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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 3, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta 1 -_ -t NL People of the louth By Chrit Stewart Water was their miracle worker November LiTHiRIDOI HIBALD-8 THE VOICE OF ONE Dr. Frank S. Morley The life or death of Alber- ta's parched southland hinged on twp divergent opinions held by surveyors and settlers just over a century ago. Captain John on his western Canadian trek in 1859 dis- counted the area as valueless while Charles Alexander generally credited father of and the Mormons from Utah who settled at Cardston's Lee held the'opposite it needed was water. Had Palliser's view the area would never have blossomed into the garden it is today at the treeless Blood Indian Reserve and you'll get an idea of what Southern Alberta looked like when our father first saw suggested the Spencer Leo and Miles as they described to me the south's andness when John T. Spencer arrived from St. in the spring of 1899. He had come north to help the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company push a waterway through the sand- stone wastes. Mining engineer Magrath for Lethbridge's Northwest Coal and Naviga- tion headed by Alexander and Elliot anxious to dispose of the com- pany's million acres of crown land received as subsidy for their Alberta offered Mormon church presi- dent Charles Ora Card whom Cardston is a 30.000 acre tract at per acre providing his church would build a canal through the area. The accustomed to irrigation in the western and constantly telling the Gait Company the im- protance of irrigating the declined Magrath's oiler due to the required large tmancial outlay. When British linancing failed Magrath ob- tained help from the federal government and subsequently returned to Card with a se- cond he interest Mormons in canal construction Pay was to be half cash and half per acre for irrigated and per acre for dry land. It was an opportunity to acquire mortgage-free land with free irrigation to boot. Final arrangements between Canada and the Mormon church in Salt Lake City were completed on April 14. 1893 setting in motion the Mormon migration north Appeals for settlers went out from Mormon pulpits in Utah and Idaho with president Card named to see that the church's contract was honored. Canal plans included a diversion weir on the St. Mary River five miles north of the international a dam at two trestled Humes feet in at Willow Creek and main dis- tribution headgates at Magrath The 25 feet in was to follow the 12 mile depression of Spring Coulee the water level would drop 400 before tracing the natural water- course connecting the coulee with a 12 mile stretch of Pothole Creek About five miles of heavy ditching would then be needed to carry the water out onto bench land before it gradually dropped lor six miles into Nine Mile Coulee where it forked into two one to run 20 miles east to Stirling and the other northward to Lethbridge. the canal was destined to revive the parched south Construc- tion began on August 1898. When the 40 available teams proved inadequate for the job Card rushed off to Utah to publicly appeal for more recruits. as heavy rains further delayed construction special letter ad- vising the recipient he had been selected for canal were issued to American Mormons and appeals made for 92 men and teams from Alberta Mormon stakes. With more than 100 volunteers responding 90 miles were finished by with all contracts completed by the following September. on November ly more than two years after a cavalcade accompanied Hon. Clifford minister of the to Magrath to of- ficiate at the opening of the irrigation system. The Spencers the first 17 families to settle hi had brought their meagre possessions with them by train from Utah in April 'W and had tented for the summer at Kimball where Spencer joined the cuul work gangs 10 months after the start of construction. Digging was slow but enthusiasm high. Equipped with ploughs and slipscrapers they methodically inched their way eastward through the sand- stone bringing water to withered areas. Eldest son Arthur's earliest recollection is camping near a buffalo wallow with his father and Arthur Critchfield 101 and residing in Card- ston's Grandview Rest when they came east from Kimball to dig a home at Pothole after the creek disecting it and renam- ed Magrath in Wooden slabs from the Fort Macleod mill walled their below-the-surface which was curtain par- canvas topped and shared by both the Critchfields and Apart from the roof catching fire from the over heated dung fired then collapsing from a heavy Oc- tober life under the tent roof was quite unevent- ful. A dirt roof with a gable window was added later and subsequently a front above the ground addition. Meanwhile Magrath was growing. In addition to the six original houses and R. W. Foster's store built in 1899 a school opened above the Trading Post in with the first Mormon church es- tablished in the J. B. Ririe home from But it was the arrival of the railway in 1901 south- westward from Stirling to that brought the greatest boom the bulk of eager settlers determined to make the desert bloom. The town's first physician Dr. C. W. Saur.ders arrived in 1904 and in the year the city hall was the acre townsite with land set aside for school and was incor- porated as a town. Gradually the area began to flourish The four lone poplars at the east