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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 2, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta THE LETHERIUGE HJFKALD Mgtiday, November 2, 1970 John The Rule Of Law Smiic miles tin Uic imblii1 [ovum. People's I.MS" siiunsoi-ol by Uic I.cili- bruise liar Assueiiiliuii and (lie C'aiijiliuii Bar Association, Alberta snlrscclion. and bv Tin' U'llibiiclsc Herald. It will liclll In (lie Vales at S Tuesday, NtrvrmWr 3. Thn'e uill be uo In a world of only one person, the laws of nature would be siiffi- ceul. But where [here are two people they must establish certain additional rules governing their little community. When one man's freedom becomes another's vexa- tion, rules of mutual conduct are needed. The larger and more inte- grated the community and the more diverse the people's aspirations, ilie more essential are rules for the game. ICitlier the people make (heir own niles or some tyrant imposes them. The law is the servant of a free society, not its master. Laws are not the opposite of freedom. They are an iiislrameiil to wisl tyranny and to secure freedom. Disputes of substance between people are subject to law, either to precisely written law or (o the vast body of '-common law" built up by custom and wisdom over the centuries. Where a person attacks the natural rights of another he has challenged the whole community and the criminal law is invoked. Not all contingencies can be antic- ipated by the law maters, nor should they: otherwise the law would become as much a burden as a shield. iVor do justice avid (lie iaw always coincide. The law, like everything made and administered by man, is less Hum perfect. Hut it should be and fries to be as lair as humanly possible. Because the umpire makes a bad call the team doesn't quit and go home. On balance and in (he long run the law works out reason- ably fairly. Laws reU on I he consent of the people. To hold the people's respect they must be relevant and reason- able. Their merit musl be obvious. As times and circumstances change, so must the law. If must be above the gusts and eddies of the moment, but it must move willi the tides of history. A law that is not widely re- spected incites disrespect lor all iaw. Canada lias seen the laws on alcohol, birllj control, abortion, ve- hicle driving and many oilier matters changed to bring them more info line with changing public thinking and the people's changing need. The law. as noted, should be the guardian of freedom. If it is not re- spected it cannot be enforced, and so freedom is harmed. Nor can it long survive the lack of understand- ing. The purpose of this forum is to help the people to understand the law. The Herald congratulates the Ear Association and the participat- ing lawyers, and is proud to be as- sociated with them in this service CLEO MOWERS Editor, The Herald. How Americans Vote The American elections Tuesday cording to party strength in that are of importance to the whole world house, and the senior committee and of special interest to Southern member of the majority party is ant- Alberta. A word on the American J.T._ system of democracy order. omatically chairman of the commit- may be in tee. Also by tradition the chairman controls his committee tightly, often r LIKJJLIV UttliJI fnree levels of government, na- refusing to let it consider bills or tional, state and local, are elected on the same fixed day. Each state runs all three and sets most of the rules for all three. Naturally the rules fre- quently differ from state to state. suggestions he doesn't like. There is growing unrest with these tradi- tions but thus far they still prevail. So the majority party in either House dominates all the committees The elections are held every two and thus its senior members have years. At each election all of the vast powers over the legislative pro- House of Representatives, the lower cess. The legislative wishes of (he house of Congress, is elected for two president or even of a majority of years, and roughly a third of the legislators can therefore often be Senate is elected for six years. At every second election the president frustrated. Further, tiie order of business of and vice-president are elected for eitner house is decided by the four years. The alternate elections, as this one is, attract a little less jority leader." Each party in either liouse elects its house leader. The attention but are only slightly less Democrats have been the majority Important. Traditionally the elections in non- presidential years go against the president's party. But since the Democrats al r e a d y control both houses of Congress, Nixon and Agneiv are trying to reverse tradi- tion. The Republicans may gain