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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 13, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Saturday, May 13, 1972 THE IETHBRIDGE HERAID Margaret Liickliursl People of the south 34 The future much better than the past A CHEAT many changes have occurred in Ihe past 100 years but few people live a sufficient span to look hack on nearly all of them first hand. Arthur Critchfield, formerly of Magrath and now living in a Cardston senior citizens home, will be 100 years old in July. Spry, alert, and with a fantastic memory, he can reach back 95 years and perhaps a bit more and recall the flavor of the 1800s and the frontier life of the United States and Canada. But he doesn't like to dwell on the past much. "That's all gone and dona he protested during a re- cent interview, "what is impor- tant is today, and the we must prepare for the future and not worry about yesterday or last year or 75 years ago." However after some lively discussion Mr. Critchfield agreed that life 100 years ago might be of some interest to people today and spun a gra- phic word picture of some of his early experiences. "I was born on a small farm about four miles south of Glover's Gap, West Virginia, where my family lived in a small log house. But before I can remember much, we moved down off the hillside on the head water of a creek to a larger one-roomed log house. This house had a large fire- place in one end. That served as our heating system as well as for our cooking and baking and also it was the major source for lighting at night. Wo had extra light concocted fron an empty ink bottle filled with oil plus a bit of cloth for a wick. It gave off about the same amount of light as a small candle. My father died when I was about seven years old, leaving my mother to support the family. We didn't have too much in the way of resources but my mother was practically a genius in making tilings over and strelclu'ng what little mon- ey we earned to cover our needs. I recall the lime she got some old boots that were worn out. The tops were still in good shape so she took the tops and made the three younger chil- dren shoes out of them. She did this by getting a piece of soft wood from trees that gew there and rath an axe and a small knife she made lasts and stretched the leather over them. She made wooden pegs to fasten the soles on with, then she made thread from flax she had raised and processed her- self, and spun it on her spin- ning wheel. I'm sure the shoes were pretty crude but they served the purpose and kept our feet warm. I've often thought how wonderfully she made do with such small re- sources. But it was a matter of having-to in those days. People had to look after themselves for there wasn't any welfare as we know now, or hand-outs from one source or another. Most people lived on a pretty slim budget and if you couldn't man- age somehow well, it was just too bad for you." Mr. Critchfield regrets that such circumstances put a re- striction on his schooling. But like many of the young lads of that era it was necessary to work in order to help out at home and keep body and soul together. And it wasn't always easy you took such work as you could get and didn't turn up your nose at honest toil. His first job on a farm earned him a month, but his older broth- er made a month and that combined total added a prince- ly sum to the slim coffers of the family. tion canal. A few years previ- ous to this he had married Let- tie Conrcy, daughter of another pioneer family. "About thirty Mormons were coming here to Mr. Critchfield recall- ed, "so we were pleased to bo included in the group. Wo travelled on a mixed train from Great Falls in 1897. About threa miles from the boundary lino the railroad tracks gave way. The car in front of us loaded with horses and cattle went rolling down the embankment and the car we were in tipped to quite an angle. We managed to get out but it was pouring rain and all our belongings got soaking wet. Some of us man- aged to salvage a tent which we put up so we had a bit of shelter. That first summer I asked myself time after lima why in the world we were build- ing an irrigation canal; it rain- ed practically every day and we had more water around then than knew what to do with." At Magrath the young cou- ple and their baby lived first in a make-shift tent made of two wagon covers. It was quite comfortable except when it rained, then their roof leaked and the beds got wet. But the following winter they moved to a dugout which was dry and warm. "It was a pretty primi- tive type of life but one we shared with many settlers at that time. We were very happy, in fact