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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 30, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Tuesday. May 30, 1972 THE IETHBRIBGE HERALD _ 5 Rarbai-a Ward The crisis facing the world's cities Tim following is omTplrd from "An Ui-ltiin which was com missioned liy the Giranl liank (if IMiilmM- phia. rPHIC Founding Falhers o t the United Slates of Am- erica created lluir consfilulion for a land in which 9f> per cent of the people lived in townships of less lhan Only New York and Philadelphia had reached inhabitants (Iho population today of Potlslown, Two hundred years later, nearly 75 per cent cf the pop- ulation lives in sc'llements of over with nearly one- quarter of the urban clwullcis in the big cities. Nor is this the end of Iho story. By the year over 100 million people mirj! be add- ed to America's urban settle- ments. Such growl h will entail building not much less than 111? equivalent cf ilie uhole ol ur- ban America IcUay. Two hun- dred cities the sir.: of Cin- cinnati this is (lit minimum expansion, both physical and social, that must be accom- plished in under 30 years. And thai figure dors not allow for the reconstructing of zl least half the existing cities, as ob- solescence and blight over- come older sectors. cannot evade these facts. The people will be there. They cannot Iw dumped, homeless, all over the landscape. The choice is not between acting and not acting; it is between doing well and doing badly. "High-speed" highways clog- ged with traffic; communica- tion and power systems over- loaded the point of break- down; urban ghcttoes entrap- ping generation after genera- tion in hopeless poverty; one- class suburbs with marooned housewives; smog in the air; filth in the rivers; countryside receding before the outward waves of licky-tacky houses anyone can make liis own priority list of evite end add Ilie despondent conclusion thai not one of them is self-correct- Infi. So il: is not simply a qires- lion of absorbing the new mul- titudes. The present container does not properly serve its pur- pose. The city must grow, bul it must also be transformed at the same relentless speed. Im- provement, reform, radical change this is the need of the urban revolution. It is like trying lo rebuild and raise a dam when the lake is already full, and to do so without agreed specifications or even a consensus on what is causing the problem. Many of our ideas on the ur- ban process are formulated on the assumption that cities just happen. Bul tlu's is an hypoth- esis grounded in the history of the 10th century. This argu- ment ran that if modernization and industrial growth occur- red, the city would follow; it would look after itself and. de- spite a few epidemics and tran- sient unemployment, the result would be an urban society thai worked The economic need for con- centration and nearness dic- tated the early centralization of cities. But ''nearness" and "access" have wholly different meanings in the age of Iho 'train, the automobile, the tele- phone. The peak of density in many western cities was pass- ed as cariy as JINJO. Thereafter, the Irain and then the car brought increased mobility and hence greater choice, setting in motion a new cycle of change. People with belter incomes began their es- cape from I lie dirty, over- crowded, expensive city centre to the ever-widening suburban ring; then came Ihe shops fol- lowing shoppers, industry need- ing more space, and offices able to keep in touch by tele- phone. These movements of resident and work. lhr> ''spread with its dense core, its satellite dormitories, its scaltered shops and services, its lifelines of road and rail, its spreading deterioration in wa- ter and air. So a new complex of prob- lems is upon us. The keynote to the modern city is change. Nothing seems more solid lhan a hundred square miles of con- crete and brick, ycl much of il is no more stable lhan a sand castle. A picture of a city taken from outer space would show a membrane of construction, its levels rising and falling, its .surface criss- crossed with traffic, every cranny swarming witli activity. The farm boy from West Braigal seeking a living in Cal- cutta is cmL'-in lo the boy from Georgia who seeks his fortune in Philadelphia; the Bra- zilians arriving every week in Rio de Janeiro face Ihe same problems a.s the Puerto Ricans landing at Kennedy. Lack of skills in an incrcas- ingly technocratic job market, ever-rising food prices, housing scarcely worthy of the name, senseless crowding, endless red tape lo obtain social help the- oretically offered by Ihe gov. ernmcnl, rising crime rales, discrimination en the basis of race or religion or or tribe, lack of relevant educa- tion for the children, a con- fused and changing social con- text can be found in all the cities of UK world. They licit like lime bombs in a threatened urban structure. Defining the goals of urban policy is not only complicated in ilself, by virtue of all the thousand strands of decision on transport, on housing, on utili- ties, on open spaces which sucli a policy