Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 16, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thundoy, Nov.ml.tr 16, 1V72 THI LETHKIDGf HERALD World survival demands political unity By Arnold Toynbce, London Observer commentator Britain is an offshore island of a continent that extends from Calais to Shanghai. Her religion and civilization have been der- ived, throughout her history, from the continent, and their ultimate sources have lain as far away geographically and as far back in time as ancient Babylonia and pharaonic Egypt. At the same time, Britain's physical insularity has allowed her a choice between several different political options. Sometimes she has been polit- ically independent of the adja- cent European promontory of the continental land-mass. Bri- tain was not included in Char- lemagne's West European emp- pire. She was, however, includ- ed in the Roman empire, and this is the political association to which she is reverting today with the important differ- ence that she was incorporated in the Roman Empire by force, wheras the European Econom- ic Community is a voluntary organization. If, however, we limit our chronological horizon to the modern age, re-entering Eur- ope is, for Britain, not a rever- sion, but a transit; for, during the last two or three centuries Britain's political associations have been non-European; they have bridged, not the Straits of Dover, but the Atlantic and the rest of the seven seas. While Britain is being rc-inte- graled into Europe for the firel time since the disintegration of the Roman Empire, she is part- ing company with non-European countries with which she has been associated hi recent times. This political transit would have been a poignant experi- ence at best; but, as things have turned out, we find our- selves landing on terra firma from a wreck. At the moment at which we have entered Eur- ope, the Commonwealth has disintegrated as woefully as the Roman Empire in the fifth cen- tury. Britain is fortunate in having a viable political alternative just in time. In the EEC she is a member of a voluntary asso- ciation of states that cooperate with each other on equal terms, In spite of disparities in area and population and power. This is the only kind of politi- cal association hi which a self- respecting people can feel at home. And, just for this reason, Britain tried to transform the former British Empire into a free fraternity. The Commonwealth mis- carried. The ideal was the es- tablishment of a fraternal union between peoples of different cul- tures, and races. This was a noble ideal, but now it is also a practical necessity, since all sections of the human race have been brought within point- blank range of each other by the mechanization of the means of communication. Today many of the bridges built by the com- monwealth are being disrupted by nationalism, and this is om- inous. Canada is the oldest member of the CommonwealUi and, in Canada, Britain gave self-gov- ernment to both French-speak- ing and English-speaking Can- adians in the nineteenth cen- tury. Yet, today, Canada is be- ing torn asunder by a French- Canadian nationalism that has been provoked partly by the English speaking Canadians' culpable obtuseness to their French-speaking fellow-citizens' sensibilities. In India, Britain gave politi- cal unity and domestic peace to the entire subcontinent for the first time in its history. She achieved what had not been quite achieved by the Moguls in the 15th century or by the Mauryas 18 centuries before that. Having united India by force of arms, Britain eventu- ally gave India self-govern- ment. But, at the moment of political emancipation, India split into a Hindu and a Mus- lim fraction. Pakistan and India sre each teing prised asunder by provin- cial nationalism. India, since her emancipation, has re-map- ped her internal administrative units on linguistic lilies, with the untoward effects that have been produced by linguistic na- tionalism in Europe. In Pakis- tan, the Punjabis' imprudent domineeringness is provoking threats of secession in Sind and Baluchistan and along the Pau- shtu-speaking north-west fron- tier. In South Africa, the white minority has misused political independence in order to im- pose a tyranny on the black majority, and in Rhodesia it has embarked on the same course, though its numbers there are smaller relatively as well as absolutely. In Uganda, the black major- ity is misusing its power by ex- pelling and despoiling the Asian minority. For the British, this repudia- tion of the ideals of the Com- monwealth in Africa and Asia is a painful