Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 23, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
Saturday, November 23, 1974 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD 5 A collection of brief book reviews "Pueblos, Gods and Spaniards" by John Upton Terrell, (Fitzbenry and Whiteside Ltd., 358 The first thought that comes to mind when one completes this book is amazement for the atrocities that were carried out by the Spaniards in the of religion. The Spaniards, especially the priests, were intolerant of the Indians, giving them absolute- ly no credit for brains. It is interesting to note though that Pueblo medicine men were, in fact, more skillful than the Spanish surgeons, especially in treating wounds, but the conquering Spaniards ignored traits such as these in their zest to dominate the Indian and confiscate whatever riches he had. The Indians are credited with atrocities against the whites, but few could equal the crimes the Spaniards per- petrated against the Indian. One Spanish Christian called Zaldivar had Indian prisoners dragged before him, had them hacked to pieces with limbs, heads, etc. then tossed over a cliff. The lucky Indians that escaped this slaughter were shipped to a town, tried, and the males over 25 were sentenced to have one foot cut off and to serve for 20 years as slaves. The Pueblo Indians suffered longer under the white man than any other tribe and this book is the accounting of many of the horrible years they spent under the foot of advancing Christianity. GARRY ALLISON "Bicycles in War" by Martin Caidin Jay Barbree (Prentice-Hall of Canada Limited, 158 It may surprise many readers to learn that bicycles have been one of the most effective weapons used in war. After a clumsy beginning in the Franco Prussian War of 1870, military cyclists soon proved their worth in the Boer War, both world wars, and the jungles of Vietnam. The bicy- cle was swift, silent and able to follow trails inaccessible to mechanized transport. It could be carried by paratroopers, used to trans- port supplies or packed with explosives and left as a booby- trap. Bicycles in War is a well researched, gripping and ex- citing story. With 24 pages of photographs and drawings, a bibliography and index, it will interest all cyclists as well as students of warfare. TERRY MORRIS "Lewis Clark's Field Guides in the Pacific Northwest" (Gray's Publishing Ltd., paperback series of six, each, 80 pages Dr. Lewis J. Clark, professor emeritus, Universi- ty of Victoria, prior to his death, was in the process of preparing these guides con- taining the color plates from his large book. Wild Flowers of British Columbia, and ex- tending the coverage to include the whole Pacific Northwest. He had completed Wild Flowers of Field and Slope as well as Wild Flowers of Forest and Woodland. The rest are being prepared with the assistance of Mr. John G. Trelawny. senior instructor in Botany at the University of Victoria. The photographs are excellent and are accom- panied by brief notes. Flower lovers, especially those who also hike, will be. delighted with these guides. DOUG WALKER "Jacqueline" by Ron Galella. (Prentice-Hall of Canada. Ltd.. 200 Boswell followed Johnson. Galella followed Jackie, that is. "til the courts limited his distance. In this pictoral album he has captured the historic Jac- queline Kennedy Onassis in many moods, casual, intimate and all undeniably natural. AH the photos are beautiful for he has destroyed all unflattering negatives. With all his pictures be tells of his numerous persistent es- capades in obtaining them Photos of her children and other Kennedys are also included As a special bonus. Ronald Coleman Galella his real name because his mother thought he was so good look- ing includes his own short biography along with family type shots This book should please all Jackie watchers. E1-S1E MORRIS "Math and Writing Games" by Herbert Kohl (Random House of Canada Limited, 252 In this inexpensive paper- back, Herbert Kohl offers many classroom tested ideas on how to help children write creatively and understand some of the mysteries of mathematics. The section on writing is ex- cellent. Kohl describes how he drew on the experiences and language of his students to help them improve their written work. The writing on mathematical games gets very involved but some of the games should be helpful for young children. Parents who believe that education is not confined to the local school will find this a useful book to have at home. And school trustees, if you will spare a few minutes, there are four pages on math and everyday life that could be developed into a fine math program for elementary students. TERRY MORRIS "The Writer's Craft" by John Hersey, (Random House of Canada., 425 This book on writing by writers should provide some hours of tedium or delight depending on the writer. Authors Tolstoy, Henry James and Faulkner discuss writing as an art. Others give their view on method, process, the writer's life and the writing itself. Although it's not a "how to" book as such, it indirectly gives some very useful tips. Any would-be writer should read Anthony Trollop's chapter, who, in 40 years wrote 47 novels and 25 other books. Arising at five every morning and allowing himself 250 words every 15 minutes, he would complete three hours of writing before breakfast, after which he would go on to a regular job. For the book reviewer there is Norman Mailer