entails. The task is also complicated by a nun> bar of larger human issues or values that carry man laeyond his city but at the same time profoundly Effect his urban life. Tiie first springs from a his- torical coincidence the fact that the urban revolution has caught up with 511 earlier up- "Instead of going mil for e sleok dinner don't 1 buy you a or "Jim has a new fneory on yard work. He thinks threat- ening thought: and says'nasty things to the weeds to make them and mildly derogatory comments to the grass to stunt its Book Reviews Two samplings of New York journalists "Irrational ings" by Pete Ilamill (G. P. Pulmim's Sons, Sift, -IOS pajics, distribu- ted by Loiignuiu Canada Lim- "Ilrcad and Hoses Too'1 by Jack New-field P. Hut- ton and Co., Inc., S-l-75, soft- back, 421) pages, distributed by Clarke, Irwin and Co. two books have sev- eral things in common: the authors are both New York columnists (Ilamill writes for the. New York Nowfield writes for the Village the selections in Iho books were written between the mid LOs and early 70s; ll'.e riibjcct mat- ter is frequently Uie same Vietnam, Now York City prob- lems, Roll fir t Kennedy. The lillc for Pet? ItamuTs book came from Ihe lips cf U.S. Vice-President Fpiro who called his piece on the Kent Slalc killings "irrational bi's." T li a t piece cor.l.iins .-omo nf his hnrshcsl H.iivrill was obviously UTully uu-X'l hy what happened. Ik1 p.ikl, "Nixon is as for Uie Kent Slate Flaujjbler as he and the rest of his bloodless pang of corporal ion men wore for I ho iinti-iiilepralion violence- in La- mar and for the pillage and murder thrl i.s lakinp place in the name of democracy in Cam- In (lie f-'ame piece, ha refers lo bnlli Nixon and Agnew as "ncnlors commanding pow- er, devoid nf (rue compas- sion No wonder AnnevV felt impelled lo slriki- hack! Ilamill al.'o ti'll very on Ihe occasion ci" llu; assassin- ;ilion of Holicrl Kennedy. Ho u-role, "Kennedy's would mean U an- oilier digit in llr jrreal histori- cal pnfieanl Ih.'i includes Iho slaughter of (hi1 plun- dering nf Mexico. Ihi1 enslave- ment of black peopl.', Ihe hum- ilation of I'norio IMcans While. Kennedy's life ebb- intf out of him, wcro dropping lioinbs and flaming jelly on Orionlals u10 cops inadf; chnlk maik.s on Ilia floor of tlio pantry, the bravo members of the national Riflo Association were already ex- plaining that people commit crimes, guns don't. These cow- ardly hums claim constitutional rights to kill fierce deer in tho forest The columns wliich Ha mill wrote from Vietnam in 19GG are excellent. They give a picture of what that war was really like at that time. The futility and destructive ness which Ha- mill felt Uien must be that much imore intense now. Jack Newficld is more con- sciously a spokesman of Lha New Left lhan is Pete Ha mill. Those who think New Letters are all irrational extremists would do well to read the thoughtful pieces by Newfield and have their impressions modified to some extent. New- field writes that he is bugged by the "New Left's faddish tin- sel heroes- Debray, Mao, Mar- cusc, Lcary." In he Licked off the hippies as unrcprcsenla- live of the New Left. "The hip- pics will not change he said, ''because change means pain, and the hippie sub- Revolutionary drivel "Blond in liy Goorfic Jackson. (Random House of Canada Limited, 197 pai-ep. WHAT A PILE of crap! Even Ihe dedication makes me jjick- Wrillen by the dead Jackson (killed in an allcmpled prison Ihis book spews forlh revolutionary drivel (hat is a sad criteria of today. I'm afraid, after reading this book, (hat 1 can't feel any great loss over the sudden demise of Jnekson. He spent 11 years in prison for stealing from a gas sta- tion. At first glance Ihis would seem to be more than a litllo unjust, but upon reading his (houghls, put down in this hook, it's lilllo. wonder he. wasn't let fret1 to roam the slreoLs In fad, in my humble opinion, they could have kept him an- olher HO years. There is a slightly ironic as- pect to Ihis book. Jackson spouls Ihe phrases nf commun- ism and his intense dislike for Ihe Unilcd States government when under Communist rule ho wouldn't oven be able lo jot down a few notes tho government, let alone have, a crummy hook like Ihis one pub- lished. Some of the point.s lie makes are certainly justified and change is needed, but these vi- able points arc lost in (lie gib- berish that surrounds them It lakes a torment ed mind to end up with a boak like this, hut bothers me is sonic fool i.s going to read il and fol- low Ihe preachings of Jackson. The black man in the U.S. docs have his problems, as dn the Indians and tha But Ihe cry for all-out wnr against the government is hardly the solution. Only a crackpot would desire Ihis con- clusion. George Jackson belonged in prison and his books, "Solcdad llrolhers" and "Blood in My Kyc" should never have been printed, save by a revolution- ary underground press. GArUtY ALLISON Books in brief "A Dog Nainrd Wolf" hy Erik iMmislcrhjrlm (ATacmil- liurn Company of Canada Limited, KIT piiges, COMK of Iho. lore of living in k Ihe norlbland has rubbed off on I lie Finnish-born Cana- dian author in Ihis hook of in- citement of man and animal against naluro and each olher. 