we didn't have sense enough to. worry about any- thing." The men who worked on the canal were paid half in cash and half in land. Arthur Critch- field, that first summer in Al- berta earned 40 acres of land. The next spring he herded sheep on the open prairie. "I used to start at four in the mor- ning from Magrath and go to Temple hill north of Raymond, then head south and return to Magrath by 10 p.m. This was quite a long hike but thera were no fences then so a shep- herd had quite an area to cover, if he had a mind to do so." Eventually Uie family moved to Kansas where jobs were a bit easier to' get and pay was a little belter. But here young Arthur was stricken with ty- phoid fever which nearly look his life. Recovering from that took a long time hut soon he was back looking for work again, this time in Denver where he had relatives. He got a job carrying a hod which was heavy, hard work. But this wasn't to prove a permanent thing either. "There was a ter- rible depression in the early 1880s which slopped all build- ing for several he re- called. "Thousands of men were thrown out of work. At that time there was no relief given except for soiiio assistance from Ihe churches. A good meal could be bad for 15 cents but many people didn't havo even that much and had lo beg for money lo live on. This slack period lasted about three years. I was luckier than some for got a job at a paper mill; my wage was for a 10 to 14 day." It was when he was at Iho p.-iper mill that he made (ho decision lo join the M o r in o n church, eventually linking up will] Iho group in Sail Lnko city who were lo come (o Al- berta to help build Uie irrign- Eventually Arthur Crilchfield went into the carpentering trade. "The town of Magrath was growing then and needed a be explained. "Most houses cost about S1.500 then and were fairly easy to build as there was no plumbing for a number of years. I also helped build the Temple. bad to saw 4 x -Is with a handsaw. Wo took two weeks to do the work we can do now in one day. I always had work but wages were not very good. We oftcu had to take produce from the farmers for pay, but we could always use it. Our family was growing you see we raised a family of 12 children, nine of whom are still living. My wife was a wonderful manager whidh was a great benefit to us all. She made most of our cloth- ing: overalls for the boys, dresses for the girls. She used to sew a great deal at nights, especially after we got electric- ity in 1919. I used to help out with the children a lot I would get up at night if one of them needed attention, and I quite enjoyed it." Fifty to seventy-five years ago people relied on their own talents much more than they do today, Mr. Critchfield said. There were no theatres in small towns so it was up to people lo put on their own concerts and entertain themselves. "We had a greai time getting up plays and putting on variety he said. "I produced and act- ed in many plays which we would take from one small town to another. This lasted many years, but when radio and movies became popular the demand for home enter- tainment fell off. It's too bad in a way, because people can have good wholesome fun putting a concert together." Mr. Critchfield demonstrated his theatrical experience by singing The Irish Jubilee, an amusing song full of Irish hu- mor and a bout sixty verses long. At a couple of months shy of 100 years of age how docs he remember all tho words? he replied, "I've sung that for years all over southern Alberta, how could I forget it, even if I live another hundred years." The Critchfields have always been very active in their church. Mrs. Critcbficld was a Relief Society teacher for inoro than 60 years and was honored at the Slake Union meeting in Raymond in Iffi? for her Jong and faithful work. Her death about ten years ago, created a break in a marriage which had boon close and happy in spilo of heartbreak and problems, for over sixly years. Mr. Crilchficld lias no ex- planalion for his longevity. Ho clnims lie doesn't think in lerms of years. "I laid out a home for ii man when 1 was 87, cut out the rafters and put on the roof. I helped shingle a roof when 1 was, oh about 89. But today I don't do so much. I like to walk down to the Temple ev- ery day, and 1 visit around town, but 1 don't go out if it's 1 don't want to take any chances." His mind is immensely keen. "I've been writing a book on the cause and cure of he said. "Until war is cured man- kind will know no great pro- gress, in spite of all our fancy gadgets. I look upon life as a school if we ever get so per- fect we can't make any im- provements we'll die of social rot. And there's simply no good in asking the Lord to do