end of town break- ing the treeless prairie were joined by others planted by the and gar- dens and crops flourished thanks to the life-giving ditch. John acquired a farm west of town where he built a granary and home with his family alternating between the town and farmhouse as school i atten- dance permitted. don't know when my father recalls Clyde. was always up and hard at work by two or three a.m. I can hardly ever remember him being in Today hard-working John and Eleanor Spencer's descendants number 190. Their eight children's interests cover such fields as agriculture and astronomy. Four Eleanor C. A. and Ida Samuel have been teachers and Leo and George have engaged in Mormon missions. amateur enrolled in ancient archeology at the University of donated his collection of 2000 identified numerous artifacts to the university in September '72. His collection dating back years and discovered during the past eight years on the 17 acre Crystal Spring Indian camp- site between Welling and Magrath is considered by Professor T. A. Moore to be most extensive collection he has ever He is the author of the practical book for in which he gives advice to those seeking and identifying artifacts and is currently heading a Magrath committee preparing the town's history with completion date set for next July. He served in both the First and Second World was a Conservative candidate in 1957 and has been a prolific letters to the editor writer. Second son Clyde served as a Mormon bishop for nine as a school board member for was a direc- tor of the Sugar Beet Growers for 10 and is currently a member of the Magrath- Irrigation Board. He travelled for years throughout Alberta and B.C. publicizing the superiori- ty of beet sugar with resiling increases in until sugar rationing during the Second World War terminated his career and he enlisted in the air force. He and Arthur operate a joint sheep farm. When food was scarce the men would go off and bag a sackful of ducks resulting in the pot-bellied stove centering the dug-out fairly dancing as the succulent stew simmered. best meal I ever recalls Arthur. Plucky Mrs. who bore six children following their Magrath served as area midwife with her widowed Grandma Mary who arrived from Denver in always ready with her old-fashioned remedies whenever someone wheezed or complained of an i we took a sip of Grand- ma's lip puckering sage tea we didn't dare get sick again in case we needed another recalls Leo. When his chapped calling for an application of Grandma's wax left him so he had to be rush- ed to a Lethbridge doctor to have a slit made for his he remembers the horses racing as fast as autos after getting a shot of Gran- ny's sage tea. It was so George taught for 38 years in both Hutterite and Cardston district schools as well as teaching overseas as a non- commissioned officer during the Second World War. and living in the original Spencer he is fondly known as by scores of former pupils.. born in the Magratfa dug-out was head irrigator at the experimental farm before becoming a custom's officer at Chief Del Carway and B.C. One of 16 million worldwide chess players he is widely known through his membership in both the Inter- national and Canadian Correspondence Chess Associations and is believed to have headed the first inter- national Scout troop. Youngest son Miles headed for Vancouver at the height of the following high school picking any brain he could en route. longer than acquiring a but it he claims. One atomic scientist acquaintance was surprised to learn he wasn't a university graduate. As yet he has received little response to his invitation to scientists to dis- cuss his new theory of the origin of the solar system. Mrs. Eleanor Hudson and Mrs. Ida Longobtham have taught in Raymond and respectively. Youngest Mrs. Fred Riel is the wife of a successful Magrath beekeeper. and are among the 16 original Magrath residents still sur- viving. Others are Oliver Ririe Hazel Ririe George John M. Wallace Charles Samuel Emma Mercer Afton Harrison Smith Nonha Woolley Rita Smith Arthur B. 101 and Earl and Charles 84 and respectively. J. Alfred reputed to be one of Canada's largest sheep passed away last week. The plaster monument on Main spearheaded by Arthur in memory of the irrigation was intended to mark Magrath's golden jubilee in 1949. It did more than that. Complete with plough and slipscraper it tells the story of the brave irrigation men working with primitive equipment of moving merely three cubic yards of com- pared to today's elaborate bulldozers moving 35 who inched the water line through the desert to tran- sform the south into today's bountiful garden. These sacrificial people believed water could produce the need- ed miracle and they proved they were right. Photo by BUI Groenen Sons of canal crew digger John T. Spencer from St. are left to Arthur and Clyde with Leo and in the rear. Book Reviews Ambitious scientific expedition to the edge of the by. Alan Edmonds and 254 The Canadian scientific ship Hudson spent almost a year sailing from Halifax down to the up the Pacific to Vancouver and then in an unexpectedly dramatic climax that subtly changed the future of the world up to the Arctic and through the Northwest Passage. She travelled almost 58.000 miles and carried more than 120 scientists studying the oceans. It was a voyage to the edges of the world to the physical edges of the inhabited world and to the borders of man's knowledge