Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 15, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta
10 THI IETHIRIDOI HEMLB frldciy, May 15, 1970 Outlook By Sieve OAPESEED has jumped to the fore in Prairie farm pro- duction [his year, and will likely prove to be an excellent crop in years to come as well. Intensive market research is now under way in Canada, mainly under the supervision of the two-year-old Kapeseed Association of Canada, which forecasts assured markets for 75 million bushels of rapcsced this year. (Canada's rape- seed production in 1969 was 37 million Much of the research being done, centres around the de- velopment of domestic markets as well as foreign. Canada imports million worth of oil and oilseeds yearly, so here alone, there is enough potential market to allow a tripling of rapeseed production. Japan and the far east also possess great potential in the marketing of Canadian rapeseed, and government teams are probing these sources. (Japan accounted for more than three quarters of the total Canadian rapeseed exports last Despite advances being made in foreign and domestic marketing relations, some attention will have to be paid to rulings on rapeseed movement within Canada, and in this area, mich criticism is again being directed at the Canadian Wheat Board. For some unknown reason, Vancouver grain storage docks are only allowed to hold 1.5 million bushels of rapeseed in port. Two or three large freighters could quickly deplete this supply, leaving other potential buyers with a bad taste in their mouths as they trot off to locate other sources. The uses for rapeseed and rapeseed products are many, and more are under investigation. Basic products now are in cooking oils, margarine and livestock meal. Feed Mills 'Not To Blame The House of Commons Stand- ing Committee on Agriculture was told recently in Ottawa that neither large feeders or feed mills set the price of non- quota feed grain. The price is set by grain farmers selling to other farm feeders since these sales represent by far the largest volume of non quota sales. A delegation representing the Rural Custom Feed Mill Asso- ciations of Alberta and Mani- toba pointed out that a farmer is free to sell his grain any- where in his own Province and for whatever he is able to get for it. Farm level sales set the price for commercial purchas- ers because commercial organ- izations must keep their prices in line with the market if they fire to remain viable. The feed mill owners empha- sized to the Committee that the grain farmer is not forced to sell feed grain to feed mills or large feedlots. They can also sell to the Canadian Wheat Board to the extent of quota available, to other farmers or feed the grain themselves. Be- cause of these alternatives it would be very difficult for any agency or government institu- tion to establish realistic, en- forceable prices. Under our free enterprise system, price is best set in the market place as a result of supply and demand. Since well over half of Al- berta's farm income is now de- rived from the sale of live- stock and livestock products, the feed mill operators em- phasized that interferring with present feed marketing chan- nels and pricing would reduce net returns to livestock and poultry feeders. Pitic 62 Versus Barley Results of yield trials at Scott and Lacombe Research stations involving the Mexican wheat variety Pitic 62 have been released. Readers will recall that Pitic was introduced to Canada as a feed wheat. It is not recom- mended to replace bread wheats now grown here. In summary, the evidence in- dicates that central Alberta and Saskatchewan farmers will be better off to grow high yield- ing feed barleys rather than Pitic 62 wheat. At Scott in 1969 both Jubilee and Conquest bar- ley yielded more pounds of grain than Pitic 62. Jubilee av- eraged pounds of grain per acre compared with for Pitic 62 and far Con- quest. At Lacombe, Gait barley was compared with Pitic 62 in thir- ty-nine comparisons. Gait re- quired 108 days to mature, Pitic days. In 27 compari- sons Gait outyielded Pitic 62. Tho average overall yield com- parison shows Gait barley pro- viding pounds per acre, Pitic pounds. Big Appetite By the time the average Am- erican reaches the age of 70, he or she will have eaten: 150 head of cattle, chickens, 310 swine, 