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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 27, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta Wfdntidoy, Moy 11, WO THE tETHMIDGe HERALD 5 Boris Kidel Man Behind The New Germany Anywhere in the world, a head of State who visits prisons and encourages inmates, to pour out their grie- vances, who ignores protocol by inviting factory workers and old age pensioners to his offi- cial New Year reception, who. reminds his countrymen that unmarried mothers deserve their sympathy, would seem an unusual person. But particularly for Germany, where the element of human concern in politics has remain- ed singularly underdeveloped, the new style introduced by Gustav Heinemann, who was elected President of the Feder- al 'Republic last year, means something of a revolution. That Hememann should break away from traditions and set his own standards for the presidency is in the very character of the man. He is Germany's most fierce- ly non conformist the only Cabinet minister ever to have resigned on grounds of conscience. Long before stu- dents launched their protest marches, he was leading post- war Germany's first extra-par- liamentary opposition against rearmament. He was one of the few who tried to keep the door open to reconciliation with the Russians and East Germans, a policy now being pursued by Chancellor Willy Brandt and the Social Democrat govern- ment. Before becoming president, Heinemann made it known that he would resign rather than ever agree to German control over nuclear weapons or sign a law re introducing the death penalty. In just over a year, Heinemann, at the age of 70, has established a new moral authority for the presidency by acting as his country's con- science and courageously rais- ing issues that most Germans would prefer to isno Above all his goal has been to educate his countrymen about the flaws in their his- tory that made'the Nazi regime possible. Instead of submissive- ly accepting orders as in the past, he has been telling them, they should begin to feel re- sponsible for the society in which they live and participate in the decisions that affect their lives. In actual terms of power the president counts for very little- With memories of the Weimar Republic, West Germany's post war Constitution mak- ers drastically reduced presi- dential prerogatives. On paper, Heinemann has little more than representational functions. It is his personal stature that has i n v e s t e d the presidency with new dimensions and given it a prestige unknown under his two predecessors. What distin- guishes Heinemann from other German politiciaris is his un- shakable belief that politics are inseparable from ethics. For 40 years he has been intimately linked with the Evangelical Church. In 1949 he became the President of its Synod, the high- est lay post. As one of the co founders of the Christian Democratic Un- ion he became Minis- ter of the Interior in Chancel- lor Adenauer's first post war Cabinet. In 1950 he rebelled when Adenauer offered Ger- man rearmament to the Amer- icans without prior consultation of his ministers. Heinemann was no pacifist but he feared that to entrust arms to the Ger- mans after two world wars was like offering a bottle to :ati al- coholic in the middle of a cure. Prophetically he warned ffiat rearmament and integration into a Western military alli- ance would cause an irrepar- able breach between East and West Germany. Finding him- self completely isolated in the Cabinet, i.e resigned to wage a lone campaign against rearm- ament. His revolt turned him into an outcast. The German Establishment closed its doors to him. Not only did he find himself barred from his former lop managerial post in one of the Ruhr's biggest steel com- panies but the CDU silenced his voice. He could not even explain his position to his own local party in Essen. With a handful of sympathiz- ers he tried to arouse public opinion against Adenauer's no- tion that a polcy of strength would oblige the Russians to surrender control of East Ger- many and the satellite coun- tries of Eastern Europe. No, Heinemann warned, peace and reunification could only be secured if Bonn attempted re- conciliation with the East, tak- ing account of Russia's legiti- mate security needs. Never would the Soviets, he said, tol- erate a united Germany that re- served itself the right to join NATO. The turning point came in 1952 when the Russians appear- ed to ti offering free elections and reunification in exchange for Germany's neutralizat i o n. Shocked by Adenauer's refusal even to test the Soviet propo- sal, Hememann left the CDU arid formed his own All-Ger- man People's Party. This final break unleashed a storm of vilification. The Chan- cellor himself wondered public- ly whether Hememann was' "a traitor or merely an idiot." For a time he became in the eyes of the public Germany's leading fellow traveEer. Twelve times he went to court to challenge charges that he was. being fi- nanced by the Communists. Ev- ery time he won his case. But he never succeeded in penetra- ting beyond intellectual fringe groups. The vast majority of Ger- mans, dazzled by the economic miracle and indoctrinated by the CDU's cold war propagan- da, were in no mood for dis- sent. Desperately short of funds, Heinemann allowed him- self a major error of judgment and entered into an electoral al- liance with