Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - November 1, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
26 THt LEiHBRlDGE HtRALD hriday, November 1, 19.4 Ask Andy THE SOUND BARRIER Andy sends a complete 20 volume set of Merit Students Encyclopedia to Barbara Bra t rnd n, age 13. of Harrington. Ill for her ques- tion What exactly is the sound barrier? On Oct 14. 1947, a high fly- ing plane flew faster than 758 in p h and created a resounding sonic boom. Headlines announced to the world that at last the sound barrier had been broken. Naturally lots of ordinary folk assumed that this so called sound barrier was some sort ot solid wall. Hence it was logical to expect to hear a shattering racket when a plane bashed through it Ac- tually, this is not what happens at all The sound barrier is related to the speed of sounds, which travel through ordinary air at an average speed of about 1.- 100 leet per second This is roughly one mile in five seconds Naturally the early planes could not approach this speed but the faster planes ot World War II were coming close. Then tradegy struck, again and again. As fast flying test pilots reached the speed of sound, around 758 m.p.h.. their planes were shaken to pieces. For a time it seemed that the speed of sound created a barrier through which no plane could pass. But the experts did not despair. Physicists explained how sound travels through the air. and designers created streamlined planes to over- come the problems. By the late 1940s, pilots flew safely through the so called sound barrier with sonic booms like claps ot thunder Nowadays, many planes can fly several times taster than the speed of sound and survive The problem lies in the air. which is made of gaseous molecules Sounds travel through the air in pulsing waves that expand and contract And those pulsing waves are moving molecules. However, these molecules can move only as fast and no faster And a moving plane must shift them out of the way in order to get through. The old slow going planes had no problems Their leading edges shoved the air ahead out ot the way, and currents of crowded molecules flowed safely backward over the wings and tail This worked line, so long as the air molecules could move fast enough to get out of the way But as faster planes approached the magical speed oi sound, this became harder to do. At about 758 m p.h.. masses ot crowded air molecules pile up ahead of a plane's nose and along the leading edges ot its wings. As the plane tries to get through, these masses of compressed air punch it with mighty shock waves. This happens at the so called sound barrier, the fastest speed at ordinary air ruolecules can move themselves out of the way of a speeding plane The problem was solved with mighty engines and :ureamlined planes designed to guide the shock waves ly around the wings and tail. However, the shock waves trail behind in a cone shape path that reaches our ears with a resounding s.onic boom. Planes that break the sound barrier are said to travel at ul- trasonic speeds, faster than the speed of sound This vanes somewhat with temperature and vuth height above the ground. The speed known as Mach I is around 758 m p h the average speed of sound through ordinary air. iMach II is twice this speed, and Mach III is three times as fast. Fun with figures By J.A.H. Hunter He'd put up that big board for all to see. "Mystery Trip. S2.98. Children half-price." it said. But maybe the com- munity was too small for such a venture Checking his takings. Greg glanced back along his big coach. '-Nineteen passengers, only S50 66 in all." he grumbled "Barely covers ex- penses." How many children were there? (Answer Monday I Yesterday's answer: APPLES was 133896. Goren on Bridge BY CHARLES H. GOREN AND OMAR SHARIF 1974 Chicago Trlbunt Both vulnerable. South deals. NORTH J43 9653 AK J2 A76 WEST 62 KQ94 SOUTH A K Q 10 9 9 AJ108 7 The bidding: South West 1 Pass 3 9 Pass 4 Pass EAST 4875 972 North East 2 NT Pavs 3 Pass Pass Pass Opening lead: Kins of 4. Declarer'4: line of play succeed three times out of four. On this occasion, ho-A'pvrr. mat not ijood enough Unfortunately. South overlooked a line that was proof asjainst almost any distribution except a heart in one hand. We do not approve of jump to I-AO no trump ,11 firM turn. Kij.in-'er5 ,ir.-' 1 point ii our opinion a jump in no "rump sho'jj'i tpiarant'-e ,1 in ,ill s'ji'1- North f done better to o ho-A Or, H r another "Ain h ruff r added to food in amounts not harm a normai nor docs it interfere with normal digestion of si .arch or other foods The -lojnjch normalh produces -nor'1 .and juice to i ,uv digestion much a n ftju d'inn 3i i< 'iltcn nU-d in folk medicine but such old fashioned ideas are about as useful as the idea that the way to cure people of all sorts of il- lnesses is to bleed them. Doc- tors once did that 200 years ago. That is probably the im- mediate cause of George Washington's death. Specifically, vinegar and honey do not dissolve cataracts of the eye or have other magical qualities. There are no important differences between apple cider vinegar and distilled vinegar The main ingredient in both is acetic acid. You can get a difference in flavor from traces of chemicals from the fruit. This applies to apple cider vinegar or wine vinegar. Both apple cider and fruit juice can ferment to form alcohol, then the alcohol can be converted to vinegar. Because alcohol and acetic acid are similar in some respects it is chemically easy for wine to turn to vinegar. Fortunately, vinegar has none of the intoxicating effects or the harmful effects on the cells that alcohol does. In the body alcohol is converted directly to acetic acid by means of an enzyme in the cell and then metabolized just like acetic acid from fat. carbohydrate, or proteins to release energy, carbon ide. and water. This process uses oxygen. So plants release oxygen in forming food con- taining energy, and we use ox- ygen to tear the food apart to release energy. Flashback British investigators an- nounced 29 years ago in 1945 that it had been proven "as conclusively as possible without bodies" that Adolf Hitler was dead. It was found the Nazi dictator had died April 30. 1945. in the Chancellery bunker in Berlin as the city was overrun bv forces The inquiry reported it was not positive whether Hitter died by his own hand or was executed by his own command The body had been burned in a gasohne pyre FC .j L. -P V P1 WE: HOPES WHY WE (3OTTA -X SKULL -j X I U -i s ITS GONE V-TEP .ULX "MAT jf J- V P'l A SHORTRIBS ANP IF THAT WORKS.I MAY) 6O INTO POLITICS. TMEN PICK THEIR RXKETS AT LEISURE.' 1M GOING TO PUT AN I'M WORKING ON A NEW TRICK' ENTIRE TOWN UNDER HYPNOSIS... 1974 bv NEA Hie 1 W U Pat W HI AND LOIS TRVTO A THAT STICKS OUT WHEN VOU NEEP THE KIDS ARE PATCHES ON TT-lEIR JEAN'S, MOM. I WILL you SEIV A PATCM WHERE ARE YOUR TORNJ, PITTO? BUGS BUNNY CLUMSY OF ME, WASNT IT EHH. PROFESSOR WHAT'S TOLD ME TO UP 2 TAKE A REST WHEN I PUT VIOLIN DOWN, HE SAT ON BLONDIE WHERE ARE YOU GOING ALL DRESSEO UP SO MICE, ELMO f L IT DOESM'T I v FOU3 BUTMY TEACHER l: V MOW COME SME WAMTS 1 ME TO __ MY NUMBER V ipif BE-ORETHE A fe.X AjDiEslCEGETS ARCHIE WITH THAT BROOM I ARCH DIDN'T WATCH WHERE V HE WAS GOING---- AND THEY HAVEN'T THE LADY OUT OF THE MEAT COUNTER YET HAGAR THE HORRIBLE X BUT YOUR v-au TH19 BEETLE SAfLEY TUMBLEWEEDS FOR THEIR FiRST POOHAWK POPS, UNPERTHE OF THE LOTSA LDCK EXPRFSS, ESQ., WILL 'PFIN.KTO 1-!