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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 30, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta THE IETHBRIOGE HtRAlD Monday, November 30, Suzanne Cronje Oil for tomorrow The intention of the United Stales to open its market freely to the im- portation of Canadian crude oil is a landmark in continental oil history. But it was inevitable. The oil industry, especially in North America, has operated on the principle that the best way to ensure enough oil lor the Mure is to pro- vide adequate incentive for explora- tion and development, and that means selling it as fast as it can be pro- duced now. Tomorrow's needs can best be met not by saving some of today's oil but by building a flourish- ing oil production industry capable coping with the future demands. This principle has dominated Am- erican oil policy. The oil lobby in Congress has- effectively opposed the unlimited importation of cheaper for- eign oil, arguing that an internation- al emergency in the future might cut off the foreign supplies and leave the country dependent on its own pro- ducers, and to be able to cope with that situation the producers had to have sufficient market incentive to- day to keep healthy and growing. Let too much foreign oil into the U.S. they said, and the American indus- try would founder, and then the coun- try would be in real trouble if sud- denly it was totally dependent on the American industry. Now that line of reasoning is wear- ing thin. The mushrooming demand not only for auto gasoline but for heating fuels is changing the pic- ture. The American oil operators have been protected and still there have been substantial imports, especially from Venezuela and the Middle East into the Eastern U.S. Yet a critical fuel shortage has suddenly develop- ed, and the old policies are now obso- lete. Opening the U.S. market to un- restricted imports from Canada is only one of many changes that will have to be made. The Alaskan and Canadian Arctic discoveries will probably do little more than briefly alleviate the grow- ing shortage. For the next few years the U.S. will be at the increasing mercy of off shore production. In the long run the exploitation of the Athabasca oil sands and the Color- ado oil shales offers the greatest hope for keeping up with the growing de- mand. And when that time comes, the extremists among the "environ- mentalists" will have plenty to talk about. Nuclear-free seabed Frustration with the lack of pro- gress of the UN in keeping world peace often blinds the public to some of the tilings it lias accomplished. One of the major achievements of the 25th anniversary session is the agree- in e n t leading to a treaty banning nuclear weapons from -the ocean floor. The treaty is the outcome of the draft document sponsored by the two world super powers, the United States and Russia at the Geneva dis- armament conference. It is the re- sult of very long discussions and la- borious negotiations, but the Assem- bly's main political committee has approved it by an overwhelming vote. At Canada's insistence, provisions have been made covering means of checking suspicious activities, and the Latin American countries have been given strong guarantees of the rights of coastal states. So far so good. Unfortunately France was not a participant in the Geneva disarmament talks, nor was China. Both these countries are still carrying out nuclear tests in the air. Neither has signed the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963 nor the nonprolifer- ation treaty of 1968. Possibly with the departure of go-it-alpner General de Gaulle, his successor, President Pompidou, may take a more enlight- ened attitude concerning such agree- ment. China is unlikely to be influ- enced by world opinion for a few years at least. Dangerous play Boys seem to have it in them to want to do daring things. Recently there has been an outbreak of ex- treme rashness on the part of young- sters. The questionable practise takes the form of running out into the street and clutching the bumper of a car to slide along behind. No doubt this is fun and it may seem like the most inexpensive form of amusement im- aginable. Yet this play is very dangerous. One of these days a boy is going to slide into the path of an oncoming vehicle after losing grip on the car. Then, too, there is a possibility that a boy crouching down behind a car waiting for it to start might be run over if the car should be put into reverse. About all that can be done to dis- courage boys from exposing them- selves to this danger is for parents to try to impress on them the risks they take and the strain they place on drivers. It is bad enough having to drive on icy streets with- out the worry of this sort of thing. Multinational business By Bon Oakley NBA Service OECB ia awhile, a businessman comes off the defensive and delivers a corker of a rebuttal to those who blame him and his Mud for all the ills of the world. Ellison L. Hazard, chairman and presi- dent Continental Can Co., did it recently m a speech to the International Conference of Financial Executives Institute in San Francisco. It is true, he admitted, that at one time international business was often instrumen- tal in creating hostility between peoples in- stead of bringing them together. It was a tool of colonization, symbolized by com- panies of exploration and exploitation like the English East India Company or the Dutch New Guinea Company. Through the 19th century and well into the 20th, international business objectives were achieved for the most part by build- ing prosperity at home through exploita- tion elsewhere. Industrial empires were cre- ated