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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 30, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Saturday, 30, 1974 On guard for what? In terms of a psychological boost for concerned Canadians, the llth annual review of the Economic Council of ('anada wins hands down over the Turner budget. It would be unfair to compare the two documents, for a variety of icasons, were it not for the need of this particular boost. The world is undergoing an economic i evolution. Every day it becomes more apparent that nations must analyse their resources and consumption patterns critically and in a world-wide context. day comes word from a new part of the globe that a nation's economy is in trouble or that its resources are inade- quate. Every day the planet shrinks a bit more. And every day somewhere someone seems to be doing something about it. Russia, which has some of the world's largest fossil fuel reserves, has none- theless launched a fuel economy drive. France has limited oil imports by value. In the U.S. some colleges are turning the heat off in their academic buildings at 5 p.m. and students study at night sometimes in 52 degree temperatures. It is disturbing to many Canadians that the present government seems bent on protecting them not only from inflation but also from reality, as though they were not mature enough to face it or as though Canada existed on a different planet. This may seem like harsh criticism but there is nothing that erodes national spirit more than the sense of helplessness which comes from inaction in the face of trouble. The ECC has, by way of contrast, come up with positive recommendations instead of the protective kind set forth by the budget. Its most important point is that the price of domestic oil should be allowed to rise to world levels. To do otherwise, it says, would be to "delay needed energy-conserving technological change, hasten the depletion of existing reserves, delay the provision of supplements and alternatives, lower the potential value of savings, and perhaps foster abortive development of energy- intensive industries dependant upon the hidden subsidy of cheap oil and gas." Certainly a rise in the price of gasoline would preserve that fuel in a way no voluntary restraints would. The ECC's recommendation that renovation and improvement of existing old housing be encouraged is a very sen- sible one and much more in touch with reality than the budget. The ECC's judgment that inflation, while it is international in scope, is at least partly the result of inadequate national policies, does not agree with- what Mr. Trudeau has been saying but it is apt to find agreement among a sizeable part of the population which has been unwilling to pass the buck beyond Ottawa. The council is also to be commended for starting on the problem of es- tablishing quality-of-life measurements or social indicators, as it calls them, and for suggesting nine major areas of socio- economic concern: individual rights and responsibilities, social rights and national identity, health, command over knowledge and skills, the natural en- vironment, the man-made environment, employment, production and consump- tion and financial status. Hidden in its report on health is a finding that should be looked at closely and from several angles by Women's Lib. While life expectancy rates for both males and females is increasing in Canada, life expectancy for females has increased at a faster rate. For men, life expectancy is now 71.4, for women, 77.3. This growing discrepancy between the sexes is a matter to which women might well direct their attention. The ECC review is not inspirational in a nerve-quivering sense. No one, reading it, is apt to leap to his feet to sing "0 economic reports are not written in that kind of prose. But it is a positive document, not a protectionist one, and in this sense it should inspire some confidence in the future. Expensive Italian holidays One of the reasons, among others, for the decline of Italy as a strong industrial nation was pin pointed in a survey published recently by Confindustria, the organization of the country's in-, dustrialists. It showed that Italians work only nine months of the year on average. The survey, conducted in some 770 fac- tories, found that the workers were at work on average for some hours a year. This amounts to a 40-hour week for just over 39 weeks. Most Italian workers get one month's paid annual vacation. The other two months off are the result of sickness, strikes and other holidays. Miscellaneous holidays account for almost one month of absence from work. There are 17 public holidays in Italy, 13 of which are religious. Most of the holidays fall during the week, and when they fall on Tuesdays or Thursdays there is a marked tendency for both factory and office workers to take a four-day weekend. In this way, the 17 holidays are WEEKEND MEDITATION turned into 22 a month of working days. Another feature of the Italian worker's casual attitude to work commitment is the soaring rate of absenteeism when major sports events, such as the World Cup football matches, are televised dur- ing the day. The absentee rate can go up to 80 per cent on such occasions. Confindustria estimates that the mid- week holidays cost Italy a production loss of roughly million a day. Ob- viously Italy, in its shaky economic state, cannot afford the losses represented by the three month vacation its workers take. The same kind of self-indulgence seen in Italy is also present in other in- dustrialized nations, although on a lesser scale. Unless it is somehow challenged and checked the sick state of Italy's economy can probably be expected to be duplicated widely. Predestination, fatalism, or chance No word is more often used and abused than freedom. To most people freedom the absence of all restraints and responsibility for nothing. In claiming freedom they abdicate and renounce freedom, selling themselves