spectacle, and we also have grave troubles near- er home. At the moment when Britain and the Irish republic are both entering EEC, their land-frontier is in danger of be- coming a war-zone such as the border was in Britain before the union of England and Scotland. Northern Ireland, which is the source of the trouble, is still living politically in the 17th cen- tury. It is now once agate on the verge of civil war between the Protestant majority, which is unwilling to renounce its political ascendancy, and the Catholic minority that is un- willing to submit to the Pro- testants' ascendancy any long- er. Wales has been fully inter- grated with England since Tu- dor times; the industrial south is now English-speaking, and it is dependent economically on being within the United King- dom. Yet a militant Welsh na- tionalism is now threatening disruption in Wales. Scottish nationalism has, so far, been non-violent, yet it too is disconcerting, for the union of Scotland and England in 1707 was voluntary. Have the Eng- lish shown the same psycholog- ical obtuseness towards the Scots as the English-speaking Canadians have shown towards the Since the end of the Second World War nationalism has doubled the number of local sovereign independent states and has halved their average size. Th's political fission of mankind's habitat runs direct- ly counter to the contemporary process of technological unifi- cation. Modern technology has united the whole face of the globe, together with its thin envelope of air. A rocket with a nuclear war-head can be guided from any point of earth's surface to strike any other point. The poisoning of the planet's air or water at any point can spread the infection all round the globe. This cannot be prevented by local governments; their na- tional frontiers are no barriers to lethal radiation. Mankind's strategic and hygienic prob- lems are global and they are pressing; they cannot be solved by the governments of local states. They call for the estab- lishment of a global authority endowed with overriding power. Mankind's survival demands political unity, yet mankind's present mood is increasingly di- visive. Have we gone mad? Debunking, 'fakelore' heroes By James Carberry, in The Wall Street Journal AMERICA has a rich pan- theon of folk heroes, built to giant size by tales spun in woods and workshop. There are those whoppers told around the campfire by musclebound lum- berjacks of the Pacific North- west that put Me into Paul Bunyan and his blue ox, Babe. In Pennsylvania, the resident hero of steelworkers is .loc Magarac, who could bend red- hot steel bars with his bare hands. And who doesn't know about Johnny Appleseed, the itinerant ascetic of the Ameri- can frontier who planted apple orchards for the benefit of his fellow man? Alas, we've all been gulled. The stories about these men are not true folklore but "fake- as Richard M. Dorson, professor of history and folk- lore at Indiana University, calls it. He and other debunkers have been tunneling under the origins of many folk and finding that they did not spring from the folk at all. According to Prof. Dorson and other serious students, true folklore has two necessary in- gredients: origin and wide- soresd use among the people directly involved, be thev lum- berjacks, steelworkers, railroad men, or whoever; and a strong oral tradition, in which yams are passed verbally from one person to another, getting em- bellished along the way. To. qualify as true folklore, written versions of these stories should spring from the oral ones and follow them closely. John Henry, the famous black gandy dancer who sup- posedly worked so hard to de- feat a steam trill in a track- laying race that his heart burst, qualifies as a genuine folk hero by these standards. But many other tales originated not with "the folk" but with PR men or writers with nothing better to write about, and are spread by the mass media or by com- panies trying to squeeze a buck out of them. Paul Bunyan, for example, sprang from the fevered type- writer of the late W. B. Laugh- head, an adman for the now- defunct Red River Lumber Co. of Minneapolis and Westwood, Calif. He began writing promo- tional pamphlets featuring Bun- yan in 1914. To his astonish- ment, they were an instant smash with the public and the Bunyan legend was fed by a torrent of books, newspaper and magazine articles, even in- spiring operas, ballads, paint- ings and sculptures. As late as 1958, Walt Disney Productions released a Bunyan film amid ballyhoo claiming that "hundreds of lumberjacks and sawmill hands have .had a hand in fashioning this giant's repute