which blundered into the catastrophes of two World Wars and a Great Depression. We have learned some lessons from these disasters, says Hazard: The so caUed civilized world and its business organizations cannot thrive as is- lands in a sea of world poverty. Develop- ing nations can no longer be exploited. Technological advances must be shared am} markets must be developed on a worldwide basis if a permanent base of prosperity is to be achieved anywhere in the world. Today, he points out, technology is more Important than geography. It is now easier and more profitable for a company to trans- port its knowledge and skills than to ship its products for long distances. The result has been the emergence of truly multinational companies based in many different countries. Unlike many of the great international companies of tbo past, which basically extractive and exploitive enterprises, the great multina- tional companies of today not only export products but are increasingly exporting technicians, technology and know how out- side their own national borders. In the world economy, multinational cor- porations already far outweigh those that are strietay exporters from a base coun- try. The production o! U.S. companies abroad, for example, is more than five times the current level of U.S. exports. Today there are 3.8 billion people on earth. By the year 2000, there wili oe 6.4 billion. Nearly 70 per cent of this popula- tion growth will take place in the poorer countries of the world. With wealth in the industrialized world 12 times that of the nonindustrialized world, and with the difference increasing, the prospect is for an even wider gap, sa even deeper chasm between rich and poor, warm Hazard. Under the oceans lie untold reserves that will be needed to support the world econ- omy in the next century. Yet today, three- quarters of tie earth covered by water is a jurisdictional "no man's land." Just how does one stake a claim to land under the seas beyond the 12-mile limit? ha asks. Where does a company make such an application to the President, to the State Department or to U Thant? Today there is no way for a company to become a world corporate citizen legally. The world urgently needs a backdrop of "supranational law to govern the develop- ment of international business, he says. The United Nations, in spite of its shortcomings, provides a structure for the establishment of multinational business agreements if it could stop playing Cold War politics and start building a world peace based on the economic realities of the next quarter cen- tury. "It is my says Hazard, "that real progress by the United Nations in this vital area will lead us tho road to peace faster than anything that has been accom- plished to the 25 years slice the UN Charter was signed." From the days of Marco Polo, business has been one of the most powerful as well as one of the most persistent forces in. the world. But we have not yet fully realized, says this businessman, that it can and should ba a unifying force among nations and that tho multinational company can be a major force will) which the world marshals its human and material resources for the good of all people. Leadership difficulties in Guinea T ONDON The mysterious attack on Conakry, capital of the West African Republic oE Guinea, recently cannot have taken President Sekou Toure by surprise. It follows several recent reports that hostile forces were organizing in neighboring countries to over- throw his government. Last month a French trawler with Ghanaian and Ivory Coast crew members was arrested in Guinea's territorial waters. Powerful radio equipment and long-range radar was discover- ed on board. This incident was regarded as sufficiently serious for the government to' broad- cast a warning to the popula- tion to remain vigilant. The trawler and its crew have since been released but its appear- ance on the Guinea coast coin- cided with other disquieting reports. There have been suggestions that the periodic threats against Sekou Toure were in- vented or exaggerated by his government for internal politi- cal reasons. But there is exter- nal evidence to substantiate his claims. In October, the Su- preme Court in nearby Gambia jailed 38 Guineans accused of organizing an expedition to overthrow Sekou Toure. The court found that the leader of the group, a member of the op- position in exile, the FNLG, had recruited men in Gambia. He and his party had been ar- rested near the Senegalese bor- der as they were about to board a Portupese vessel which was to have taken them to Guinea-Bissau the colony of Portuguese Guinea tot military training. In September, Sekou Toure announced that he had evi- dence of a network of mercen- aries in Guinea Bissau and Senegal preparing to provoke unrest in Guinea. In particular, the president claimed that an army to invade Guinea was being trained and equipped with aircraft and weapons in the neighboring Portuguese territory. These preparations, iie said, were supervised by Colonel "Jack" Schramme the Belgian mercenary leader oE Congolese fame. According to one report of this week's invasion a 11 e m p.t Colonel Schramme was involved in the attack as a ''freelance While this may officially ex- onerate Lisbon, which has al- ready denied any collusion, it seems probable that the Portu- guese government would have welcomed the plot. Guinea bor- ders Guinea-Bissau where the Portuguese have been fighting a losing battle against the Afri- can liberation front, the PAIGC, led by Mr. Amilcar CabraJ. The other neighbor of Portuguese Guinea, Senegal, has discouraged support for the Cabral movement though it has not been able to prevent some traffic across the