a Communist front organization. The result was catastrophic. In the 1953 elec- tion Heinemann's party polled a derisory 1.3 per cent. In 1957, when the Socialists were abandoning the last traces of Marxism in their program, Heinemann no longer saw any ideological obstacle to dissolv- ing Us People's Party and join- ing the Socialists. It is indica- tive of his personal authority that within a year he had made a sufficient impact to win a place on the party executive. From the Socialist benches in Parliament, the former CDU minister reminded Adenauer in 1958 of his promises that re- armament would hasten Ger- man unity. In a memorable speech that expressed sadness rather than anger or triumph, Hememann conf r o n t e d the Chancellor with the balance sheet of missed opportunities. Now the Russians were no long- er even remotely interested in reunification. When the Socialists entered the grand coalition with the CDU in 1966 Hememann be- came minister of justice. In just over two years he achiev- ed the most sweeping reform of the penal code ever to have been undertaken in Germany. Insisting that the state had no right to act as guardian over private morals, he swept away antiquated laws that made adul- tery an offence and turned il- legitimate children into second- class citizens. He education became the guideline for long YOURS- THE FINEST FOOD AROUND Prices effective Thursday, Friday, Saturday, May 28, 29, 30 FRYING CHICKEN GRADE------ Ib. 39 ROUND STEAK R.d ROUND STEAK ROASTS ,r.nd. .IB. 99c SIRLOIN TIP ROAST SANDWICH STEAKS Mll. 1.39 GROUND BEEF n, 89c HAMS "c BREAKFAST SAUSAGE 65c CHUCKS of BEEF Red or Blue Brand, CQf approx. 60-70 Ib..........Ib. 73c SMOKED COTTAGE ROU R.T.E. 99c WIENERS Mb. cello pkg.........Ib. "OC SIDE BACON 99c PORK SPARE RIBS n, 79c DUTCH OVEN FLOUR BEANS APRICOTS APPLE JUICE DELMONTE Cut Green ot Wax 14-ai. tint GOLD REEF 14-or. tint MALKIN'S 48-01. tins 33' 39' Cheez Whiz 16-ei. jar............ Vegetable Oil West 32-or. jar I Velveeta Cheese 2-lb. pkg. Tomato Juice fey. 48-01. tint 2 for 85c Dream 59c Carrots M Golden Delicious, 6S Washington, Canada Fancy FRESH PRODUCE VALUES TOMATOES 29c VINE RIPE CALIF., CANADA NO. 1 ......Ib. 29' California Pink Calif. Valenclai 4 1 1.00 6 f 4b'abB69c GRAHAM'S FOOD MARKET 70S 3rd Avenue South PHONE AND SAVE FREE DELIVERY GROCERIES 327-5434, 337-5431 MEATS 327-181J OPEN THURSDAY Till P.M. overdue prison reforms. His reputation grew consider- ably thanks to his ministerial performance. With only one dis- s e n t i n g vote, the Socialists chose him as their canlidatc for the presidency. Never ceas- ing' to scorn Heinemann as a renegade, the Christian Demo- crats protested that a man who seemed more concerned about conscientious obj e c t o r s than young men serving in the army was not fit to be president. It was with the support of the small Free Democrat Party that Heinemann finally won the election last spring. It is not originality of thought but searing honesty and a pas- sion to get things done that has brought him to the top in each of his life's activities the Church, industry and politics. Heinemann became involved in politics only after the Second World War. As a student in 1920 he had fought right wing ex- tremists but subsequently his family and his career, first as an Essen lawyer and then as legal adviser to the Rhine Steel Works, became his main concerns. Only at the age of 30 did he turn to the Evangelical Church. It was, according to his friends, largely the result of a continu- ing dialogue with his wife, Hil- da, who had studied theology, and the example of a local clergyman who was conducting relief work among the unem- ployed that he became a com- mitted Christian. During the Hitler period he was one of the leading members of the church struggle to resist Nazi ideology. For a time, news letters and leaflets were secretly cy- clostyied in the cellar of Heine- mann's house. He always re- fused to join the Nazi Party but never became a member of the Resistance. Today he is still haunted by the question why he failed to take a more active stand against the Nazis.. For Heinemann, Hitler's Third Reich was no accident caused by .the Versailles Treaty or mass' unemployment. The heart of the matter, Heinemann has told his countrymen, is that for centuries. Germans had been .taught to accept unques- tioningly orders from authority. Unconditional obedience to the State had been drummed into them by school and church. A spirit of aggressive nationalism had ruled over Germany since the Franco Prussian War. "Don't you love the German, Heinemann was once asked. "I love my wife, but not the he said in a reply that has become famous. "I be- lieve the relationship between the citizen and the State should not be on such irritation- al emotions. Not sentiments, but reason, should be our link with the State." This remark, in the words of the novelist, Guenter" Grass, brought a gust of fresh air into thous a n d s of government of- fices where loyalty to the State had become a substitute reli- gion and where democracy was considered a necessary evil: Today, Heinemann is one of the few politicians who can still make himself heard among pro- testing students. While disagree- ing with their violent demon- strations he says that Ms own impatience with conditions in Germany enables him to under- stand even the radicals among them. Do not become over-con- cerned with