into the bondage of drugs, sex. and lovelessness. Freedom is fulfilment of your destiny, your purpose, so an apple tree is free when it grows apples, a wheel is free when it is securely attached. rotating, and bearing its load, a pianist is free when he is trained and disciplined, and a ship is free when the captain has the power and the steering under his control. So a man is free when God guides his life. Freedom is only possible under God and for God. Freedom from God is suicide and slavery. Similarly predestination is misunderstood and confused with fatalism, with which it is in complete opposition. As a matter of fact. Arnold Toynbee shows in his Study of History, fatalism is popular today and leads lo a of drift destructive of the in- dividual soul and of civilizations. Let a sense of drift get hold of a man and disaster is cer- tain Democritus anticipated the downfall of Hellenic civilization when he decided, "By Necessity are foreordained all things that and are and are to come Hitler his own doom when he said. "1 go my with the assurance of a somnambulist. the way which Providence has set me "Life is 3 plaything and a wandering in the wilderness and a passing show This is the work of Fate and Chance who ever so softly us human beings in order to make the iives 01 some of us happy and the lives ol others unhappy without rhyme or reason So lift- travels its wandering and brutal course TTvnbee traces this doctrine of Fatalism and through several civilizations in their dff line to show that the loss of hope, the si-nse of 'esignation. and the feeling that one is at the mercv of the goddess. "Our Lady Automatism." lakes the heart out of men and 1 vitality and drive out of progress This notion that man is determined as a pic-'" fj rnliter is determined so that nrj effort on his part are unavailing. is just what predestination in both Jewish and Christian thought on predestination contradicts. The prophets, for example, believed that God was working out His pur- pose and that Israel had been chosen for that purpose, but Israel could fail, did fail and rebel, and that rebellion was her disaster. A way of life and a way of death had been set before Israel and she had the power of choice. The divine purpose would be fulfilled; God would make "another vessel." Divine predestination is most clearly shown in the life of Joseph. His brothers sold him into Egyptian slavery, but he lives to tell his brothers. "You meant to do me evil, but God meant good to come out of it." What a com- plex chapter of events had followed, all of which would lead to the deliverance from Egypt and the real founding of the Israelite nation. Paul saw himself chosen from birth for his apostolic function. He writes to the Ephesians and Romans that God has predestined them to become like Jesus Christ. They could refuse the offer, however, and in the refusal would be destroyed. When travelling on board ship to Rome, Paul believed he was predestined to go to Rome. But in the storm he warned the sailors not to jump overboard Except they stayed in the they would not be saved and (he ship could not be saved from disaster. God does not work independently of man's intelligence and morality. It is a marvellous source of confidence to know that what God has purposed will come to pass The stars in their courses fought against Si.sera Someone has translated Romans 8 28 as. 'We know that those who love God have His aid and interest in everything This is the heart of freedom and predestination As Matheson sang in that loveliest of hymns. "Make me a captive Lord. And then I shall be free PRAYKR: Draw me, O God, into Thy service where alone there is perfect freedom and eternal joy K S M ECONOMIC COUNCIL CANAPA Measuring health By Paul Hellyer, Toronto Sun commentator "Then it's agreed this council will urge letting Canadians pay twice as much for their oil and encourage them to save more money.' Pied Pipers missing By W.A. Wilson, Montreal Star commentator world is go- ing through a period of excep- tional uncertainty which has produced an almost un- precedented degree of popular pessimism. There has been no time since the 1930s, except perhaps for a short period in 1940 after the collapse of France, when such constantly gloomy views and deeply worried questions have come from ordinary people. The causes of this are both eco- nomic and social. A prominent deputy minister here- commented a few months ago that he could not recall any period when the level of agreement within society, or consensus, had been so low, whether on social standards, social goals, political objectives or economic aims. The acute feeling of uncer- tainty that troubles so many people, not by any means in this country alone, is no mere popular neurosis that has developed without sufficient cause. In his budget speech the minister of finance, John Turner, discussed the exter- nal situation and delivered the sombre warning that it would be unwise for any of us to under-estimate the threat to world economic and social stability." Earlier this year, Time magazine ran a major feature entitled "Where Are the Lead- It did not find many al- though there have been changes since then, not all carrying much promise. Harold Wilson has replaced Edward Heath, a case of wiliness replacing stub- borness. Ford is in the White House instead of Nixon, a cleaner man but one chosen because he was so little threat to any rival. Schmidt is German chancellor instead of Willy Brandt, one change that suggests greater strength. Pompidou's replacement, Giscard d'Estaing. is already under the attack of Le Monde over an erratic pattern of behavior that had set Paris buzzing with gossip months before. The level of political leadership in the world does not yet seem very high. In a psychological environ- ment such as the one that pre- vails now there is a popular need for a sense of direction. A time comes when firm statements of likely prospects, even if they are bleak, are for many men and women preferable