who, after advertising his own book profoundly declared, "that I no longer give a sick dog's drop for the wisdom, reliabili- ty and the authority of the public's literary mind, those creeps and old ladies of vested reviewing." Are you a student bent on writing that best seller? Then heed the words of Flannery O'Connor. When asked if she thought universities stifle writers, she replied tartly, "My opinion is that they don't stifle enough of them." THE VOICE OF ON -By Dr. Fiank S. Morley ELSIE MORRIS Harvesting finished once more Illingworth Book Review Development of public water supplies "The Influent and the Effluent" by Frederick Small (Modern Press, 256 A concise and yet com- prehensive account of the historical development of public water supplies, solid and liquid waste disposal facilities and related en- vironmental factors affecting public health in urban com- munities. The time period covered is from the very beginnings of urbanization around 3000 B.C. to the present. Although written by a civil engineer, the book is non technical and very readable. The numerous sketches and photos throughout add to an interesting and well written presentation of a topic which could be rather dull. This book should appeal to the general reader concerned with the environment as well as be of interest to the professional involved with the problems of our urban centres such as the economist, geographer, sociologist, engineers and urban planner. Written in three parts, the first traces the course of urbanization and outlines its characteristics. Part two describes the various aspects of supplying water to the urban setting and covers topics such as sources of water, methods and problems of transporting, dis- tributing, storing and treating water. Finally, the last part considers sanitation or the lack of it and the problem of sewage and solid waste dis- posal. Each of the three parts are discussed within the framework of three time periods, namely, Antiquity (from the first appearance of cities to 500 The Middle Ages (500-1500 AD) and the Modern Era (1500 AD to the Two appendices give a brief overview of water supply systems as well as waste water treatment facilities and solid waste management systems in some North American cities including Toronto and Montreal. Finally, for those wishing to do additional reading or research about the topic, there is an excellent bibliography organized ac- cording to the three part divi- sion and the three time periods for each part. A last note of interest is the fact that the book, which took endless hours of painstaking research, was written by a person who has been totally blind since 1960. In spite of the handicap, Mr. Frederick Small continued active with his firm, various professional and community organizations, and with publications. He has held the title of Western Canada's champion blind golfer. GEORGE H. ZIEBER Buckley at the United Nations "United Nations Journal: A Delegate's Odyssey" by William F. Buckley, Jr. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 280 pages, distributed by Longman Canada Anyone familiar with William F. Buckley's frequent acerbic remarks about the United Nations will be sur- prised to know that he was named a member of the U.S. delegation to the UN in September 1973. He himself could not imagine "a more improbable designation" but accepted thinking that he could redeem something from the experience if he wrote a book about it. The book is both il- luminating and entertaining, albeit disillusioning. It is dif- Fascism not dead "Fascism" by Dr. Paul Hayes (George Allen Unwin Ltd.. 225 pages, distribntetJ by Methuen facism is not a dead ideology. It still has political potential, particularly in non European areas of the world." To those who believed fascism would remain a taboo word forever, following the defeat of the Hitler regime. this book will shock them into century reality. When Paul Hayes says facism is not dead, he is referring to certain regimes in Africa and America. But he also attempts to dispel some of the confusion about fascism by explaining the reasons why some of today's regimes that can be described as ultra conservative should not be labelled fascist Fascism, according to the author, should not be dispelled as an "unfortunate product of a few misguided or diseased minds To support his statement. Hayes reveals the influence of European ideas in the rise of fascism and the social and political causes of its rise to power in Germany and Italy. JIM GRANT ficult to read this book and re- main hopeful that the UN can ever be rescued from the diplomatic quicksand into which it has fallen. Maybe if more William Buckleys could be turned loose in the UN with the freedom to speak their minds, a revitalization would occur. As it was. Buckley was throttled and things went on pretty much as always. He saved his sanity by remaining somewhat detached; others must often be frustrated to the gills or nearly bored to dis- traction. What Buckley couldn't say in the committee meetings and the general assembly of the United Nations he says in this book. His clear and can- did views on human rights deserve the attention they will get now that they are in print. I expect many delegates to the UN will be exposed to them since the book is probably "must" reading for all associated with that august body. Nobody consistently uses words with greater cutting effect than William Buckley and he is at his best