in the past 100 years." Actually, the early lumberjacks had no idea who he was, says Prof. Daniel G. Hoffman, Professor of English at the University of Pennsyl- vania and an investigator of the Bunyan legend. Pennsylvania Bleelmen never sal around over their lunch buckets swapping tall tales about Joe Magarac, either possibly because his Slavic name translates into English as and because he was invented not by ham-fisted steel puddlers but by author Owen Francis in a Scribners Maga- zine article in 1931. "He caught the fancy of people who weren't steelworkers, but he never caught on with steelworkers says Hyman Rich- man, a labor department offi- cial in Pittsburgh. Mr. Richman tried to find out if the Francis accounts had any real basis in folk tales. He asked U.S. Steel Corp., which had been using Magarac 4n pro- motional material to hawk its products, for its sources; Hie company said it had relied on published articles. He asked the Home of fine Brazier foodt Dairy Queen braziet SALE! BOTH LOCATIONS: 2 DAYS FRIDAY and ONLY! SATURDAY BRAZIER BURGER FRENCH FRIES MILK SHAKE (CHOICE OF FLAVORS) NORTH and SOUTH NORTH STORE 516 13th STREET N. SOUTH STORE 12th AVENUE, M.M. DR. authors of those; they said they got their dope from arti- cles published still earlier. Fin- ally Mr. Richman interviewed scores of old-time steelworkers one of whom had ever heard of the steel industry's legendary strongman. Pecos Bill in 1923 came thun- dering out of a satirical piece in Century Magazine in- vented the six-shooter and train-robbin' and most of the crimes popular in the old days of the and into the American consciousness. But somehow he by-passed the cow- boys of Texas and New Mexico bosom of his supposed folkloric genesis. Daniel Boone, a backward, semi-literate Kentuckian, be- came literary hero when his written by a schoolteacher acquaintance, and other books made him into a scholarly, Rousseau like character living in the second Eden. But as a folklore hero, he was a virtual non-person. Some real folklore becomes so hopelessly romanticized by writers that it doesn't bear any resemblance to the real stories people told. Johnny Appleseed, for example, was supposed to be a poverty-stricken, broken- hearted soul wandering after a lost sweetheart while selflessly strewing apple orchards in his wake. "This syrupy image var- ies considerably with the known according to Prof. Dor- son. Appleseed was the name giv- en to one John Chapman, who became comfortably well-off in the early 1800s by leasing land which he made fiito nurseries; far as can be determined, he didn't fling his assets to the winds. The earthy tales about him picture Chapman as an ec- centric but sociable type, with a keen thirst for whisky and t keener one for women. In all fairness, there is lot of sugar-coating done by th> media out of sheer necessity. We all know the Ballad of Casey Jones, the high-balling railroad engineer who perished gloriously when his Caiwonball met another train on the same track; it celebrates the en- gineer's dash and bravery. The folkloric underground version, however, celebrates his aston- ishing sexual prowess in terms so clearly s-rated that they can't be printed in the news- papers including this one. Books in brief "Monterama'i revenge" by Hirry Harrison (DoiiMediy, S5.75, 180 Tony Hawkin is indeed a name to be remembered. Up to his 30th birthday he lived happily and without excitement In his capacity as an art auth- ority with the Washington Na- tional Gallery he spent his days surrounded by things and a boring assistant, Sophie Steinberg. But destiny held for him a different road In his senior years. Rumors had It, that a paint- Ing by Leonardo de Vinci, pre- sumably destroyed during a Second World War air raid, had reappeared in Mexico. The FBI boss was eager to find out more about it and decided that Tony was the best man for the job. Of course, he (Tony) didn't know how to shoot a gun and was a little on the cowardly side. But lu's protests went un- heard. The FBI almost always gets its man. In this case it was Tony. he arrived in Mexico city lo participate in a potpour- ri of confusion. While he was searching for the painting, a Jewish group of Nazi hunters and an Italian secret organiza- tion wove also hunting the sell- ers and the painting and a Rus- sian buxom bomb was after everything that was available. Very lengthy descriptiores plus Tony's gluttony invited time out for a coffee break plus hearty meal. One gets the impression that, had MonlMuma met Tony in- stead of Cortez, some 450 years the Aztec empire might well have survived to our time. HANS SC11AUFI, Apartheid