11 is definitely a hook written for the younger set and will fit in nicely will) the reading of any dog lover. RIG SW111ART culture is rooted in Ihe pleasure principle." In liis columns Jack Newfield writes feelingly about NIC civil rights movement; student poli- tics; the endless war in Viet- nam; the need for belter hous- ing; jails, which he calls the ultimata ghetto; the faults of the media. The section on Ihe media is especially interesting. He ar- gues that Spiro Agncw was right, in saying a few individu- als control the mass media in America. But Agnew wrongly identified those in control- cf I hem arc Republicans and Conservatives sajs Newiield. "In per cent of the na- tion's daily papers editorially endorsed Richard Nixon, and only per cent endorsed Hu- bert Humphrey. According lo a survey compiled hy the tive press gadfly Ben Bngdik- icn. per ccnl of Iho syndi- cated columns published across the country can generally be classified as conservative of Ihe dozens of nationally syn- dicakxl daily columnists, wilh (lie possible CNeeplion of Tom Wicker, not one. represents n radical point of view." Edith Efron in The News Twisters discovered a liberal bias in the three television networks so probably Agnew Ihinking of television ralhcr than news- papers when he allacked [.lie media. Contrary lo the. usual criti- cir-ms made of the press, New- field snjs "the disturbing real- ity is thai Ihe press censors il- polf, Ihrou.rji superficiality, through bias, through incompe- tence, and through a desire lo be Ihe 'responsible' fourth branch of government." I yonder whal those readers of The Lelhlmdjio Herald find Carl Rowan and Joseph Kraft loo extreme ihink if we. started cam Tom or Jack Newfield No mailer whether one agrees with Ihe views of Ilicsc two writers il would have to bo riwedcd 'hoy urile ,-JITCJI- ingly and well. DOUG WALKER heaval which is not yet com- plete. This is the social revolu- tion, Ihc revolution of human respect and equality with which America, in 177G, began lo lead mankind away from Ihe accepted norms of inequality and hierarcJiy. A second set of preoccupa- tions, which grow in urgency 33 the whole problem of environ- ment takes greater hold of tho public imagination, concerns the quality of life in urban cen- tres, fn part, this is a psychol- ogical pruxicupalion. In .some great cities, are not children growing up in an almost lunar deprivation of the colors and frcents and textures of Irving things? The steel towers, the windswept asphalt yards, Iho din of traffic what will they breed? Is not the weekend rush to hills and beaches a collec- tive cry of need for lovelier sounds and sights? Are these really May they not be, on the contrary, the pre- ccnditicns of human existence itself? The sense of being over- powered by the sheer scale of modern technocracy's energy and output, is, of course, moro than an urban phenomenon. But it can have, a nightmarish, inescapable quality in our traf- fice-driven, sky-scraping mega- lopolises. IL is clear that the whole ur- ban order is so interconnected that realistic planning must be total. Partial responses, one- problem solutions have either aggravated Uie challenges they were designed to meet or cre- eled worse ones. More freeways inlo the city's centre increased urban conges- tion more parking lots and wider roads to reduce it simply buried the overloaded core un- der acres of asphalt and con- crete. More mortgages for sin- gle-family homes helped tha claimant needs of a rising por> illation but increased the spread of the city, the length of the journey to work, and tho emergence of racial ghettoes at the centre and one-class sub- urbs on the fringe. Public hous- ing projects provided some desperately needed new dwell- ings, but destroyed neighbor- hoods, encouraged land specu- lation in some places and drove out the middle class in others. The list of contradictions is endless; it makes clear tho need for total urban break- through Of course, urban planners propose various sometimes rival strategies f o r acting within this wider area of re- sponsibility. But virtually all agree on the worst possible out- come that one city's spread should reach the next city's sprawl and create nightmarish extensions of indeterminate ur- ban and semiurban installa- tions; encased in a mesh of lushing traffic, without cores nr communities, without open space or natural surrounding, with used car lots and pizza parlors alternating with pizza parlors and used car lots. "Bos- "Chi-pilts" and "San- Uie shapeless spread of cities on the Eastern seaboard, (he Great Lakes and the West Coast, are UK ultimate night- mare of mindless urban sprawl. The basic principle is that if the megalopolis acts as a giant magnet, sucking greater num- bers of people and square miles into itself, then it ir.iist be met with an effective counterforce, diverting future population and the crush of artifacts away from il. Since the urbanization of man is reality, the counlcrmagnel can only be one or more