of that world. And since every question the scien- tists answered posed a dozen more for future explorers the voyage of the Hudson was a voyage without end. Before the Hudson returned to Halifax almost a year to the day after 122 scien- tists from four countries would have come and gone as passengers taking their measurements and collecting their samples and specimens. There would be nine separate phases of the voyage and on each the scientific personnel would be mostly different. The Hudson left Halifax in 1970 with a cargo of com- sampling bottles and the world's b.est known oceanographic scientists on one of the most ambitious ex- peditions of its kind ever mounted by any nation. Promoted by the Canadian the trip took nearly three years to plan. Alan Edmonds imbues his account of the journey with all the genuine excitment and im- mediacy that inspired this scientific adventure. Throughout the voyage the Hudson's crew of scientists performed unprecedented new experiments in biology and chemistry in their searching study of the oceans and its floor. The results of their work could ultimately allect the lives of every creature on the planet Earth. 1 heartily recommend this book to everyone interested in the wealth of the seas and in discovering the yet-hidden things of this vital universe. A good book for the school library CHRIS STEWART Growing houseplants Beautiful Houseplanti and How to Grow by Jack Kramer J. McCleod 178 This book will be very welcome to many people who are interested .in their houseplants. It will tell them what they have been doing wrong and what they should have done more less more or less sun shine and how much fertilizer if temperature and so on. Jack who his written many articles and books on everything that has to do with plants wrote this guide. It is illustrated with 46 color pictures and 73 black and white photographs which are a pleasure to look at. Houseplants today have more than ever become a part of our livingroom and in this respect the book will be a help to many people. How have flowers all year round or bringing last year's azalea to bloom again or the pointsetta you got at Christmas are only a few of the topics that are discussed in the book. Pointers on plants that are growing bulbs in multipyling the plants you diagnosing pests or how to have bottle gardens make it a very interesting book. TOM LAST Sunday we give to joy Augustine described Sunday as a of the Tertullian we give to Tertullian's description would be ex- cellent were it not that in the transition from holy days to holidays society thinks of over- and discarding all discipline and restraint for an indulgence of the body. The Lord's Day was a festival of rest and a blessing not a as the United States Supreme Court ruled in a day that contributed to good health by creating at- mosphere of entire community a factor entirely missed in Canadian legal and official attitudes. Men and women are forced to work whether they want to or not and boys and girls must attend sports' practice on Sun- day if they wish to be on a team. The fourth commandment which forbids labor on the Sabbath Day was considered a protection against exploitation of the working man and the same humane motive led the Christian when Constantine recogniz- ed it as the state to obtain legislation making it a work-free day. The content of the commandment makes it clear that it was meant also as a family day. A Jewish sabbath is celebrated by the very people who did observe in hundreds of which would fill as a day of rest and of pleasure and a day in which a man enjoys some presentiment of the pure bliss and happiness which are stored up for the righteous in the world to Nevertheless it should be noted that the Sabbath is a breach of what is The roots of the Sabbath go back to remote antiquity and one finds similar prac- tice among the Assyrians and Babylonians. But the Hebrews gave the day a deeper significance and a new a celebra- tion of deliverance from Egyptian bondage. Jeremiah warns that secularization of the Sabbath is an act of base ingratitude as well as a symbol of the desecration of life and desertion of God. No longer would people meet in an act of thanksgiving or give a of in recognition that all time beloned to God and thus all life should be consecrated. All life should be Monday as well as Sun- day. But when there are not special times for one soon finds that there is no time for prayer. And when the holy day the holiday goes too. Further the loss of the holy day has meant that all life has been cor- rupted and faith has gone. The abominations of the time can be traced to the corruption of Sunday. One can see this in the matter of work. Work has become an end in an inhuman monster that drives man. Work loses its dignity and man loses his incapable of and integrity. Certain- ly Sunday may become a day of hedged with painful and stupid as it was in the time of Jesus. But abuse does not deny the value and necessity of the day as a focus for worship and a recall to moral stan- as well as a day of rest. Historians point out that in Sunday laboring men and women were given the only regular and secure day of rest they have ever enjoyed. A man who truly keeps the Sabbath includes within it a break with week-day family the enjoyment of good and and all that makes life lovely and gracious. Society is becoming increasingly pagan. A determined effort must be made to resist the bullying and coercion which