in this book when he ROCS to work on His Excellency Jamil Baroody, the Permanent Representative of Saudi Arabia. Hr says, "The popular image of the United Nations as the densest collec- tion of oratorical bores in the history of the world is owing as much to Baroody as to the next one hundred senior delegates who have served there He gives a sample of the tedious stuff spouted con- stantly by Baroody and then says. "No one who has not read the original speech will believe the enormity of the act of charity for which I am responsible by this trun- cation." Proper as the reader may be, I doubt if he or she can get through Buckley's shots at Baroody without at least one guilty guffaw. Here is Buckley at his best. DOUG WALKER Fossil guide "A Guide to Alberta Vertebrate Fossils From the Age of Dinosaurs" by Hope Johnson and John E. Storer (Provincial Mosenm of Alber- ta, 129 Collectors of fossils should have this book. The drawings of vertebrate fossils found in Alberta would help collectors 1o classify their finds. There are opportunities for amateurs to further professional knowledge by making proper identification and classification of the.r finds and by leaving some things in place for experts to examine after notification. This book thus serves both amateurs and experts Mrs. Hope Johnson of Ralston is a noted nature ar- tist and student of fossils. Mr. John E. Storer is curator of paleontology at the Provincial Museum in Edmonton DOUG WALKER Must people starve? In 1798 in an Essay on Population, a clergyman named Thomas Malthus shook more countries than Britain with the thesis that under normal conditions population increases by geometric progression and food by arithmetical and therefore the birth rate will outrun the means of subsistence. Hence the population must be held in check by war, famine, and plagues. Today because many like the orthodox clergyman cannot condone contraception, individuals are added to the world's population every 24 hours and three out of four of them are doomed to hunger A quarter of the world's population, possibly a billion people, are undernourished, while 400 million are on the verge of star- vation. For the first time in world history this concept is challenged. Canada has belatedly decided to change its aid program to help starving countries grow their own food and also to provide three million tons of grain. American aid has declined as its gross national product increased, but Secretary of State Henry Kissinger has promised U.S. leadership in a massive global effort to ward off starvation. Unhappily although the winter wheat crop in the U.S. reached a record level of 1.6 billion bushels in 1974, the carry-over at the end of the year is estimated at a low four million tons compared to 38 million tons in 1961. This carry-over decline is because of purchases by Russia; China, and other nations thus wiping out the U.S. reserve stocks. Also India who had embarked on a promising birth control plan has now aban- doned it. Without a radical reduction in the birth rate and a change in their religious and social customs there is very little hope for In- dia. Problems similar to India's apply throughout much of Asia and Africa. Most of the available good farmland is in production. Social customs create formidable barriers to change. It is estimated that if Indian agriculture could be properly organized In- dia's food grain surplus available for export would be double the total worldwide trade in food in 1972. U.S. Aid official Edgar Owens maintains that the problem can be solved by doubling and trebling the low per acreage yields on 150 million small farms of the poor nations. Yet fertilizers shipped to developing nations rot on the docks or on open fields for lack of prop'er distribution. Another estimate is that half the world's food supply is eaten up by insects, rats, and other pests. Inflation is another deadly problem fatal to the Sahel countries such as Senegal, Niger, and Mali suffering from a seven year drought, which has devasted their economies based on primary products. On the Ivory Coast fertilizers have increased in cost by 350 per cent. A similar increo.se has taken place- in oil, textiles, and building materials. In Nigeria the price of gari, a staple food product made from cassava roots, hat increased by more than 500 per cent. In Tanzania food costs have risen 50 per cent in 18 months. In The Cameroon? the menace of desert erosion is increased by thy destruction of forests to grow tobacco crops. Inefficiency is a grim factor as in India fertilizer plants run at only 60 per cent of capacity. The government seems indifferent to the problem as the share of agriculture in planning has been reduced from 31.4 per cent in the fifties to 20.7 per cent arid further reduction--: are planned for next year. It is impossible to help countries who will not help themselves. Hence political corrup- tion and bureaucratic greed have been deadly. Churches are being asked to handle their own aid, since the politicians cannot be trusted, or rather they can be trusted to rob the starving and fill their ovvn pockets Another immoral factor is the destruction ol food in Canada and the U.S. How tragic it is to see millions of eggs rot. great bins of food either rotting or ploughed into the ground. and cattle slaughtered and buried in ditches. While research may require a stiff prodding. there are some promising discoveries. Robin Wright reports