tilings we should be doing for our- selves. Now I've talked enough about the past I don't like to do that you know! I'd rather look at the future, for it's going to be very exciting. I believe we won't havo cities as wo know them today. Architects will devise cities in the houses, shopping centres, apartments, will all be devel- oped up there, leaving the crowded ground level free for agriculture, transportation and so on. I firmly believe that man can overcome the threat of population explosion, pollu- tion and all the other problems we are facing. I only wish I were going to be around be- cause we're moving into a very ARTHUR CRITCHFIEtD Photo by Phil Fouldi Book Reviews Fictionalized history of Friends "The Peaceable by Jan dc Ilartog, (McClel- land and Stewart, S10, 677 took me a little while to get into this novel but once I got into it it became a "sit up all night" challenge. The Peaceable Kingdom con- tains the first two parts of what is to be a four part series. The characters are all based on ac- tual people the founders and early members of the rf ciety of Friends, somelimes known as Quakers. Part one deals with the begin- ning of the movement in Lan- cashire, England and discloses the relationship between the or- iginator George Fox, and Mar- garet Fell. Part two finds the movement a century later in Pennsylvania where they bad gone, full of hope, the better to establish their way of life. Tin's section deals with prob- lems the Friends have in apply- ing their doctrine to the prob- lems in the New World, one of which at that time was slav- ery. They disapproved of Slav- Nude drama is crude "Paradise Collective Creadon of Ihe Living The- atre written tlnwn by Judith Malina and Julian Beck. (Vintage Paperback, S2.M, IS I pages, Hardcover, Ran- dom House, is.li crr.uiry judge ruled after riots at London's Haymarket "that the public has the legal right to manifest their dislike of any play or ac- tor the judicature of the pit has been acquiesced in timo immemorial." Perhaps it is time the pit rase again from where it is being attacked, fondled and sweated over against the type of pretentious put-on that is Living Theatre and something called "Paradise Now." Tho plot, we read, is The Revolu- tion. The Beautiful Non-Violent Anarchist Revolution, and it is turlher revealed that tin; writ- ing down of Paradise Now did not begin until six months after the premiere and read by the actors more than n year later. From Ihis text il may be said thai tin; Theatre of the (iciiitalK, while II. has the props badly needs a playwright. It may be assumed lhat var- ious audiences wore privy to the gcslation period. Alas, what has been brought, forth is an abrasive group grope, redolent with four-letter words, quasi- roligion, noise and dity. Js this the shape of future drama? Will group therapy serve society as well as did Group Theatre? I think not. There is one gratuitous ac- cent on humor; the list of il- lustrations concludes with (he information that no photo- graphs arc available for the Rite of New Possibilities and the of Lending on Mars since they are played in Dark- ness. By Rite and. Rung that is where it leaves tlu's review- er. Now back to Beckett! JOAN WATERFIELD ery (their views pre dated Lincoln's by 100 years) yet their philosophy had softened from Fox's tougher "eye for an eye." It had become "turn the other or as it was later known, the art of Friendly Persuasion. Through the latler they hoped somehow to meld into the larger community and expand their following. Although the book is often gory, detailing killings on plan- tations, confrontations of good guj-s versus bad guys, plus the sexual lustings of young whites after black beauties it doesn't detract too much from the thread of the story. One ques- tions if this stuff is added be- cause of popular appeal, but no mailer, it's there and it's addition will be judged accord- ing to one's taste. Frankly I think the book would have been richer without it. hut then I'm accused of Puritanical leanings. The author, himself a Friend, is more noted for sea stories than religious tracts. However, ho docs know his subject inti- mately and has prose n t e d a sympathetic picture of an ad- mirable sect. One wonders what the next volume will be like. MARGARET LUCKHURST. Nixon speaks for self "An Evening With Richard Nixon" by Gore Vidal (Ran- dom House, So.95, 157 pLEVEHLY constructed, this hook is a little too clever. Trended to discredit U.S. President, Richard Nixon, it might win him a litllc sym- pathy instead. Tho puhlic life of Nixon is reviewed ns a sort, of documen- tary with George Washington doing the commentary aided liy Dwight Eisenhower and John V. Kennedy as