Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 31, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thursday, May 91, 1973 THI LtTHMIDOE HBtALO 5 Echoes of the Suez Canal seizure By Brace Whitestone, syndicated columnist One of the current facts of life is that the Western world is faced with an energy crisis. What happened was that North America's fuel requirements have expanded enormously white Its reserves have fallen. Although we in Canada can and should take steps to meet our oil needs, for the time being North America, Western Eu- rope and Japan can be held up for ransom by the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. The problem is that the Arab nations have been flexing their muscles ever since the S u e z crisis cf 1956 when there was a failure of will following the collapse of Britain's attempt to preserve law and order in BERRY'S WORLD Egypt. Egypt was able to get away with the seizure of the Suez Canal. Now the oil exporting nations have ganged up to extort big in- creases in oil prices from the oil importing nations. As an example of the impact of the huge quasi monopoly of Middle Eastern nations, Saudi Arabia increased the price of oil from 90 cents a barrel in 1970 to now, even though oil was in oversupply. Fuel oil prices in Eastern Canada, now depen- dent on imported oil, have risen nearly 50 per cent in the inter- val and further increases are pending. Prices will continue to rise while the producing coun- tries seek greater earnings to finance grandiose domestic de- velopments. The rise in the bargaining position of the producer coun- tries grew out of their success in recovering control over their resources. In the past, control rested in the major Western oil companies under long term contracts. The major oil concessions d a t e d as f ar back as 1932 in Saudi Arabia and 1927 in Iran when concessions were granted in various sheikdoms all around the Middle East under the protection of the British. According to the traditional concession terms the companies decided how much to produce, where to sell it and how much to charge. By 1969, the host countries were able to effective- ly destroy the concession sys- tem and certain countries such as Algeria have nationalized their oil fields. By their control over oil pro- duction, the oil exporting coun- tries are able to create the im- pression of an oil shortage. However, there does not appear to be an oil shortage: 1972 pro- duction is less than three per cent of proven oil reserves and reserves will undoubtedly in- crease as exploration in Can- ada's North, the North Sea and various continental shelves takes place. The principal objective of the Organization of Petroleum Ex- porting Countries (OPEC) is to increase its share of revenues from the oil-consuming world. Demand for oil kept growing, but exploration led to such a rapid increase in supply that well head prices actually de- clined from 1960 to 1969. What happened was that there was a Western failure of nerve. The abortive attempt of Prime Minister Eden to pre- vent the unlawful seizure of the Suez Canal had repercussions throughout the Arab world o-ver ti'e ensuing decade. By 1970, Libya and ths Persian Guif countries succeeded in forcing price increases even though the growth in oil demand slowed in the 1969-1970 recession. W h a t can the oil importing nations do to protect them- selves? The U.S. and other na- tions of the world should de- vote more resources to re- search and development in the production of oil. Canada should make a maximum ef- fort to develop oil from tar sands. It would seem to be a far more intelligent use of our resources than paying the exorbitant oil bills presented by the international oil companies. These companies lack sufficient backbone to fight off the de- mands of Middle East coun- tries: they are content to serve as tax collecting agencies for these nations and live with the present arrangements. Canadian tax laws should be changed to encourage more Ca- nadian citizens to engage in oil exploration. Long ago MacKen- zie King said that there would be no "Texas oil millionaires in Canada." As a result, almost all oil exploration activities are Book Review carried on in Canada by for- eign owned companies which benefit from their own tax laws encouraging oil exploration. Co-o p e r a t i v e action by Canada and other oil import- ing nations could curb the bar- gaining power of the oil pro- ducing countries. Western Eu- rope could eventually use methane gas instead of oil and this and other steps should be taken to destroy the effective- ness of the oil monopoly. The challenge to our economy is serious. The Canadian gov- ernment can respond by chang- ing our tax laws, encouraging domestic production of oil and proposing an international re- sponse to the threats posed by the Middle Eastern nations. In 1956. Canada undermined the British effort in the Middle East. Now, when we see the genie that was released then, we should propose an interna- tional effort to restore a decent order in that part of the world. It is no longer an academic question but the very survival of our economy that is at stake. Down with IQ testing "The IQ CuH" by Evelyn Sharp (Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 86.95, 147 pages, distributed by Longman Can- ada The once almost unquestioned respect paid the results of IQ testing is becoming a thing of the past. This is a welcome change as far as Evelyn Sharp is concerned. When the limitations of IQ testing are known the determin- istic effect of the results on in- dh iduals becomes intolerable. It is grossly unfair to have IQ results precede a child in his progress through school and out into the employment world. DATSUN1200 carries on the tradition of the classic 2-door coupe. The 2-door coupe has made automotive history, it's tough, it's quick. And traditionally, it looks a lot sportier than its bigger brothers. When Datsun set out to design the best 2-door