225 lambs, 26 sheep, 26 acres of grain and 50 acres of fruit and vegetables. TWIN COLTS RARE Born recently by this mare owned by Ken Pederson of Crad- dock, the occurance of twin colts is 1.5 in a hundred. The percentage of twin colts thafl live for more than one year following birth, is less than one in a thousand. Annual SAPC Banquet Set The annual banquet of thi Southern Alberta Poultry couu cil will bo held May 28, p.m. at the El Motoi Hotel in Lethbridge. Don Potter, executive secre taiy to the ministei' of agricul ture will speak at the banquet All members are cordially ill vitcd '.a attend. Agrologists Meet June 4-6 The 24th annual convention ol the Alberta Institute of Agrol ogists will be held June 4-6 a the Capri Motor Hotel in Re( Deer. The theme of this year's con vention is "Food for the and the events of the convention include several speakers affili ated in the consumer and pro ducer food areas. UTHBBIQGE RESEARCH STATION Alfalfa Stem Nematode Lacombe. Research Station also tested Rosner Triticale as a feed crop. It has proven to be three to four weeks later than Conquest barley, and so far is less productive. It is not considered profitable for cen- tral Alberta as a feed crop. Seeding Operations Satisfactory Seeding operations are mak- injllJ. 1IYCH.U1L1U <3_IH_1 LLUJLra til C ing satisfactory progress m als0 excellent hosts of this nem- DR. E. J. 1IAWN, Plant Pathologist Ten years ago the alfalfa stem nematode was found in alfalfa plots at the Lethbridge Research Station. Subsequent surveys of irrig ated alfalfa have shown that the liny eel- worm is distributed throughout the Lethbridge and adjoining districts. The main symptom of nema- tode infection is patches of dwarfed plants in stands of al- falfa that are two or more years old. Such patches are especially noticeable in 1 a t e spring. The shoots of infected plants are fewer and shorter than those of healthy crowns. The crown buds and the bases of the infected shoots are swol len and quite brittle. Our research has shown that the nematodes not only reduce the stand hut also contribute to losses by transmitting the disease organisms that cause bacterial wilt in alfalfa, j other, and somewhat m o r a startling result of this work, has been the discovery that some xvilt resistant varieties of alfal- fa become susceptible to wilt after infection by stem nema- 'odes. This showed us that ef- forts in alfalfa breeding had to include resistance to stem ncm- atode so as to ensure the re- :ention of bacterial wilt resis- ancc. Co operative work with :he plant breeders on this prob- lem is showing promise of suc- cess. But this Is not the end of our research on stem nematodes. Resistance of alfalfa to winter njury also may be influenced by this parasite. In addition to alfalfa, the stem nematode attacks a wide variety of crop plants that are of increasing importance to the economy of this area; among these crops are oats, potatoes, Green- flower carrots, and onions, louse operators and growers should note that daf- Mils, hyacinths, and tulips are southern Alberta, according to crop reports issued by the Al- berta Wheat Pool. Despite adverse weather con- ditions that have prevailed on and off in southern Alberta for the past month, it is felt by crop specialists that the mois- ture received has been very beneficial to crops already planted and in retaining sur- face moisture. Estim ated percentages of seeding now completed in the immediate Lethbridge area are as follows: Wheat-80 per cent, Oats-75; Barley-BO; Spring rye- 100. Seeding of oilseeds has not been extensive. For Summer Fun CORTINA 75.50 DOWN So Little Paid For So Much! PER MON7H AVIHUE I 19ik STJIST i lit AVINUI, LITHIRIDGI. ALU'.Ti ntode. To control plant parasitic nematodes the grower must use resistant varieties where avail- able, soil that is free from such nematodes, nematode-free planting slocks to prevent the introduction of harmful nema- todes, and adequate crop sani- tation to minimize carryover and spread of harmful nema- todes. Chemical control is expensive but practical for greenhouse and market gardening opera- tions. The operator must, how- ever, use only chemicals that will not cause residue problems. On the farm it is more prac- tical and economical to control harmful nematodes by crop ro- tation. iS'ematodes that parasi- tize