in party in both, for many years. The Senate is the senior house in all but tax matters. Lyndon Johnson was Senate majority leader, (and one of the most effective ever known) when John Kennedy picked him as his nin- A strong Senate majority leader is usually the second most both houses but are not expected to powerful and important person in the win control of either. Several important state governor- ships are on the line at this election. Most go ve rno rs 'have four-year terms. In New York Governor Nel- son Rockefeller is being hard pressed by Arthur Goldberg. Governor Regan of California will go back easily. American government. The position has been held for 10 years, longer than by anyone else, by Senator Mike Mansfield of Mon- tana, who is completing his third six- year term (he previously served five two-year terms in (he House of Rep- resentatives) and is now running for Each of the embraces a term. He is expected to win the whole political spectrum, from easily over his Republican opponent, Harold Wallace. President Nixon extreme right to very liberal left. There is no firm party position on any issue. Every vote in Congress is made with little regard to party af- filiation. When, then, docs it matter which party controls the Senate and which the House? Almost the only reason has to dn with congressional com- mittees. These are all-powerful. By tradition and gentleman's agree- ment, no legislation gels on lo the floor of either house until it has first passed the appropriate committee. Committee seats are apportioned ac- He has opposed on many issues, mainly the Vietnam war, and the John Birch society says he is "soft on Communism." However Jie is re- spected by Republicans as well as his own party, and President Nixon, in a moment of weakness the other day, expressed hope that Mansfield would be re-elected. Montana elects only two members lo Ihe House of Representatives. Bolh of the incumbents arc Demo- crats. Both are in close races for re- election. Eire's Confusion Relative calm has settled over Northern Ireland for the time being at least. But trouble is developing in the Smith. About six months ago when the violence in Northern Irelami was at its height, the Irish Republic's fi- nance minister, .Mr. diaries Ilaugliey was incliclcu on suspicion of gun run- ning to Ulster. Haughcy is popular, and ambitious. Me opposes Prime Minister Ly.ieli although tliey are both members of the Kianiui I'aii party. A jury has acquitted Mr. Haughcy. His followers are overcome with joy and the Kianna Kail parly is threatened with a wide open split. The cry for a L'uitcd Ireland has be- come a shout and there is a possibil- thai extremism may break out in the days to come. Added to the political problems which must lie dealt, willi hy Ihe Prime minister, then: are .serioiK c.'cu- noniiL1 onr.s Inlliilinti. far bi'vnnd lluit prevailing in Ihc r.S. .mil KurnpiMii countries, luis -nuc Ulicii Ihc electricians union recently demanded a 100 per cent wage increase, the government figured tilings had gone too far and clamped a wage freeze for Ihc next 15 months. Anthony Lew- is, ol the Xcw Yoi'k Times writes that all the banks in Ireland have been closed for five months by a tellers strike but Ihcrc is a possibility Ilicy may reopen in about two weeks. A bank strike in this country would dis- locate business completely, but not so in Ireland. Mr. Lewis writes that one pub lie knows has worth of lOUs in its till. Shopkeepers are in Hie hain't of approaching Ihe local priest for weekly supplies of change following the Sunday collection. nil these troubles, endemic poverty, rampant inflation, divisiorrin the government, the Irish will make a go of il somehow. .Mr. Lewis be- lieves that Ihey have a of com- munity uliich prevails in few places on eitrlh these dav's. One rniv hope lie's riglil. bul the Mory of (lis- in Ihc Nurlli, and now in the tioulb isn't very encouraging. Poverty Underlies Montreal Unrest Tlic Senate com- mittcc investigating pov- erty recently received two briefs which BO a long way lo- Wimts explaining (Iffi underly- ing onuses of political unrest in 'j'.vbfr generally and ils vio- 1, :s ou Montreal In par- i.Kci.i'-. T shortest of tin; two a nine-page clinical ex- amination of an almost unpub- licizcd aspect of Montreal realities by Glay Sperling, chairman of Davvscn College's department of communications, sums up the situation in a nut- shell quotation: "It is almost literally true to- day Dial good speech lias re- placed (lie gun and (he as an instrument of survival." lie points out that the chief hindrance to the upvvaril-mobil- iy of UIL- glielto as individuals and as a group is tbeiv inability to articulate their condition and their needs or lo understand the