in South Africa By Marian Landing in Johannesburg, South Africa in early March, 1972 I had apprehensions about managing in a country so condemn- ed for its "apartheid system." Rather in- dividualistic in character, might I unavoid- ably violate this law? As a "white" must I keep seven paces away from every black and colored? I decided to behave as the other foreign lords and leave this "un- known apartheid" and its performance to the locals. I soon became aware that "apartheid" or not, I was in a very flexible country in which one could safely walk side- sireets, amble about at ease and talk to anyone, with one exception. If wishing to visit the Black To-.vsnhips complete communities established by the government near the cities, where thousands of tribal men and women live, who have come from their 'Homelands' (tribal trust lands) to work in the mines, factories and at city jobs one can only go on certain days, at certain hours and under government guidance purely a protective condition for both the visitor and the dweller, I observed. I had no difficulty in photographing the people, their super- markets, hospitals, churches, schools, play- grounds, stadiums, theatres, taverns (which are crowded with "Kaffir Beer" drinkers) and housing. Police here as in TT lands are all black. Facilities are run and controlled by the blacks, but subsi- dized by the government. What is that "separate- ness" system so condemned by the CBC and the press? Absolute truth about what is really happening is hard to come by. "Apartheid" was started in South Africa in 1948 as a trial solution to better rela- tions between blacks and whites. Some say had it not been for the "overseas slave trade" complicated relations may never have occured. "Apartheid" has basically, created parallel nations, where whites find their level and blacks theirs. The final result may be a model state. William Davis, editor of Britain's "Punch" visiting in Capetown while I was there said, "British immigrants tended, after a few months, to be more firmly in favor of 'apartheid' than many Afrikaaners." The African has been an isolated, in- digenous tribal type. He's grow up in an environment of 1000 years of civilized con- ditions yet he finds it very difficult to get on and it is very apparent that sometimes he doesn't want to. Prior to apartheid It was an "unwritten law" that the African stayed in his own area and the European in his. "Apartheid" has gone further. It designates their areas. This separation prevents mixing of blood and the creation of more colored offspring. When I asked my colored housekeeper her nationality, she sadly replied, "Madam, 1 can't tell you." Sex relations between black and white are forbidden under the "immorality It is a criminal offence with rine years hard labor. Bearing an illegitimate child is also illegal. So permissivness, as prac- tised in our western world, is not popular. Drug problems among the whites are min- imal. The Bantu has smoked "grass" (Dagga, so called in Africa) for genera- tions. A French parlimentarian delegation vis- iting the Cape said, "Apartheid appears to be capable of opening up new ways to- ward solutions which will evolve as exper- ience is gained. !f it is criticized, it is probably because it is a methol far from well-trodden policy paths. But history shows that these patlis have not always led to the desired goal. It is unfair for us to reach unsatisfactory conclusions in ad- vance, regarding conditions peculiar to tliia country." The pressure of the Western world only "worsens" matters. "Be I was told, "Changes are on the way but they must not be hurried if they are to be suc- cessful." Roy Wilkins, head of the Advancement of American Colored, when on an 8 day visit from the United States said he was impressed by the determination of the Af- rican to improve his lot. He also said be did not trust the leaders of the Black or- ganizations on South Africa. I'll add, Bish- op Mozorewa of the African National Coun- cil in Rhodesia to that assessment. Despite economic sanctions (which don't work anyway) and adverse world opinion, this writer was convinced that with a pop- ulation of four million whites taxed to cap- acity to provide all facilities for the "up- lift" of 14 million blacks, the South Afri- can government is doing a tremendous job and should be allowed to prove its pol- icies. In the same situation could we cope or would we quit? Waterton's future debated By Chrli While Waterton slumbers this winter two groups of park-lovers are eyeing its future those who want increased com- mercial opportunity and those who don't. Merchants