beards, he tells; adults, and question yourselves about the causes of the unrest. Have adults not lost credibil- ity and contact with the young, and should we not give serious thought to their criticisms? Hei- nemann asks. For the first time in German history two staunchly liberal minded men in Heinemann and Willy Br'andt occupy the high- est posts in the country. Then- presence there reflects the transformation that Germany has undergone in recent years. The atmosphere has become more humane and liberal than at any previous time and in contrast with Uie Weimar Re- public neither left- nor right- wing extremism threatens the democratic system. Heinemann is very much aware the blemishes and shortcomings that still disfigure German society. During his re- maining four years in office he will continue to educate, to shake up complacency and fo- cus the nation's attention on problems that politicians tend to ignore. With over 90 per cent of the population endorsing lu's new style, Heinemann knows Ms voice is being beard. Tliis knowledge only intensifies his sense of responsibility. Presi- dent Heinemann, says a Cabin- et Minister who has been asso- ciated with him for many years, is always a few inches taller than the situation that confronts him. (Written for TV, Herald and The Obierver, London) A Disappointing Report Vrom The Winnipeg I'rcc I'rcss rpHE report of the federal government's of cash advances on farm-stored grain, task force on agriculture is little more These have always camouflaged low in- agriculhire than a rehash of what everyone knew any way. There had been hopes that the report would point the way to a solution to the major farm problem wheat. While there are far-reaching recommendations on this matter, it is doubtful if the new look will be any more productive or profitable than Uie system now prevailing. Admittedly, marketing is partly freed by the recommendations; but the function of the Canadian Wheat Board is hardly changed at all, other than it will be re- quired to announce a carryover each Oc- tober, then force-sell the balance of the crop of wheat, oats, barley in the current crop year, and for prices prevailing on tha open market. The task force is critical of the wheat board will not diminish. Instructions to the for !ost grain markets on tire board's in- sistence on fixing prices and on backing intei-rational price agreements functions that were not intended when the Canadian Wheat Board Act was passed. Apparently the control now exercised by the wheat board will not dimish. Instructions to the board will be in the form of a directive ordering the board to change its philosophy to a marketing concept rather than the present storage concept. No arguments can be advanced against this. But selling wheat was the original purpose of the Wheat Board Act a fact that the board commissioners appear to have overlooked. Too much time and energy have been used lip trying to bolster international price arrangements that were, and are, unwork- able. Can the wheat board assume a' new look? Certainly some of the task-force recom- mendations contain the elements of change: the cessation of government pay- ments on wheat storage; the withdrawal come at farm level and have given a false sense of security when marketing conditions were tough. With their elimina- tion the farmer will have to take more responsibility for what he grows, and bo increasingly market-oriented, in his own interest. On initial assessment, lire most contro- versial aspect of the'report and cer- tainly the one that will be most closely watched in its first year of operation is the task force's insistence that all grain must be sold in each current crop year, less a normal carryover and at existing marketing prices. The carryover an- nounced in October will vary each year. To halt a glut of deliveries, which would force prices down, the board will be allowed to impose quotas part way through the crop year. In May the quotas will end; and the board must thsn take all grain offered by the farmer, to clear the year's stock by July 31, the end of the crop year. Tied to this is an income- stability factor of direct payments to farmers. For one-half their seeded acre- age they will be guaranteed 80 per cent of the average price of grain over the past ten years. There can be no argument about Hie size of the job with which the task force was confronted. But its report is unlikely to please either those farmers who support the present system of marketing grain or those who oppose it. What was urgently needed was a loosening of board control, to allow private marketing groups to push sales without frustrations of board in- volvement, and to permit such groups to make a fair profit on their operations. That the wheat board is here to stay is obvious. But if it is permitted to remain an inlu'biting force in grain marketing, then the task force's recommendations will be largely without value. The Timing Is Awful From The Financial Post 'THE reaction of Ralph Stewart, MP for Cochrane, to criticism of the heavily sweetened HP's pension plan tre- cently passed is no doubt fairly typical of tlie thinking of some parliamentarians. He has written an indignant letter to the press complaining of criticisms intended, as he sees it, "to discredit Parliament." Stewart rightly points out that, in the past, many MPs. have to retire with sorely inadequate pensions. He misses