plants must feed on speci- fic plants to survive and repro- duce. Every known form of life has its parasites, predators-, and diseases. Consequently, cul- tural practices that least dis- rupt the balance of life in the soil will give the most lasting protection to plants1. Rape Straw Harmful To Future G'ops Farmers who fail to chop and spread straw as tliey harvest rapeseed may lose some yield from grain crops planted the following year. Rape straw contains a toxic material that can be leached into the soil and cause stunt- ing and lower crop yields the following year. Dr. J. S. Horricks, a plant pathologist at the Lethbridge research station, has found thin, stunted crops in places showing leavy residue from a previous year's crop. The toxin is least effective on Darley. Oats and wheat are quite susceptible. Toxicity lasts for only one year, but can eas- ily be avoided by chopping and spreading. Calendar Of Farm Events May 20 Fort Macleod Performance and Cross-bred bull sale May 26-29 Calgary Frame Breeders A.I. School June 1 Coaldale Southolm-Coalbridge Angus Sale June 1-5 Southern Alberta Washington Cattlemen's Tour June 4-6 Red Deer Annual Convention Alberta Institute of Agrologisls "Food for the Seventies" theme June 6 Claresholm 4-H Beef Show and Sale June 6 Bassano 4-H Beef Show and Sale June 6 Edmonton University of Aibena Feeders' Bay June 8-10 Banff Cattle Marketing Workshop June 10 Brooks Southern Alberta Poultry Council Tour (Mortensen Farms and Provincial Horticul- tural Station) June 10 Brooks Late Spring Bull Sale June 12 Foremost 4-H Beef Show and Sale June 20 Vulcan 4-H Beef Show and Sale July 34 Brooks 4-H Beef Show and Sale July 5-9 Ottawa Annual Convention Agricultural Institute of Canada July 7-8 Vauxhall Tabor MD 4-H Beef Show and Sale July 10-11 Calgary World Charolais Show and Sale July 10-12 London, Ontario Annual Seed Growers Association July 13-21 Lethbridge Livestock Pesticides Institute (International) July 19-23 Southern Alberta Ontario Beef Association Tour July 20-25 Lethbridge Lethbridge Exhibition Irrigation Thome "Water Wonderland" July 24-25 Manyberrics American Society of Range Man- agement Tour Cover Crops Valuable As Soil Preservatives The first cover crops were seeded in southern Alberta in 1917 in a desperate effort to stop drifting. Twenty years later they were in very common use in the Clar- esholm-High River area for soil drift control and fall pas- ture. A. D. Smith, Agronomist, Lethbridge Research Station, spent a number of years study- ing all phases of cover crops in locations throughout south- ern Alberta and he considers tlie use of cover crops as one of the major tools in the con- trol of soil drifting. NEW ASSISTANT D.A. Murray B. McLelland, 25, lias taken up duties as assistant district agriculturist at Card- Eton, under D. L. Stccfl. Mr. ..McLelland obtained his bach- elor of science degree In agri- culture at the University of Saskatchewan. Mr1. Smith's studies includee a comparison of the kinds o crops, the times of seeding, thi rates of seeding, and the spac es of seeding. From his work he can tell you which of the crops will give the best pro- tection and which ones will givi the most beef per acre. Of the three cereals (wheat oats, and wheat pro- vides the best soil protection and oats the best pasture; bar ley falls behind both. For gen eral use, both soil protection and pasture, oati, are recom mended. Oats are less expen sive to seed, they produce better regrowth, and they hos less cereal diseases such as streak mosaic. The livestock man will ge best results by seeding his oa cover crop around the middl of July in solid stands at be- tween one and two bushels per acre. Where he wants to extend his pasture into the early win ter he call add a half bushel o fall rye to the oats. For straigh soil drift control where there is to be no grazing the seed rate o the cover crop can be reduced to about half and the stand can be thinned down.by plugging up every other drill run. In this case the seeding should be done at right angles to the prevail- ing winds. In areas where cutworm out- breaks are anticipated, cover crop seeding should be com- pleted by the first of August. Cover crops are very attrao live for grasshoppers in the late fall and, if grasshoppers ap- pear to be moving in, the cover crop can be protected