cilies (cilher brand new or existing ones developed in accordance with careful thai lie close lo but outside the exist- ing iu-ban magnetic field. And Ihe ccunlcrcity must be of suf- ficient size, wilh sufficient in- dustry and amenities, to acl as a counterbalance. Such a pattern of counter- balancing ccnlrcs keeps move- ment and density manageable, permits wide experiments in new technologies in Iho new city and gives the old ciiy lime, to reorganize creativity for the pressures (o come. A program for the world's cities is infinitely loss easily and more manageable than the. and desperate scnrch for an armed "security" that now drives (lie nations lo frenzies of fear and inflation and leavoa Ihem, at tho end of il, chiefly capable of destroying tho plan- el ilsclf. We are not condemned to false choices by our lochnotopy or hy our resources. On Iho contrary, they can be thn means of our liberation, if that is whal ue are prepared lo seek Tho rooks of wisdom do nol change. 11 is for us, no! for our machines, to "choose life." It i.s for us, in lltf time of moon landings and space prolios, lo discover and use. Uio instni- mojil.s .T safer landfall the. planet Earth. Eiitrrpriic Assn.) noL good Hy Vincent I'ricr, In .Montreal La rPHE association of Claude Morin wilh Hie Parli Qucbccois will surely add slill more lo the credibility of tliLS politicnl group. All have hod the occasion lo rub shoulders with Mr. Morin, lo see him at work, recognize the sincerity, the com- petence and the honesty of Ihe man. JIo 'loss not lose these qualities because hn has passed lo another camp. It has heen a long road which led the former adviser to four Quebec premiers lo opt for Ihe thesis of independence We do not share this conviction. 11 re- mains necessary lo recognize that feder- alism is not easy lo live with These tensions in themselves are not un- healthy. Nevertheless, a certain equilibri- um which benefits all taxpayers must be established. For us, apart from a few shorl periods, notably at the beginning of the 1960s, Ihis equilibrium has never truly existed. Otlawa has nolably abused its un- limited spending power to Invade provin- cial borders. All hope, however, docs not appear lost It would be prcm.'iture lo give up be- fore draining every means of settlement. Federalism for Iho French Canadians remains the most fascinating challenge there is. It offers them the possibility of imprinting their mark on Ihe policy of a country as vast as a continenl. To re- nounce Confederation would to rights clearly acquired Impatience may seem justified to some But impatience is rarely a good coun- sellor. And il is always necessary U> ask oneself if federalism, however imperfect, does not remain preferable, at least for the moment, to a fragile independence whose most optimistic supporters do not foresee il as increasing the quality of our French life, of our economic initiatives or our in- dividual liberties. LeDain recommendation absurd By Louis Rocque, In Ottawa Lc Drnil TD legalize possession of marijuana or hasliish, as recommended in the ma- jority report of the LeDain commission on the non-medical use of drugs, constitutes at Ihis lime an offence, as flagrant as it is enigmatic to common sense, against real- ity and simple logic. And this recommendation takes an as- pect still more absurd on the reading of one of the report's conclusions that all re- search on the effects of cannabis is contradictory and we must wait ]0 more years perhaps to have sure facts. In such circumstances what is prudence if not to intensify studies and wait 10 years if necessary to determine once and for all the degrees of harm in Ihese drugs, if there is harm As an example of the diversity of opinion on the effects of marijuana let's look at two recently completed studies one in Toronto which showed marijuana pro duccd no change in the brain waves on an electroencephalogram and another at Bristol Hospital in England which resear- chers said shows in conclusive fashion that youiig people who use marijuana regularly risk brain atrophy. The contradiction between these two studies could not be more evident. It serves, in our opinion, to put in relief that proof of the innocuous nature of marijuana is far from being a fact and from now on research must be continued without draw- ing premature conclusions as the LeDain report seems to have done. Anniversary ior Glacier (Treat Falls Trihnnn National Park was 62 years old May 11. The nation's first park, Yellowstone, wh'ch is celebrating lls cen- tennial tlu's year, is only 38 years older. The act creating Glacier, fourth largest in the system, was signed by President Taff May 31, 1010. Glacier has shared in the increased at- tendance accompanying the post Second World War population explosion; it passed the one-million mark three years ago and last year received visitors. Montana is one of only eight states with more than one national park wilhjn its boundaries. California leads with five, fol- lowed hy Washington and Utah with three each and Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Ari- zona, Texas and Hawaii with