is distorting Sun- day and destroying morality. Television should not be given up to young peo- ple should not be forced to play games during church men and women should not be forced to work by employers. Sunday should be recovered from its destroyers. The sad saga of Diocletian By William H. in The Wall Street Journal Many phases and freezes long before Santayana observed that those who don't know history will be condemned to repeat long before Ricardo much more recent- ly Milton propounded the quantity theory of money that as the volume of money expands faster than produc- prices tend to rise Rome fought in- flation. Not wisely but hard. And long. in 301 A.D. came the famous price- fixing Edict of Diocletian. The background of the Edict points to the recurrent patterns of history. In 357 B.C. Rome set the maximum interest rate at 8 per cent. In 342 B.C. interest was abolished to favor debtors. In 90-86 B.C. the. currency was devalued and debts were scaled down 75 per cent. In 63-61 B.C. loans were called and there was a flight of which was finally stopped by an embargo on gold exports. In 49- 44 B.C. Julius Caesar cut the relief rolls from to by a means test. In 2 B.C. Augustus cut the relief rolls had grown from to In 91 A.D. Domitian created the equivalent of a government which wiped out half of the provincial vineyards to check overproduction of wine. In 274 A.D. Aurelian made the right to relief with bread substituted for wheat and with free olive oil and salt added. This pattern of the welfare-interventionist state is perhaps better observed in the deterioration of the purchasing power of the Roman coin of the denarius. For although good price records and price in- dexes are not we know Rome un- derwent persistent and cruel inflation and did so through the rapid expansion of the money supply old the quantity theory of Pre-Gutenberg and the printing the money supply mainly was balloon- ed via through alloying base into precious. The following table traces the deterioration of the denarius after Augustus whose save for a hardening was practically pure Issuer Per cent silver Into this welfare- interventionist milieu came Emperor determined to stop inflation by by his edict of 301 A.D. His edict com- plained of such that prices of foodstuffs had recently mounted and The preamble who is so in- sensitive and so devoid of human feeling that he cannot or rather has not that in the commerce carried on in the markets or involved in the daily life of immoderate prices are so widespread that the uncurbed passion for gain is lessened neither by abundant supplies nor by fruitful so that without a doubt men who are busied in these affairs constantly plan to ac- tually control the very winds and The edict covered some 800 different goods and recognized the cost-push side of inflation spelling out wage limits for virtually every calling of forgot all about the demand-pull stemming from the continuing debasement of the currency. The teeth in the law were very sharp. The penalty for an offense was death. The complexity of the edict can be seen in the hundreds of wage and price No. of schedules 222 Products Foods Hides and leather Timber and wood products Textiles and clothing Wicker and grass products incense Precious metals 87 94 385 32 53 17 54 A.D. 68 A.D. 81 A.D. 98 A.D. 117 A.D. Atoninus 138 A.D. Marcus 151 A.D. Septimius Severus 193 A.D. 218 A.D. Alexander 222 A.D. 238 A.D. 244 A.D. Claudius 268 A.D. 94 81 92 93 87 75 68 50 43 35 28 0.5 0.02 There are 76 different wage broken down into skilled and unskilled categories. In the silk-weaving and embroidery trades.there were 13 different wool weavers were broken down into six wage categories and fullers had 26 different authorized pay scales. The of failed. In 314 A.D. Lac- a contemporary wrote of Diocletian and his grand plan as the many oppressions which he put in practice has brought a general dearth upon the he then set himself to regulate the prices of all vendible things. There was much blood shed upon very slight and trifling and the people brought provisions no more to since they could not gel a reasonable price for and this increas- ed the dearth so much that at last after many had died by the law itself was laid ON USE OF WORDS By Theodore M. Bernstein Word oddities. These days lion's share means the largest but originally it meant all or nearly all. In Aesop's Fablet several beasts after a hunt began to divide the spoils. The lion claimed a quarter as his another quarter for his superior courage and a third quarter for the wife and kids and as to.the fourth he in- vited the other beats to it with They didn't. Feminist mistake. A little while back a group of militant churchwomen in California drew up some which in- among other a challenge to the tradition of referring to God as Him. The news dispatch reporting this did not say what they proposed to substitute for that but since English lacks a neutral personal the problem looks difficult. Take a typical Bible from the 4th Lord will hear when I call unto To begin Lord is an essentially masculine too. But that could be chang- ed to God. what do you then do with the Him at the end of the The feminine militants have a tough problem on their and a rather trivial one when you consider the really important feminist causes they might be pressing. This one brings to mind that old slightly almost blasphemous story about the queer fellow who advised his troubled to she will help ;