in the Christian Science Monitor that nutritionists from Harvard University and Tunisia's Institute of Nutri- tion and Food Technology are fortifying cereal grains by adding lysine. greatly increasing their nutritional value. Lysine the added advantage of not changing the color, shape, or size cf the grains. Other scientific projects are the hybridization of crops to provide greater protein and vitamins, development of soybean by products, the use of waste products such as whey mixed with fruit drinks, and foods developed from protein rich grass, plants. and trees. The world food supply problem could be solved if social superstitions and prejudices were overcome, if political corruption could be eliminated, if distribution could be organized, if human greed could be controlled, and if scientific drive and the use of resources gave first place to world need rather than the production of arms and nuclear weaponry. Whst a Utopian dream! The University of Leth bridge APERTURE Dr. D. I.. j Other languages in the school Dr. D. L. Petherbridge was born in England and completed his schooling there up to initial certification as a teacher. In 1947 he came to Alberta serving in various teaching and ad- ministrative capacities for almost 20 years. He also completed both a B.Ed, and Ph.D. from the University of Alberta. He has been a member of the faculty of education at the University of Lethbridge since 1967, where his prime responsibility is in the preparation of future teachers of modern languages. You may be one of the readers of this arti- cle who is more proficient' in speaking languages than I am. It disappoints me that I don't hear you speaking them more often. If youngsters heard other languages at home, in the stores, arenas and other public places, they might see some immediate reason for learning to speak one or more of them themselves. There's no doubt that they'll learn to speak English in this community and country. It's an enjoyable experience to talk to other people in their language. Unfortunately we don't have the same economic, social and political necessity for speaking other languages as do' people in Europe. It's as far from Lethbridge to Quebec City as it is roughly from Madrid to Warsaw, from London to Galipoli. from Cadiz to Budapest, from the northern tip of Scotland to Palermo or from Paris to Sevastopol. However, we all know how this geographic isolation is decreasing. Every year charter flights from Alberta are filled with people go- ing to overseas places, often to visit homelands where there are friends and relatives who still speak only their mother tongue. Every year we hear of young people who are in Europe or Asia experiencing the enrichment of travel in foreign countries. We know that many aspects of life other than travel arc undergoing this international influence. H. H. Stem, an expert in the field of language teaching and learning, cites these examples: "politics, economics, culture, science, sports, travel, literature, radio. T.V. and film Such activities and interests are the concern of all the people of a nation, not just an elite, particularly with the rapidity of change that has occurred recently and con- tinues to occur at an increased pace. On a purely national or provincial level, we. as a people, have apparently agreed to building a Canadian mosaic, of recognizing Ihc cultural differences of our neighbors, and accepting the enrichment of our lives that results from encouraging those differences. Who attended the last folk arts festival without thoroughly enjoying the presen- tations made by the various groups represented. Yet language is an integral part of culture So much so that mam writers on the subject say that it is the most important. part of culture. And this is the one aspect o: culture we seem to encourage least. Beside these genera! gains, there are per- sonal gains to be made, an enrichment of ex- perience which can only be obtained by know- ing another language. Some philosopher- argue convincingly that our thinking j? controlled by the words we use. Thus, if have even a partial knowledge of another language, our thinking prcc-i-ss i> changed. For example, many readers will know thai languages other than English have more one word for Some have two, soni- have several. Dependn'3 on a variety of cir- cumstances, speakers of Jhoie lar-gurge.-7 have to make a selection. As ?oon AS UK- speaker of English learned this fact ir, another language, he the right dis- tinctions too. He a new syst'.'m !o: categorizing people to v.-hom iv? is speaking, so he must think differently This condition, to by psycho linguists as "cognitive fiexibi'.iiy" has confirmed in studies of ever ih-- last 35 years, most revi-ntly .n siudy by Dr. Bruce Bain of the UnivetsMy of Y.V should surely aim at this condition, even if biiingurrjisri! is :--i i-i practical objective in cur All children have the :n i: T both the general and knowing a second any :-np.: language. It is only in ih r high school, that we ci-n children will have th' ll i> dream to visit, one where every day tunity to leam a i: When one consider? iho linguistic background should not be an His onlv By Donr V, nj- seized the one night to brief inf sibilities on the com; The major thine v.-.., company her Jo or wasn't to get out on i: about time' "We 11 also be CCKT she said, "but you v dance." At that point Paul. much interest in probably didn't even married, suddenly re- he asked.