by a perimeter spraying. In this year of increased sum- merfallow cover crops should become a part of the planned soil drift control operation. Advisory Council Meets At a recent meeting in the Lethbridge offices of the Exten- sion and Colleges Division of :he Departmnet of Agriculture, ;he aims and means of the Lethbridge County advisory committee were reviewed. Bert Magyar, Turin farmer was elected chairman and Mrs. S. F. Noble of Nobleford vice- chairman. Other members of the Leth- jridge County Advisory Com- mittee are: John Murray of the Tree Car Begins Tour The Canadian Forestries Tree 'lanting Car, operated by the Prairie Provinces Forestry As- sociation, began its 1970 tour re- cently at Grand Coulee, Sas- :atchewau. The car, was extensively fen- oyated over the winter months, vilh numerous new exhibits added, and will lour various irairie cities over the summer months. McNally district; George Teni- pleton, Readymade d i s t ri c t; Gen-it J. Withage, Nobleford; Marvin Koole, Monarch; Mutt Tsukishima, Coaldale; L. II. Phillips, Barons; W. V. Boras, Picture Butte; Howard B. Han- ey, Iron Springs; Mrs. Ivan Meyers, Coaldale; Mrs. Mike Pascal, Turin; Berend J. Nyhof, Agricultural Fieldman; besides Cal Brandley, district agricul- turist and Miss Elizabeth Bart- man, district home economist. The purpose of this committee is to advise and be involved with the programs directly re- lated to the rural people of Lethbridge County through the Extension and Colleges Division of the Alberta Department of Agriculture. It is envisioned that this committee will advise the Extension office of prob- lems related to farm people and that timely programs will be developed. CATTLE MARKETING Marketings of cattle sold through public stockyards, shipped directly to packing plants, on export and to coun- try points for the year 1969 to- talled head down four per cent from 1968 marketings REGISTERED SHORTHORN BULLS Having sold our cow herd, the herd sire Alia Cedar Torquil Bth, Senior Champion 1968 Calgary Bull Sale, is for sale at as well as two of our lop yearling bulls, each wilh a gain'index of 110, at egch. HANFORD FARM, OKOTOKS R. E. WALLER, 683-4163 COUTTS The Coutts 4-H Horse Club held its club lour May 3. The members loft the Civic Centre at a.m. and toured the Coutts district. At noon, lunch was served at the centre followed by a torn- of the Milk River Warner district. Twenty- one horses were inspected in- cluding several marcs in foal, yearlings, and two year olds which are special projects. Each member gave a sum- mary on the care of their horses and their breeding. The members would like to thank everyone who took cars. Lesley Franks reporter. WHOOP-UP The regular monthly meeting of the Lethbridge Whoop-Up 4-H Light Horse Club was held on Monday, April 6 at the Bow- man Arts Centre. The meeting was opened with the saying of the pledge and the taking of at- tendance. Malcolm Jones was the guest speaker, he gave a very inter- esting talk on rodeos and also brought with him a very Inter- esting movie called, "Interlude to Rodeo." The whole club would like to thank you for tha interesting evening Mr. Jones. There was a car wash May 2 at the Shell Service Station by Zellers. Linfla GRASSY LAKE The monthly meeting of the Grassy Lake 4-H Beef Club was held in the Chamberlain School recently. The meeting was called to or- der by Geraldine Knibbs. Pledge was led by Van Malz. Roll call was taken and cor- respondence read. A discussion of t h e Bonny- ville exchange trip was discuss- ed among members. Speeches were given by Rob- erta Kackue on "Showing and Jackie Sch- midth on "Grooming a Geraldine Schmidth on "Show- ing Procedures." Geraldine Knibbs adjourned the meeting. Betty The Misunderstood Potato Over the years, the potato has been the subject of many ex- traordinary misconceptions. Many Europeans once be- lieved that potatoes caused lep- rosy; the Scottish and Russians believed that eating potatoes was sinful since potatoes were not mentioned in the Bible; and the Irish believed that po- tatoes were an aphrodisiac and tended to increase- the produc- tion of offspring. Now, in Am- erica, potatoes have the repu- tation of being fattening. All of these mistaken beliefs have arisen from the fact that people just don't understand the true nature of tha potato. WHAT'S REALLY