in the townsite are annoyed that the Chief Mountain customs nearby closes so early in September necessitating the diverting of traaffie through more easterly entry ports, thus avoiding the at- tractions of Waterton. Previous attempts to obtain a later port closing have proven futile. Townsite businessmen blame this fact for the sudden dropoff in business fol- lowing Labor Day resulting in the park's complete closure by the end of September. Other Waterton lovers feel the townsite and its commercial enterprises should be phased out completely with motel and bus- iness patrons bussed in. They fear the de- sire for more sophisticated camping will increase the pollution factor within the park. The only campers they would wel- come would be hikers with small pup tents. They cite Yoho National park as a per- fect example of a controllled recreational area where only accommodation develop- ed by the park's branch and leased out to operators is permitted. Their fears are not unfounded. In an article entitled, The Great American Van- dal, carried in the Trawl and Leisure mag- azine, author John Keats points to the ir- retrieveable loss of several geysers and the Morning Glory Pool in Yellowstone Park caused by tourists who could not re- sist the temptation to clog the vents with coins, stones and logs. The same is true of graffiti in the Grand Canyon where one ranger caught a family spraying their names on the rock and was shocked by their argument, "We thought this was St.wdrt what everybody did. The rocki art for everybody, aren't Perhaps this is the key the responsi- bility of ownership. True our national parks are owned by all Canadians but by the same token, all Canadians are respon- sible to preseve them for posterity. The question is how can this be realized and what measures should be taken to en- sure their preservation? As cities grow and population soars the parks alone will offer the only place of solitude where peo- ple can be refreshed and restored both physically and mentally. Their preserva- tion must be ensured. .Some fear that the whole parks concept Is being gradually undermined as tht an- nual May 24th innundation at Waterton ex- emplifies. They ask whether a national park should be the site of a yearly opening binge or should the park be utilized only for its intended use. Beautiful Cameron Lake is a prime ex- ample of a natural beauty spot becoming less desirable since overnight camping was allowed into the erea. Objectors to further development in Waterton point to the Milk River Ridge, that five mile wide land feature stretching from Cardston to Milk River, famous for ils glacial deposits and rolling highland prairie, or the 500 mile stretch of provin- cial forest land reaching from Waterton to Grande Prairie, both of which would offer unlimited space for sophisticated or primitive camping areas. The question remains if commercial de- velopment is lo be encouraged in national parks the purpose for which the land was set aside will gradually, and perhaps soon, be eaten away. The paper blizzard The Wall Street Jonrnal Some day there may be a dispatch from Washington paying that traffic in the city has ground to a standstill because of an overflow of paper from government offices. According to a Washington Post article, the Gener.il Services Administration fig- ures that 4.5 million cubic feet of federal records are generated and filed each year. That adds up to about 10 billion pieces of paper. A National Archives team trying to cut clown on federal paperwork estimates that there probably are over one million different forms in use by federal agencies. Such figures, which seem lo mount every year, nre alnwt beyond belief. Ry simple arilhmctir (bo figures show Ihal the fed- eral bureaucracy generates 50 pages of rec- ords annually for every man, woman and child in the country. The paper blizzard docs not merely keep federal employees occupied. Unfortunately, those one million forms have to be filled out mostly by people who nre not federal employees such us storekeepers, farm- ers and millions of others who have little time lo spare for such activities. The number of man-hours applied lo such endeavors is incalculable, but some estimates of the total cost of the dialogue between citizens and all levels of govern- ment run as liiph as fiO billion n ycnr. It may well be that the only solutian, one Uiat wo don'l forerec, is an admin- istrative order r.ilicminq consumption of paper and ink povornmenl Of course, lher'' nlso is Ihc possihilily of the overflow inentionod earlier. At the rate tilings arc going that may come sooner than is expected.