useful ad- vice given show that the ghet- to's verbal skills, roughly 8 per cent below median in first grade, have dropped to almost 20 per cent bclou' median by the time the child lias complet- ed Grade Prof. Sperling pointed out. In individual terms, Ibis means (bat even the fortunate ghetto child who graduates from a technical college as a trained draughtsman or welder finds, when lie gncs for liis first job interview, "no draft- ing board or welding rig to demonstrate h i s competence" but an oval or -.Muten inquisi- tion in his weakest ability to communicate. Prof. -Sperling draws the con- clusion that because the glielto (livelier can't talk middle class his efforts io join it inevitably lead lo frustration and be be- gins listening to those who in ghetto language, declare the "gun and (be axe" are the only means for breaking through the language barrier with his mes- sage. The smjiifl brief piclcdd up ,-c Prof, fe'peiiing left off, documenting and expanding his theory while rejecting his call for more research and demand- ing, instead, government action now. T h c powerful 40-page pre- sentation quoted from half a dozen surveys made by several agencies over the past five year s, which it claimed pro- vided an explanation and blue- print for breaking the poverty cycle in Montreal. "Of all deficiencies observed in children from an under- privileged district, the most marked arc ia the brief said. A Montreal com- parative s f u cl y last year fount! no slum pupils scored A in a vcrbul ability test but 7S per cent of the middle-class pupils did. Only 10 per cent of the latter were rated as C or D while (17 per cent of the slum jnmils fell into the two bottom ratings, "Disadvantaged children do not exist outside a disad- vantaged family." the social workers' wid, criticizing society for withholding help from poor children because of. Sex Is A Four-Letter Word the heavy costs involved in helping their families too, "There are in Montreal 551 illiterate adults" according to n survey last year, and "Ibis fact, when added lo the Itm education level of Ihc rest of the parents can explain the language retardation ot cbil- d r c u fro in underprivileged Here are some of the grim facets ol the "scandalous situa- tion" which has grown over Ilic past decade in the shadow uf the glittering skyscrapers that have sprung up in Montreal to attract outsiders' admiration, as cited by the "old" figures of numerous disregarded reports: Between 1060 and 1969 tile metropolitan population grew by 20 per cent to wliile the number of welfare re- cipients (beads of families) in- creased from lo jump of 400 per cent. In 19C5, it was computed that 3H per cent of Monlreal's popu- lartion lived in "indigence and privation" end no less than 411.G per cent of the metropolitan population was classed in the low-income bracket and almost 75 per cent of them had. less (ban Grade 5 education. During the decade, wages in- creased an average 59.2 per cent but welfare assistance went up only 32.6 per cent, widening the gap at a time when the cost of living was ris- ing rapidly. The "typical" budget of a low-i n c o m e family (average annually) b-ascrl a sur- vey of families in a poor section of Montreal showed 70 per cent had to go for food and lodging, a month was paid on outstanding debts, for clothing (he family, S8.M for transportation, only S4.33 for recreation and a month for such combined items as furniture and education ex- penses. Yet even with these brutal economies, [lie average family was going deeper into debt at the rale of ?88.18 a month.' Only three medical clinics are available in the seven slum areas of Montreal; :10 per cent of Ibc houses in those areas have neither a bathtub nor shower; landscaped playlots, new schools, older male ele- mentary teachers with enrich- ed c r e d e n fiats, gymnasiums and public nursery schools pro- vided in the wealthier districts are virtually unknown in the stums. Quoting U.S. specialist Dr. Samuel A. Kirk that "the same child" can have an intellectual quotient of 80 if raised, in a slum and 150 if raised in a de- cent neighborhood, the brief re- counted (licse comparisons in Montreal: The slum area schools vc- pc1! ted 15 per cent first-year re- pealers, 9 per cent first-year re- tarded, IB.G per cent with IQ below 00, up to 20 per cent ab- sent more than 21 days of the year, Cl per cent scored in the four lowest groups on "scolapU- lude tests" in each of these categories the slum record was three limes as bad as the mid- dle class comparison. "The present school-age population of Quebec is the brief interjects. "Ot this number, or 22 per cent arc thouglil lo be handicapped. "Of these children, about 541 are in institutions or foster homes (halt of