INSIDE Although potatoes are higher in calories than most veg- etables, they are considerably lower than many other foods in the daily Canadian diet. A re- cent scientific food composition study shows that 100 grams of baked or boiled potatoes sur- prisingly have fewer calories than Uie same amounts of lima beans, bran flakes, prunes, and rice. Potatoes prepared withoul butter or cooking oil, or served without gravy also have fewer calories than most fruits can- ned in heavy sirup. Most people consider the po- tato fattening because of its starch content. Yet, starch and other nutrients make up only 20 per cent of the potato; 80 per cent is water. If potatoes were your only daily source of nutrients, they would provide all of the riboflavin, times the iron, three to four times the thiamin and niacin, and more than ten times the vitamin C you need. Potatoes also con- tain phosphorous, calcium, cop- per, and ether important miner- al elements, and 27 or more am- ino acids. The amino acids ac- count for much of the protein supplied by the potato. In fact, a diet of whole milk and pota- toes would supply almost all the food elements necessary for the maintenance of the human body. The Irish famine in 1845 proved a hapless example of the value of potatoes. The Irish had found that potatoes were 'he most efficient food crop they could grow. It provided more food energy and nutrition on less acreage than any other crop. The Irish became so depen- dent on the potato as their major food source that when :'Iate a disease then unknown wiped out the entire crop, widespread famine oc- curred- Nutritional deficiency resulted in a plague epidemic, which drove many Irish faic- lies to our shores: Potatoes have1 significant amounts of vitamin C. During the U.S. civil war, scurvy was almost unknown in prisons that served potatoes. In those which did not, this deficiency disease took many lives. COMPOSITION AND QUALITY Basic research in the labor- atories seeks to build up a res- ervoir of information relating to the composition and physi- cal properties of the potato. This information assists pro- cessors in controlling such problems as flavor, odor, color, and texture deteriorations. The amino acids in the potato are important to processors as well as nutritionists. The golden col- or of potato chips, for exam- ple, results from the reaction between amino acids and su- gars. Sometimes the reaction goes too far and causes a burnt flavor and color in the chips. In an intriguing project, chemists at the ARS Plant Products Laboratory in Wynd- mpor, are "deep fat fry- ing" tiny disks of filter paper impregnated with a sugar and too or three anrino acids. By studying the reaction that takes place, these scientists arc seek- ing to understand the mechan- isms that produce the color. If the exact nature is found and then controlled, the consis- tency of potato chip flavor and color would improve. Scientists estimate that the potato contains more than different enzymes. One of these, tyrosinase, is a complex of sev- eral enzygmes and is respon- sible 'for the darkening of raw potatoes after they are peeled or cut. This darkening is caus- ed by a' compound called mela- nin, which is formed by action Melanin is not only the dark compound that troubles potata processors, but is the principal pigment in human beings as well. The color of our hair, eyes, and skin are all due to melanin. In humans, melanin is formed by action of tyrosin- ase in a serie? of reactions sim- ilar to those in the cut potato. When a human being, by her- edity or by spontaneous muta- tion, is deficient in the gene re- sponsible for tyrosinase, mela- nin does not form. An absence of melanin results in a condi- tion called albinism. Since al- binos seem to function normal- ly, tyrosinase would appear not to be an essential least not for man. Scientists are trying to deter- mine how essential tyrosinase is to the potato. If the level of this enzyme can be decreased without affecting the normal nutritional components, compo- sition, or texture of the potato, then a potato may be bred that will not blacken during stor- age, or darken before or after cooking. LETHBRIDGE MOTORCYCLE CLUB HILL CLIMB MONDAY, MAY 18 p.m. North on 13th St. North Follow Signs OVER 50 PROFESSIONAL RIDES SPECIAL NEWS MEDIA EVENT Refreshments Available!