coupe around, we stuck to the principles that made the coupe a classic. The '37 Ford Coupe [centre right] gave you maximum comfort in its day. For its time, the '39 Packard Opera Coupe (centre left) handled like a dream. Our own 1932 Datsun coupe [that's it in the background] was one of the toughest, most dependable cars built that year. In the Datsun 1200, we've simply updated these features with a large dollop of modern technology and the feel for good, solid auto building that's been our trademark over the last 40 years. So when you want tough, quick, sporty transportation, we think our Datsun 1200 is all you really need. i DATSUN Foreign Car (Lethbridge) Ltd, 1102 3rd Ave. South Lethbridge, Alberta Telephone: 328-9651 To be prejudged by teachers and prospective employers on the basis of results from a measuring device whose relia- bility is seriously in doubt is intolerable. The tests do not so much measure intelligence as they do certain acquired abilities such as verbal facility. In the case of the Stanford Binet test, for instance, an additional limitation is the fact that the standardization sample was made up of people who were all white and all native born Americans. A hopeful development to- ward a truer measurement of intelligence is found by the author in the research of Jean Piaget and Adricn Pinard. Their work has concentrated on the way a child's mind de- velops. I didn't find this book as hard-hitting as I had expected it to be. It is not destined to be the popular inconoclastic ap- proach to IQ testing that is needed to complete the break of the thralldom in which many educators and a supine public are still held. There is too much detailed reproduction of mater- ial from IQ tests to make this a really readable book. DOUG WALKER Books in brief "Ride the Crooked Wind" by Dale Fife. (Longman Can- ada Ltd., 95 The author ingeniously wosks the old Paiute legends and ways into this story concerning a young Indian boy and his strug- gle to strike a balance between the old ways and the new "Anglo" ways. Seldom do books for young people carry such a deep message and seldom are they so well written. The illus- trations by Richard Cuffari add greatly to this superb short story, particularly the one where the young boy looks pleadingly into bis aging grand- mohters face. This book is highly recommended, both for young and old alike. GARRY ALLISON "Cooking for Camp and Trail" by Hasso Brurmelle with Shirley Sarvis: a Sierra Club Totebook (Clarke, Ir- win and Co. Ltd., 198 pages. Anyone who needs a cook- book to take along on a camp-" ing trip could hardly do better than this one. And a lot of others might be delighted to discover that without a great, deal of extra effort, camp cook- ing can be something much better than opening cans and heating the contents. This excellent little book it's sensibly pocket size starts with planning, what to buy, how to measure, etc. The recipes run from snacks, through simple breakfasts and lunches, to dinners that begin to approach the gourmet level. There is a well organized and useful appendix listing a hun- dred tips that any inexperi- enced camper and even a few of the seasoned ones will find useful, and the publishers have thoughtfully included sev- eral blank pages for the read- ers own favorites, or for "swaps. As a final, sensible touch, tha book is bound in a tough, dur- able type of book cloth which will stand up to the ngors of camp or trail. JW.F. Education in France By Louis Burke PARIS France has a tolal population of 50 million: not all happy Frenchmen, especially those in Brittany where the Bretons want a froe state. I met a Breton ballad-singer-cum-revolutionary at National University, Dublin and I was left with lit.le doubt that he was more than a poet. France has over 12 million students; 7.6 million in primary, 3.8 million in secondary and 600.000 in higher institutions. Nor are all these very happy either. Of those in higher institutions, nearly graduate with common degrees. There are jobs for less than half of them, and the system has bsen pouring out thousands in lika manner for many years. Yet France spends more than 17 per cent of its state budget on education. This adds up to more than million a year. The ministry of education employs nearly to implement its plans. Thsre exist nearly primary schoo s which are top- ped by over secondary schools. Although pressures came to a head in 1968, and the marks of student riols can still be seen around the Scrbonne and the Pantheon, change came very slowly. Talk- ing to many people, the changes came too late and were too insignificant. A Protestant minister of Eglise Baptiste, Rue de Lille, stated there were no changes. Education still comes from the top. There are Protestants in France some one million. Their children attend the state sys- tem of schools. Catholics have a private, fee-paying sys- tem parallelling that of the state. French education is top heavy in classi- cal, academical form. A'l parents wish to provide this form of education for their children. They object to a more practical form as provided in the business and tech- nical schools. The result is, said an Irish embassy secretary, many of the French were utterly unprepared for life after 12 to 15 years of educational effort. Classical education, French-style, is de- signed strictly for the few: it takes no account of the many. Forty students are poured into a secondary class and only one may end up with a degree, maybe useless, in arts. Perhaps 10 will try university, and cine will drop out educated, but untrain- ed to earn a living. Thus, the victim s circle goes on. "Pe'rification" might best describe French education; some people prefer to use the term "purification." With change laboring to take placs many French do not like what they see mixed schools, new methods, strange ways, and the rest. Nor do they see what they discipline, segregated schools, extreme elitism and all that In the land of