two each, are divided among 12 stales. Coincidental with observance of the na- tional park centennial in which Glacier, as veil as the others, shares attention with Yellowstone, is the release by the Mon- tana Stale Advertising Department of a well-done 27-minule film, "Escape to Mon- tana's Glacier National which had a premiere showing before Ihe Advertising Club of Great Falls. It captures the spirit and color of the park and is something every Montanan wiil wish lo see. On of words Theodore Bernstein j 1 BREAD. Though it is part of the hip vocabulary, bread is by no means a newcomer in the lingo of the street. It is more than two centuries old. As an auld slang sign (excuse it, il meant employment, which was usually necessary lo obtain bread. Its meaning loday is not far removed from that, it is a synonym for money. It's an old slang word with a slightly fresh meaning. Fused participle. This is a well-worn problem of grammar, which is raised in a nole from Elizabeth A. Lackman of Phila- delphia. Someone wrote her a letter using the sentence, "T appreciate you sharing your views with and she wants to know if Ihe sentence is correct. H. W. Fowler, who was an authority and some- times a stickler on grammar, would say emphatically no. He would point out that the object of appreciate is sharing, not you, and that Ihis leaies you up in the air wilhoul any grammatical construction. He would insist on making it your sharing, and by and large he would be right. From Ihe days of Old English until the eighlecn- the cenlury Hie use of a possessive ahead of the participle v, as almost invariable. But since then Uie rule has been somewhat relaxed. For one thing there arc some words thai do not lake a possessive form. You wouldn't say, "I hale lo soc tiiis's happen- ing." For another Ihinp it sometime hap- pens thai Uie words ahead of Ihe participle constitute a phrase for which a possessive is jusl about impossible: For example: "He disapproved of persons active in public life accepting favors from i-orporations." How- ever, the natural and historical practice is to use Iho possessive with Ihe participle: "I my best friend's using drugs.'1 Where possible that practice should Iw followed. Bul there are occasions on which exceptions are necessary and acceptable. coming, the original, irreplaceable mean- ing will probably po down the drain. Youth-yak. If you dig something, you un- derstand it and appreciate it. Nothing es- pecially new about that. But in recent days or weeks perhaps months a little bit ex- tra has been superimposed ou that word dig so that it means not only lo compre- hend sometlung but also to like it and able to get into it. Now you want to know whal gel into means. Well, the sense of get into is lo become really involved with something because you dig it. For in- stance: "He really digs country music so he's going to gel into it by studying it next fall." Okay? Hardly correct. The word under discus- sion is hardly. It has a negative connota- tion and therefore should not be used in a scnlence thai already is negalive in mean- ing. Tic following scnlence is incorrect: "The Smiths do not own a television set or liardly any furniture." One way to cor- rect Ihe error is to inlroduce an affima- tivc verb in the second part of the sen- tence: "The Smiths do not own a televi- sion set and liavp hardly any furniture." Another error thai is often made with hardly is to lollou' it with llinn: "Hardly had Ihe governor started to talk than Uie booing began." Change Ihe than to when. The conjunction than indicates a compari- son and properly follows a comparative adjeclive or adverb, as in, "No sornier did the governor start to talk than (he booing began." What has been said here about hardly applies equally to scarcely. Word odclilirs. The sound and appear- ance of connive seem lo suggest to many people conlrivr or conspire so il is used loosely more oflcn lhan il is used lightly From Ihe UlUn ronifrre (lo wink, to shut one's Ihe word in its primary sense means lo shul one's to or deliberately overlook .some wrongdoing, as in, "The Mayor accused as conniving at illegal gambling." Some diclionarics sanction, as a secondary moaning, lo cooperate in an underhanded way, lo conspire, ll's too bad Ihcy ronnivr at the meaning because' if il Ix-comcs widespread, as it shows every sign of bc- Word oddities. If you die scnlonca ''She is beautiful and bright and has a for- tune (o you probably wouldn't think twice about it (though you might start thinking about the But if you did not think Iwicc alxnil il, you mighl over that final phrase, to hool. What have shoes pi lo do with il? What's afoot? Oddly (Miniigh, shoes have nothing lo do wilh'il. The word hool in Ihis .sense is un- related to the word lhal menus a foot covering. It is derived from the. Gothic word liola, meaning mlv.inlage or benefit, and the phrase lo hnol means an nriv.inlngR or benefil in addilion or over and limit is scarcely over used oulside of phrase. However, (ho negative version of il in [airly common use. H means without advantage or Ivnofil, use- less. iThc New York Times) ;