to further uncertainty It is the function of political' leadership to provide this sense of direction. It is the capacity to do so that dis- tinguishes between men who are political leaders and those heads of government who merely preside over ad- ministration, exercising a day-to-day pragmatism. The direction of events perceived by political leaders, or which they seek to impose on events, may or may not be right in the sease of being moral or im- moral successful or un- surre.sshil In human society. it as very likely to be a melange of all of these. The functioning of leadership and the acceptance of that role by men at the top of the political structure, however, seems to fill A human need and to draw forth a response from those who are governed Winston Churchill, who would have been 100 years old today, understood this during the war Franklin Roosevelt demonstrated his soncp of it through the long Jx-prc.s'-hion years In North a, people seem to have sought it more recently. Three times in 15 years men have won the top offices of the United States and Canada through their style, the quali- ty that came to be called charisma. Each later seemed disappointing. In 1958 John Diefenbaker's vision of the Canadian future evoked a strong response, yet by 1960 his government was unpopular and two years later was collapsing. Disappoint- ment in John Kennedy was posthumous as the failure to secure his domestic policies was more widely recognized and the dangerous element of jingoism in his international approaches more clearly perceived, with its ultimately excessive costs in human lives, social tensions and economic difficulties. Many of the world's present economic ills have their origin in the flood of liquidity that came about through the extension of the Kennedy adventures, the guns plus butter plus space ap- proach, all financed through essentially inflationary means. In 1968, something of the Camelot atmosphere of the early Kennedy period in Washington seemed to sur- round Pierre Trudeau in Canada. He aroused expec- tations. Like Diefenbaker and Kennedy he produced emphatic responses. Yet the expectations of new direc- tions in our affairs, of a new touch, have seemed unfulfill- ed and many have been left disappointed. Personal appeal does not seem to be a reliable guide to political leadership. Among men of our time who have clearly provided lead- ership the contradictions are striking. The common thread seems only the ability to pro- vide the vital sense of direc- tion. Churchill was the greatest of the wartime leaders. When he came to power he was elderly, widely experienced, highly con- troversial. The core of his ca- pacity seems to have lain in his eloquence and his under- standing of the human need for hope. He had the ability to manipulate it at times when he could not possibly have known whether he was offer- ing false or justified hope and he rallied, not only Britain, but the rest of us. Roosevelt, too. understood the role hope plays in men's affairs. Simultaneously ruthless, unscrupulous and appealing, he also gave men the sense that the end was not yet at hand and he rallied more than American spirits. John Foster Dulles, under a weak and ineffec- tive president, became one of the unquestioned leaders of our time. He quite clearly shaped the development of international events, giving American and, to some extent Western, policy generally its intensely'moralistic tone during the harshest period of the cold war. One may dis- approve the course, but the leadership was there. In contrast to both Churchill and Roosevelt, Dulles offered lit- tle hope, playing on a bleak, Calvinistic picture of a cold, beleaguered future stretching out indefinitely. Where Churchill was an elo- quent orator, Dulles was an extremely convincing ad- vocate both in private and before public groups, arguing his case with great per- suasiveness. He seems to have made much the same use of the popular susceptibility to the moralistic tone that Churchill did of the human need for hope. His denial of hope, however, may have pav- ed the way for the Kennedy- Johnson adventures, with their misleading initial im- pression of clarity and decisiveness when in reality they led into the quagmire. De Gaulle was a man of strong, vigorous personality, seeking to restore to the French people a sense of their worth and purpose. At his peak, he was enormously effective. Despite the controversies, despite the OAS and the attempts to as- sassinate him, the change of mood in France after he came to office the second time was impressive. He stayed too long, he neglected issues of importance, but he left an im- print on a people that was seeking a sense of direction, a feeling that events were no longer drifting. Churchill, Roosevelt and de Gaulle all were products of their time, a matching of the imperative needs of a period with the capabilities of the individuals. Events had grown critical in each case before these leaders were thrust up. In de Gaulle's long career this happened twice. The collapse of France thrust him forward as the leader of the Free French in 1940. His country was on the brink of a military coup or civil war when he came back to power at the worst of the Algerian crisis. The war was being lost when the British Parliament collec- tively decided that in Winston Churchill's controversial per- sonality there lay the capacity to mount a great fresh effort. The world was deeply into the economic morass of the 1930s when Roosevelt secured power. Part of the answer today when we ask. "Where are the leaders''" max he that events have not yet thrust them up from the crowd Berry's World Jft OTTAWA The Economic Council of Canada has decided to measure "social in- dicators" as well as economic which means they want to measure our "feelings" as' well as our bank accounts. Apart from that, their eleventh annual review produced very little that was novel or exciting. Oh, they did reduce their standards for economic per- formance a