color men. Nixon flashes on and off in the company of the various people who have been his victors and victims, liis friends and foes. In most instances the material is i hat which was actually spoken and is thus part of the puhlic record. Vidal uses dif- ferent type to distinguish be- tween his own writing and what people themselves said. Thus Nixon damns himself hut so, to a lesser degree, do the other presidents who arc partici- pants. Nixon presents a sorry fift- ure. Yet even though he always .seems to have said and done the wrong things, Ihe fart re- mains that he is now tin1 presi- dent of the United Sfale.s. If he could break free of his military advisers and move as boldly in ending the Vietnam war as he has in seeking dof.cnto with the Peoples' Republic of China he. might, yet become a great man. Those who nre not offended by having famous men appear less than great could be enter- tained by reading this book. DOUG WALKKU Focus on the University By MICHAEL SUTHERLAND interesting and advanced age." To celebrate his centenary this summer Mr. Critchfield's children, gran d cliildrcn and great grandchildren, some strong, will come from aJl points of North America for a big birthday party in Raymond. "It will be nice to sec every- the centenarian grinned, "although I don't expect I'll know all ihe great-greats." Will he sing the Irish Jubilee? "Oh maybe or perhaps The Face on the Barroom Floor, or Asleep at the Switch. It should be kind of fun to recite those poems again do you think all the family would like Definitely, don't wait 'to be asked! IN sum, today lias been a good one ior the university, the people of the com- munity, and particularly the nearly 400 members of the graduating class. It has been a day that permitted the university to award honorary degrees to two distin- guished Albertans, Dr. William Swift, the former chairman of the universities com- mission and a renowned provincial educa- tionist, and Dr. Chester Ronning of Cam- rose, the distinguished Canadian diplomat and United Nations and Geneva represen- tative. Of particular note also was the installa- tion by Justice Clement, of Dr. James Oshiro of Coaldale as the university's sec- ond chancellor. By legislation included in the Universities Act a chancellor can re- main in office for only one four-year term and for this reason Chief Judge L. S. Tur- cotte's chancellorship ended this past March, The senate of the university repre- senting people from border to border on throe sides and to Calgary in the north, chose Dr. Oshiro to serve as formal head of the university and chairman of the sen- ate for the next four years. The new chan- cellor is a gentleman who has dedicated his life to the betterment of opportunities for people in this area as a medical doc- tor, as a school trustee, as a town council- lor and as one interested in all aspects of the development of good community par- ticularly in southern Alberta. An excellent choice for southern Alberta's university. Again it was one of those days that pro- vided a good deal of encouragement for the people supporting and working for the university. To be part of a gathering of close to people, packed into the Ex- hibition Pavilion for the formal degree- granting ceremonies, is certainly an ex- perience to provide proof that there are indeed a great many people in this area who are interested not simply in The Uni- versity of Lethhridge, but that it should continue to progress as a viable educa- tional institution. The lives of many thou- sands of people have been or will be af- fected by what went on today. Certainly this will be noticed and weighed carefully elsewhere. Last week I pointed to the singular im- portance of the actual degree-granting cer- emonies. Nearly 400 people of a wide va- riety of interests, ages and backgrounds preceded singly fo the dais, to be ad- mitted to convocation by the new chan- cellor. They are the recipients of the uni- versity's two degrees the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Arts. Al- though one normally receives a single degree at convocation a certain individual came forth to receive two degrees, having successfully completed the requirements of both faculties. Today also marked the first formal ap- pearance of Dr. F. Q. Quo in his new role as dean of the faculty of arts and sci- A good day ence. Following a distinguished career as chairman of the department of political sci- ence at this university and a 1970-71 stint as visiting professor at Princeton Univer- sity, Dr. Quo recently accepted the posi- tion as dean of the University of Leth- bridge's largest faculty. Lieutenant-Govcrnor Grant MacEwan, who fills the formal position as official vis- itor for each of Alberta's universities, was most capably represented by Justice Cle- ment who presided over the installation of Dr. Oshiro. The ceremonies also included a report from the president, Dr. William Beckel and from a student body representative Mr. David Iwaasa, a distinguished member of the graduating class. The details will doubt- less be typographically and photogra- phically portrayed for the many readers of this paper on Monday. While I did mention that this week's col- umn would likely begin a two or three part look at v.luit (he univer.'