all placements in Canada and double Ihe num- ber in neighboring Ontario) and last year Ibe number ot placements in Quebec appears lo Jf.'ive increased H pur cent. "We should note that al- though placement in a foster home costs between and ?1.BOO, yet it is extremely diffi- cult to get agreement for an ex- penditure of or ?600 lo keep tiie child in bis home by using, for example, homemaker services. "Jn Montreal there are only about 300 homemakers to serve a population of 2.3 million in Quebec, there is only one federally supported day care centre compared with 152 in Ontario, needless lo say Ihere arc no day care centres in (the Montreal "It is easier lo place UIB child in an institution or foster home than attempt to leave Mm with his family and teach him (o live among Ihe brief said. It advocated z massive gov- ernment attack on the problem beginning witli a guaranteed income so that poor families could bring their children up in decent condition and with fair opportunities. Citing the rocketing rise of unemployment among Quebec's young (jumping from pel- cent in 1966 to 1G.4 per cent last year for lliose between ]4 and 19 and jumping from 5 to 9.7 per cent for the 20-24-year- olds in the same period) the brief ctmcluaed with the warn- ing to the Senate committee: "Failing our ability to find the required solutions rapidly, there is great danager that the next decade will witness a more generalized situation of misery and poverty, more dra- matic in its contrast, than that present today.' Stanley U-ys The Appalling Face Of Justice In South Africa CAPE TOWN The la Afri- cans who were acquitted in the Pretoria Supreme Court of ter- rorism charges in September, then placed under bans, will get no help from the Prime Minister, Mr. John Vorstcr. He has fully endorsed the ac- tion of (he Minister of Justice in serving a Iimise arrest order on Mrs. Winnie Mandela and restriction orders on the other 18 ex accused. He says the Government's banning laws are intended to be used against persons "who further or could further the in- terests of communism1' and (hey are not imposed lightly. "We did not pass these laws for nothing' he says, "and we will use our powers whenever it becomes necessary to do so lo preserve the stability and security of ihe Republic." Referring lo the mounting protests over (he banning orders, ftlr. Vorsler said: "The Opposition can until the cows come home end the Eng- lish language newspapers cd- ilors can break down in fits of sobbing, but ivc u-jll use our powers iri the interests of South Africa." The five year house arrest served on Mandela (wife of tfie banned African National Congress leader, Nelson Man- dela, who is serving a sentence of life imprisonment on Robbcn island) confines Mrs. Mandela (o hor homij in Johanesburg from ft p.m. lo fi a.m. every weekday mid from p.m. on Friday.s lo tJ a.m. on Mondays. as a.s for 24 hows on public holidays. Mrs. Mandela cannot receive visitors a I, her lunm1. mid is .subject [o various rcslrir- tfons. including any gathering, including a social gathering. A "gathering" is defined as two or more per- sons. Inllcr restrictions house ari'fst have boon imposed for five years on (he Itf other Africans uho wcic ao (fuiltrd ivjlh Mrs. Mawlrb. Thr ITS! rid ions rffrdhcly parent (horn from in any kind uf atrfiviK. The ban on .social gnliiorings is particularly nanncd person may never be in the company of more than one other person at a time (other than members of his family who actually live him in his house.) The security police keep a watch, too, to see lliat the terms ot Ihe restriction orders are strictly observed. .Mrs. Mandela, for example, has al- ready appeared in court on a charge of contravening her house arrest order. The case has been adjoiu'ned. For nearly 20 years sucees- Letter To The Editor Agonizing Some statements in your in- issue of Oct. 24 seem to he worth bringing together. It seems strange that a man as perceptive Dr, Movley, The Voice Of One, cannot see I h a t (he disruptive ladies of protesters, wliich he deplores, seem to be necessary to those seeking (o rid Me world of a system (hey abhor. A system which he apparently accepts, although frankly worried hy ils inherent, contradictions anil fail- ures. He seems, loo. astonished nl the prospect of the war in Viet- nam continuing into 1975. Neith- er Fresidedi's Eisenhower, Ken- nedy, or Johnson had any in- Icntitui of geltiitR out of Asia: nur lui.s President Nixon :md Ihc haivl.s he represents. Asia is an. immense storehouse of raw materials tbc U.S. must have if il is lo continue its planned ex- pansion, It is also a huge pool of slave laljw where the wjigc I lie hourly (o Canariian ant! Am- erican labor. President Nixon was rioted piiout "pcacftfnl com- pclilimi." Uko letting hundreds of Miutisaiui.s of our people jio work while his con- quered peoples work for ncxl lo nolhiji.a, I srpposc! Whynol try lo .1. ;is I read il, questions Ihc wisdom of cuntinuing a sive Ministers of Justice in the Nationalist Government have been signing banning orders under the Suppression of Com- munism Act. Many of -the vic- tims have not been Commu- nists. According to a survey, nearly l.OQfl people of all races in South Africa were banned be- tween 1950 and the end of November, 1969. Among Ihem were teachers, doctors, uni- versity professors and lectur- ers, advocates, journalists, stu- dents, trades union officials, Reappraisal calioc producing such unholy capers. It seems Ihat competil i v e capitalism, as some of us know it. is nearing its inglorious end, as have oilier systems in the past which have failed to give satisfaction to the majo r i t y. That it is-passing away violent- ly is regrettable, but [his too has been (lie pattern of history. To live and let live is imlhink- alilc (o UK imperialists caught up in the messianic cum-com- mimislic dream of world dom- ination. Has not the time come for us to make (he "agonizing of which John Fus'.cr Dulles spoke, of (he pai't we are playing in today's so- ciety? J. P. GliJFFJN. Fort. Maclmil. A'u Surjirisc Many political leaders re- cently expressed how surprised Ihry were because of (lie brutal i-.climi o( FI.Q, including PC leader Slanficld and XDP lead- er Douglas. What hypocricy! They were warned several limes by Ihc Canadian Intelli- gence Service in several arti- cles since May of 136.1, when Ihc firsl victim was liillcd by a pro Castro KLCJ bomb. KTEVU MOLNAI5. Brooks. businessmen, a land surveyor and an aisor producer. The 19 Africans on whom the latest restriction orders have boon served were first arrested in a nation wide security police sweep on May 12, 19B9, and held incommunicado under the Terrorism Act until October 28, when they were brought to court and remanded. The trial opened on December 1 iasL year. They were charged with plotting the violent overthrow of the South African Govern- ment. On Fehruary 'G this year the Attorney General of the Trans- vaa! withdrew the prosecution, and the accused were ac- quitted. But telore they could leave the courtroom they were taken into custody again by the security police. Public protests by politi- cians, students, .newspapers and others mounted, and on June IB, JOB days after (heir original arrest, and 122 days after their second arrest, the accused were again brought lo trial. On September M, nearly three months later, they were acquitted, after their counsel had submitted that Hieir retrial op. substantially similar charg- es had amounted to an abuse of the processes of justice. The 19 Africans left the court as free men and women, hut a fortnight later the restriction orders were served on an act described by the Civil Hight League as "a scandalous abuse of the processes of jus- and by the Anglican Dean of Johannesburg as the action of a police State. Student demonstrations ivore held in Johannesburg and Cape Town, and seven Cape Town students are now being charged with distributing leaflets un- lawfully on railway premises. The State, meanwhile, has appealed against the second acquittal of the 19 Africans. The appeal will be heard today, (H'riten for The Herald) and The Observer, London) LOOKING BACKWARD TintOUGII TIIE HERALD Chile Parlors on 5th St. S., which specializes in Mexican dishes, have private fcoollis for ladies and are also starting a telephone order ser- vice. styles in postage stamps will show a radical change in color scheme. Basic colors will be changed with one-cent being green, two-cent red, the five-cent blue and the eight-cent will be a modish orange. Nova Scotia villager has acheived his ambition, to live to be 100 years of age. He has scl a new objective. He wants to live unlil Britain wins HID war. Bernard Sliaw, the century's most famous playwright, died in England at the age of W. department of trans- port s p o. k e s in a n confirmed that Trans-Canada Airlines is shopping around to find an air- line, to replace it on flic Prairie milk run. Herald 504 7lli St. Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBttlDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publisheri Published 1005 1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mail Regislrallon No, 001! Member of Trie Canadian and ihc Canadian Daily Newspaper publishers' Associalion and llio Audil Bureau of Circulations CLEO W. MOWERS, Edilcr and Publisher THOMAS H. AtMiMS, General (Manager JUE DALLA WILLIAM HAY ROY'P wans Artverlising Manager opuoi.As K. WALKER taiicnal Page Etliicr "THE HERA1D SERVES THE SOUTH" ;