border. But there is little doubt that Con- akry has provided willing as- sistance to the PAIGC although reports that the PAIGC uses bases in Guinea to attack the Portuguese are incorrect. Mr. Cabral's party controls a suf- ficiently largo part of the Portuguese territory to dis- pense with external bases. As ils colonial wars are a great drain on Portugal's economy it could be argued, that to cut off the PAIGC supply lines may be thought essential strategy in Lisbon. The Portuguese are not the only enemies of Sekou Toure's administration. Until recently Guinea blamed the Ivory Coast and the French for most of the subversion, and Conakry now claims that the invasion at- tempt was directed from Abid- jan, the Ivory Coast capital. This reverses the trend of the last few months when relations with the Ivory Coast became more cordial. In fact a few weeks ago Eadio Conakry praised President Houphouet- Boigny of the Ivory Coast for making it clear to elements "which dream of upsetting the course of Guinea's revolution" that he would not encourage them in this. "If the Unite-1 Nations can't recognize Red China, how d'ya expect ME to As far as Sekou Toure was concerned, the thaw may have been necessitated by his at- tempts to get on better terms with France. In 1958 Guinea was the only country to vote "no" in General de Gaulle's referendum asking for support for a French West African fed- eration. This'resulted in an im- mediate withdrawal by France of all technical personnel and aid and as a result Guinea had t h e unique experience of having to make its own way without help from !he depart- ing colonial power. It turned to the Soviet Union and Commu- nist China for aid but the World Bank also assisted consider- ably. Relations with the United Stales have recently improved enough for the Peace Corps, which had been expelled at an earlier stage, to return to Guinea. There is no doubt that Guinea is extremely rich in minerals. There are large deposits of high grade iron ore and baux- ite, and there are reports this month of an agreement being signed with Japan for the ex- ploitation of the iron; while a Swiss firm announced last month the establishment of a joint venture with the Guinea government for the develop- ment of the bauxite. The baux- ite deposits are probably the largest in the world and a spe- cial river port for the handling of the ore is expected to be completed by 1972. Sekou Toure has accused for- eign plotters of hoping to over- throw his socialist regime be- fore mineral developments can strengthen it. But despite bis implications that their schem- ing had the support of Paris, an official French mission was in Guinea this month to examine ways of normalizing relations including the question of eco- nomic aid. It was General de Gaulle who could not forget Sekou Toure's defiance in the 1958 referendum and his death could be regarded as removing any remaining barriers to the re-establishment of friendly links. Nevertheless, Sekou Toura has many opponents. He has been in power for 12 years without permitting opposition parties to assert themselves, although there is some scope for political debate within his own ruling party. It may also be significant that he reshuf- fled his cabinet two days be- fore the invasion attempt but there have been no unusual signs of internal discontent. It is unlikely that the exiled FNLG could pose a real threat without external support and of all his enemies the Portuguese have the best reasons to assist the opposition. Whether they were involved is still unclear. (Written for The Herald and Tlie Observer in Stanley Uys The churches' role in the apartheid situation TOWN The visit to South Africa by the Arch- bishop of Canterbury, Dr. Mi- chael Ramsey, for the cen- tenary of the independent Anglican Church here, comes st a time when the Church to South Africa of all denomi- nations is in the midst of soul searching, precipitated by the action of the World Council of Churches in giving direct financial support to guerrilla movements in south- ern Africa. A few years ago the reaction of South African churches prob- ably would have been to walk out of the WCC and indeed this is what Prime Minister Vor- ster tried to get them to do. When Mr. Vorster saw that this was leading to a state church confrontaion he backed down. The churches have condemn- ed the WCC's action, and in the case of the Anglican Church a decision has been taken to withhold the annual grant to the WCC until the WCC has ex- plained its action. Church leaders, however, have resolved not to withdraw from the WCC. They have con- ceded that the WCC did not ar- rive at its decision overnight, and they or some of them have also conceded that it is not sufficient simply for the church to deplore violence without further ado. Dr. David Bandy, principal of the John Wesley College at the Federal Theological Semi- nary in the Eastern Cape Prov- ince, puts it this way: "The Christian Church has always recognized that, if constitution- al violence is approved, or- ganized counter-violence must also, in appropriate circum- stances, be approved." By constitutional violence is meant the "institutionalized" violence which exists in its South African context in of- ficial apartheid laws and the administrative actions of the state. This is bold thinking for the church in a country which has stringent laws designed pre- cisely to discourage this kind of thinking. It is new thinking for the church, too. Against this background, Dr. Ramsey's three-week visit to South Africa is welcomed by some of the more radical clergy, not so much as an oc- casion for a further attack on apartheid policies as for an honest examination of the role of