bit and raised the doubt as to whether the lower standards reflected conviction or merely a tendency, like that of government, to react when something appears inevitable. It is one way of making their predictions "more right" or "less wrong." They also recommended as their most startling proposal, letting the price of oil rise to the international level. This would be good for us, we were told, because the higher prices would reduce the rate of increase in consumption and provide the money to develop new, higher cost sources of energy. But the big news is the decision to start taking our social temperature. The nation's health, after all, is more com- plex than mere economics and any good doctor would want to look at all the symptoms not just the obvious ones. The problem, of course, is to know what to measure and whether it should be fahrenheit or celsius. Counting the number of people who have diphtheria each year is not too difficult. To measure "self-realization" on the other hand, would provide full employment opportunities for hordes of social workers from now till eternity. The council wisely suggests that we begin with a narrow band of a vast spectrum of potential indicators. The initial lottery has yielded housing, health and air-quality as the early winners. These three represent only a small sampling of the fac- tors that, added together, measure the "quality of life." The council points out that different people have different economic and social priorities. For some it is a question of survival. Until the basic requirements of food, clothing, shelter, telephone and television have been met, there is little time for anything else. For others who have these material things in abundance, the emphasis shifts. Which is more valuable, 50 cents an hour increase in pay or an extra hour at home with the family? The answers, of course, must depend on individuals and their tastes and preferences. That is the reason that collective action (government) is so complex and the measurement of its in- (success) so dif- ficult. But that is no reason for despair. There are indicators that stand up in terms of com- mon sense. If more impurities are removed from the air we breathe that must be progress. If a beach that has been closed due to pollution is re-opened following installa- tion of a sewage treatment plant, there is cause for re- joicing. If the number of muggings declined, the streets and parks become safer places of quiet en- joyment. Meanwhile, we should not assume that creativity and productivity are mutually ex- clusive. They are not. A stag- nant economy provides little flexibility for the provision of new parks and playgrounds. A productive dynamic economy allows the emphasis to shift toward pollution abatement, poverty abatement, housing and transportation. Dynamic creativity in these areas contributes to a real quality of life, based on self- fulfillment and self-respect. ON THE HILL HY Joe Clnrk, Ml'for Mountain The federal government is clearly trying to take away the provinces' primary jurisdiction over natural resources. That jurisdiction is part of Canada's constitution which gives provinces primary control over develop- ment of their resources. Most Canadians don't know what Ottawa is doing. Others are buying the government line that the conflict is between "greedy Alberta" and a central government that is "protecting the national interest by guaranteeing low price and reliable supply." We must set the record straight, by reminding our fellow Canadians of three facts. First, the greater threat to adequate petroleum supply is that exploration will stop. The new federal tax on royalties is already drying up Canadian exploration, and that will bring earlier shortages and higher prices to the Eastern consumer. Eastern Canadians can't buy Alberta petroleum if we don't produce it. and we won't produce if more of our rigs move out of Canada, as they are today. Second, provincial control of resources as well as be- Book Review ing guaranteed in. the Con- stitution is the major means for provinces to control their development. If Ottawa can raid Alberta's petroleum now, their next target can be the other resources of other provinces. That will centralize in Ottawa all control over the develop- ment of this diverse country which is a result no region wants. Third, that excessive central power is unnecessary. Producing provinces are prepared to give all Canadians a reasonable price and guaranteed supply by agreement. That was done when the premiers and prime minister met last March, and it can be done again. Throughout this fight we must bear in mind that, while the issues are of most im- mediate importance in the West, they are "Canadian" issues, not just "Western" issues We must argue always as Canadians, not only as Albertans. Often, people ask me. "What can I do personally to change government This time I have an answer: "Write a letter today to your uncle in Toronto, and have him write his MP Excellent gift books "Vogue Guide to Knitting. Trochct Macrame" (Collins. 252 Complete instructions for knitting, crochet and macrame from simple to elaborate projects make this a book for novice or expert Earn section gives ample beginner's directions for Pitches or knots, use of yarn. ,ind care ol the finished product. Patterns (or classic or fashionable garments are given. This book with its many line drawings and numerous photos, is packed full of ideas and would make an excellent gift. ELSIK MORRIS The Lethbridge Herald 5W 7tti St S Lethbrldge Alberts LETMBRIDGE HERALD CO LT O Proprietors and Second Mail negotiation No 001? CLEO MOWERS EdHo' Publisher DON M PI U ING Managing Editor DONALD R DORAM aenet-ai Manager ROY f MILES Advertising Manager DOUGLAS K WALKER Editorial Page Editor ROBERT M FENTON Circulation Manager KENNETH E BARNETT Business Manager "One ol Ihe reasons the cost ol the flight has gone up is lo cover the free drinks you'll be "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;