respectable sections of society are not beyond ap- plying a little political blackmail: "It you (the present government) don't scratch my back, I won't scratch yours." It works too as we saw in recent The government really did yield to such pressures. In Toronto, for instance, the spokesman for nearly LIP employee! threatened to tell people not to vote Lib- eral if mi extension of that program was not granted. Only two days later, Alan- power Minister Bryce Mackasey agreed U not only continue the project next yeaf but also financed 750 LIP projects beyond their original expiry date on .September 30. An unemployed father of five children only needed to toll Mi1. that he will vote for the opposition because lie wag unable to find work and our compassion- ate prime waves a magic wand. Ti tirades never cease: A job is available the same day for a man who had previ- ously cxhau.sfed every 5venue known to him. Needless to say, Midi generosity could cause the most steadfast opinions to waver although most peoph with lender mem- ories would agree that the reversal of power from the ruler (o the ruled is short- lived. For the next foiu" years the govern- ment will again be so busy governing that the small voico of might not ha listened to. There is. in this very likeli- hood a conjol.ition for voter.1 as well as those party remains in opposition: It is much easier for the indi- vidual to make his voice heard through hi.1! MP if (bat TUP happens to in the oppo- sition The latter thrives on a good fifiV.t for (ho rights of citizens he Every heart-felt cry for help is grist for his mill anri every w.nn, a font her in his cap nnri probably new voto in tho next elections. Therefore, tnke heart all ye unrtccided: Heads t.iil.s Pokier or later, llio side of HIP ruin A liiibil