the church itself in an apartheid situation. The question of the church's altitude to the African guerrilla movements is only one aspect of this soul-searching. Here, incidentally, Dr. Kam- sey's advice that while Christians may go to almost any lengths to oppose un-Chris- tian philosophies the church it- self should not "subsidize" po- litical or military organizations is regarded by some clergy as being too neat a formula. Another aspect is how far the church itself should go in its opposition to race policies in the couNry., or in compro- mising "-.vitlT them. A third aspect Is what the church should do about apar- theid within its own house: dis- criminatory practices, such as different stipends for white and non-white clergy, the refusal to put non-white clergy in charge of white parishes, the staffing of church offices with whites only, etc. The church's dilemma is that some of ils own clergy are con- servative, if not reactionary, and, more important, that its congregations reflect the spec- trum of white South African public opinion, which by and largo is conservative and even racialist. On the one hand, there are those whites who support the government. They for the most part belong to one of the three Dutch Reformed churches, all of which (juito openly support apartheid, and In fact cialm scriptural justification for it. On the other hand there are many opposition supporting whites, belonging to the Angli- can, Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic and other churches, who vote against apartheid policies at the polling booths, but who in their own lives re- fuse to worship together with non-whites. If the church were to force the issue and try to introduce non-racialism in its own ranks it would conflict first with gov- ernment laws, and then with is own white members. Should it sacrifice these %yhites, or should it continue to try to straddle the two race groups? This is the church's very real problem. It seems that, for the foreseeable future at least, it will try to maintain the status quo. But what will happen then to its non-white followers as the race conflict in southern Africa sharpens, as it inevitably roust? Tliis is the question some of the more concerned white clergy are asking. They point to the spectacular growth of independent African churches in South Africa. In 1913, (here were 30; in 1932 there were 320; and in 1948 when the present apartheid government came into office there were 880. Thereafter there was a dramatic increase. By 1335 there were and by I960 there were Today it is estimated there could be as many as independent African churches in South Afri- ca. Admittedly, many of the churches are started by self- styled "Bishops" whose im- mediate aim is pecuniary, not spiritual; but the fact remains that the membership of indC" pendent African churches in- creased from (S.O per cent of the total African popula- tion) in 1910 to (21.2 per cent) in 19CO. These are (he latest figures. The stirrings in the church in South Africa are confined at present to a minority of clergy and laymen in the different de- nominations, and even they have not yet found a wholly articulate voice. The only really organized and consistently articulate voice is that of the Christiau Institute of Southern Africa, whose director is a former Dutch Keformed Church minis- ter, the Rev. Beyers Naude. The Institute's regional di- rector in the Cape, the Hev. Theo Kptze, a Methodist minis- ter, believes that if the church- es in South Africa had been fulfilling their duty !n the race situation there would have been no need for the Institute to be started. He says the church in South Africa has passed through a "decade of silence" since the Sharpeville massacre in i960, which was followed by a clamp-down by the state on all militant opposition to race poli- cies. Now, says Mr. Kotze, the church must find Us voice again. It.must abandon ils slo- gan of "safety overhaul its machinery to enable it to re- act more quickly to events, and take a definite stand. (Written for The HcraM and The Observer, London) Looking backward THROUGH THE HERALD 1920 Peace for Ireland is the aim of the British Labor Commission, which is meeting in DubEn. Members of the commission have said (hey are willing to give all assistance to any responsible suggestion for the re-establishment of peace. J830 The new school of the Barons Consoli- dated school district was offi- cially opened on Nov. 10. More than 300 citizens and ratepay- ers toured the new building. 3940 Western Air Express announced it would apply to the civil aeronautics board in Washington for extension of its line from Great Falls 170 miles north to Lethbridge, The Cana- dian extension would provide a direct air route from Califor- nia to Alaska. 1850 Efforts are continuing at the McGillivray Creek mine to reach two miners trapped by a cave-in. 1MO The disastrous freight-school bus crash at La- ment, when 17 school children were killed and 23 injured, has triggered the government in- quiry into all phases of school bus operations in the province. The Lethbrid0e Herald 504 7lh St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publishers Published 1905-1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mall Registration No. 001! Member of The Canadian Press and the Canadian Daily Hewspsptr Publishers' Association and the Audit Bureau of circulations CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor (met Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, General Manager JOE BA1.LA WILLIAM HAY Managing Editor Associate Editor ROY F. MILES DOUGLAS K. WALKER Advertising Manager Editorial Pass Editor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" s ;