liberty, equality and frater- nity, even the Metro discrinrnates first and second class coaches. Is the ride to be the same on the education train? ANDY RUSSELL Land owner--public relations WATERTON LAKES PARK The gen- eral public's demand for recreational room is strong and growing stronger due to in- creasing population and the shortened work-week. The national parks, particular- ly those of the wesoern mountains are over- advertised and used beyond capacity, which is bound to result in severe damage in many places. Provincial parks are nu- merous but far too small in most cases. They are poorly planned and maintained. and consequently in real danger from over- use. Publicly owned reserves are huge, but the public fails to understand the importance of good management and more- over is being lulled by administrative as- surance that the much-lauded and com- pletely misleading term "multiple use" is the answer. But there is no such thing as "multiple use'1, when strip mining and public recreational lands are competing, or when choosing between the preservation of wilderness areas and industrial competi- tion. It has to be one thing or the other. Because our forest reserve areas are pub- licly owned, the public has the say as to how they will be used, if they exercise it. So far they haven't even started to do so except for I'm limited efforts of some in- dividuals and organizations, the conse- quence being that a good deal of recre- ational pressure has spilled over into pn- vately owned lands. This has resulted in some conflict of interests, for while the majority of people realize their obligations to land owners too many are careless. The opportunity to obtain cheap has overcome some, with resulting heavy loss- es to ranchers. Gates are left open, allow- ing stock to stray. Sometimes vandalism rears its ugly head. Some people are just too arrogant and thoughtless, then wonder why they run into trouble. Recently two pick-up trucks driven by young fellows with their girls accompany- ing them drove into our yard. When they realized they were at the end of the road. they swung around and drove back out of our yard, throwing up a dense c'or.'l of dust. Then they left the road on a neigh- bor's property, to turn up a cut-line through the timber along a fence leading up a steep hill. The ground was soft, the grass lush and slippery, and their wheels left a heavy track. They finally stopped on a se- cluded bench near the top of the hill and proceeded to enjoy various bottled refresh' ments and make supper two completely strange vehicles in the midst of owned cattle range. Probably they meant no harm, but how was the owner of the land to know? Short- ly after they arrived, one of my sons dis- covered them and politely asked if they had permission from our neighbor. H3 was curtly informed that they hadn't obtained it, but would do so. Later a check by phone with our neigh- bor revealed that he knew nothing about having visitors, that he wasn t feeling very well, and he then requested that we go and ask them to leave. This I proceeded to do and their reaction was an angry one. It was obvious that they thought I had no business interfering and that I was being unreasonable. I wondered if they owned any property in the city where they lived, and if they did, how they would react if I drove up on their lawn for a picnic, with- out invitation or permission. True, their yard would be smaller than a ranch, but the principle would be the same. Anyway, they agreed te leave, but not very gra- tiously. What thesa young people had overlooked was the simple good manners of asking for permission. If they had taken the time to be friendly and considerate, they might very well have been granted the opportu- nity to camp. If not, they would have been cheerfully directed to spot where they could. Complete freedom might have teen bent a little but not turned down. As it was there was anger and disappointment, something everyone would have liked to avoid. On th e use of word words Theodore Bernstein Less, fewer. G. Wiley Beveridge, a Wil- liamsburg. Iowa, publisher, asks for com- ment on the distinction between these two words. In careful usage less applies to quantity (less food, Irss courage) and fewer applies to countable things (fewer potatoes. fewer noble deeds) Fewer is never misused, but there is a tendency to misuse less. People will often say, "There were less mosquitoes around this when strictly speaking the word should be fewcr- Less is sometimes used with plurals when they really refer to quantity rather than number. For in- stance, it would be proper to say, "He makes less than a the is not thought of as individual dollars but rather as a sum of money. Likewise it would be proper to say, "It is less than 10 miles to again 10 miles is not thought of as individual miles but rathsr as a distance figure. Let's all try to make fewer mistakes and have less loose usage. Bad conncc-tioji. A newspaper sentence, illustrating a common error read this way: "The step-up in attacks has caused neither grave alarm nor roused serious worries." The neithcr-uor combination should connect equivalents, but alarm and roused are not equivalents; one is a noun and the other a verb. The way to right the wrong is either to drop the word ronsed or to place the neither ahead of caused. Series ont of control. A proper series is A. B and C. But quiie often writers p ve us A, B and Z2. Example: "The vandal's attack on the sculpture broke off the Ma- donna's nose, her left arm and dented her eye." The conjunction "and" should connect grammatical equivalents, but a an "arm" end "dented" are not equivalents. The series is out of control. It is what H. W. P'owler, the late British authority on usage, called bastard enum- eration. The solution in this instance, as in many others, is to insert another "and" after "nose." And don't let the repetition of that word bother you; it's far less ob- jectionable than the out-of-whack series.