the real point of the criticism however. This bill was rushed through with the govern- ment's encouragement at a time when everybody else was being urged to tighten belts and no raise was being considered for old age pensioners or recipients of war veteran pensions. Rubbing salt into pensioners' wounds, a docile government majority has since, on May 4, rather shamefacedly defeated, by 105 to 66, a motion from Stanely Knowles calling upon the ministry to con- sider an immediate substantial increase in old age and veterans' pensions. Knowles delicately reminded MPs: "We have done something in this field for our- selves." But mainly he focused on the telling statistics of poverty among the aged. No less than 51 per cent of all old age pensioners have submitted to income tests and are drawing a guaranteed in- come supplement which' means they are in special need. The maximum they re- ceive in pension plus supplement is a month. Because the escalator, supposed to take care of rsing living costs, was limited to 2 per cent per annum they have received increases of only 6.1 per cent since 1966. Meanwhile the cost of living index has risen by 15.7 per cent. Thus they are 9.6 per cent behind or, as Knowles put it, "That is the same as taking out of every they get." In tliis set of circumstances which group had priority for a pension raise? Old age pensioners' or MPs at a year? The haste with which so many MPs feathered their own nests, then voted down increases for other pensioners, was quite indecent. Life Without Newspapers By Charles King, on The Ottawa Citizen 'T'HE newspapers .came back to Van- couver recently after a three-month absence. They came back as thick as ever with advertising messages, but a stiffer price, reflecting the wage settlement that ended the long and angry dispute with the trade unionists who produce them. It's too early to assess the long-range impact of tire shutdown which left Can- ada's third-largest city dependent on tele- vision and radio for its day-to-day news. But some statistics tallied for the Senate committee on the mass media by To- ronto public relations man Walter Gray make interesting reading. In a survey of 125 Greater Vancouver citizens.taken after a month of the black- out, Gray reported the following con- clusions: Seventy-nine respondents felt "deprived" of news and information despite sharply- increased broadcast coverage of events, while 33 appeared satisfied with what they got of the spoken word.. Conversely, a majority 63 to 55 found Ihey could get along without printed advertising, which in many cases was provided by door-to-door flyers in any case. What did Vancouver readers miss most? Front page general news, the editorial page and sports coverage, in that order. Smaller numbers mentioned the comics, theatre and entertainment news, and ad- vertising, all about equally A minority listed local news, columnists and wom- en's pages; only a handful spoke up for the TV schedule, letters to the editor, bridge and horoscope columns, and the daily crossword puzzle. In nearly every case, those questioned said they relied on radio first for news and information, and then television. But they agreeed by a margin of more than two to one that these electronic servants had failed to provide "adequate" coverage of events. "Would you be prepared to do without a local newspaper on a continuing Gray asked. And the answers were No, 72; Yes, 37; possibly, 10. The effects of ths shutdown on Van- couver's commercial life was even more dramatic. Vancouver's only profesional theatre com- pany estimated its attendance fell by 20 to 25 per cent. Movie attendance dropped from 5 to 20 per cent. One furniture chain store quoted a 40 per cent fall-off in sales. New car prices, hit by the econ- omic slowdown as weU as the newspaper tieup, dropped 20 per cent below list, price, but used car sales remained buoyant. Real estate firms reported a 50 per cent drop in telephone inquiries. "It is safe to reported Gray, "that the suspension of production of (lie daily newspapers is a most unpopular event in the community." Moscow Should Be Next From The Chrisliin Science Monitor BO it will be Montreal that hosts the 1976 Olympic Games. Right off, one can see what a boon this privilege will be to Canada. Often slighted hi visibility of late by more influential friends, the United States and Great Bri- tain, Canada will have the same chance Mexico had in 19G8 to receive delegations of athletes and officials and visitors from all over the world as host nation. Parti- cularly, the international prestige should bokter Die hearts of French-speaking Ca- nadians and help the government's effort to achieve a bicultural, bilingual land. While we are happy for Canada's sake, .we hope that the International Olympic Committee will weigh seriously Moscow's bid next time around. Moscow was first in first-round balloting but lost out when the Los Angeles bloc switched to Montreal in the second round. It was said that Los Angeles could not let ils support go to a Communist nation for fear of what Hie folks back home would think. And yet, what could be healthier for the Communist nations and UK rest of tire world than to have youths and visitors from ether nations visit and compete open- ly in their midst? The games should pro- mole a sense of community among tho peoples of the world, not rigidify what dis- trust and alienation HOW exists, ;