-ity c'iucntlnn moans to various individuals 3 ;un going to postpone that alignment, for purely nostalgic reasons. Very simply, it occurred to me that to- day was the last convocation that I will take part in as an employee of this uni- versity. My resignation and departure in August win remove me from this interest- ing community and from the yearly high- light to me at least convocation, the time when everyone seems to get together and restore universal faith in what dedica- tion, sacrifice, and pride are all about (and the many other kinds of personal traits that seem to evolve in the individ- ual's pursuit of Suffice it to say that everything associ- ated with today provided a very clear re- minder although the setting and many of the faces were different of that first convocation in 4968 when a gathering of people loudly applauded Dr. Sam Smith and Judge L. S. Turcotte (and others) and then continued a remarkable community display on behalf of the university, only a few months old at the time, by marching to Gait Gardens, many in academic regalia. It was all part of that tremendous sense of participation and interest which charac- terized the 1968 "site dispute" and the con- clusion thereof integrity and autonomy as the bumper slicker said. Maybe some of us, maybe a lot of us, didn't realize precisely what we were con- Iribuling to that particular day. but we did know it was for something good and for something worthwhile, and if I read the applause and ovations and enthusiasm cor- rectly today, there isn't really much doubt that the university continues to develop a very positive influence on the lives of many people, and Uie positive nature of tilings such as convocation will ensure that the continued community support required by the university will indeed prevail. The Voice Of One -By DR. FRANK S. MORIEY The tragedy of the Jews WERNER KELLER wrote the most fas- cinating book on the Bible I have read, "The Bible as History." He has now written the most horrifying book I have ever read, "Diaspora, The Post-Biblical History of the Jews." That Christians since the day of Jesus should have inflicted the most appalling suffering on the Jews filled my mind with dreadful horror. Knowing history better than most I still did not realize the world-wide savagery of Chris- tians to the Jews. In four hundred and ninety-three closely packed pages of his- tory the bestiality of the Nazis fills a mere nine pages. Remorsely Keller carries you from cen- tury to century, country to country de- scribing the humiliation, torture and burn- ing alive of hundreds of thousands of Jews. Driven out of most occupations they sur- vived in many countries merely as ped- dlers and small pawnbrokers. Since the days of the Roman Empire Jews hsd been active in agriculture, commerce and crafts. They had enriched European culture beyond measure and wherever they had gone brought industry and prosperity. Their traders were world famous. But now they were driven even from agriculture and had to abandon the land. Excluded from Christian society they were forced to en- gage in the activities which Christians the- oretically despised, the lending of money at interest. No charge was too insane to bring against the Jews, no horror loo fright- ful to inflict on them. From Ihe period of Pope Gregory the Grcr.t Catholic Christianity fcccd thorn with implacable hoslility. Martin Luther when a young man wrote of the Jews tol- erantly but he changed to terrible invec- tive accusing Ihcni of being "possessed of all devils" and concluded should we Christians nmv do with this cnnlompliblo, damned people of Ihe I will give my true advice. Fir.sl. that their synagogues or schools be sc! fire sec- ond, thai their houses be similarly razed and doslroyod third, that Micro be taken from Ihoni all prayer books and Talmudirs fourth, flint Ihoir rabbis forbidden In peril of Ibcir livrs henceforth to tench. Thai safe cimduii and the right of the roads bo cnlircly Inkon from llu'in that usury be forbidden them and all coins and precious things be taken from them." Th8 full fury of the Crusades and Uie Inquisi- tion laler fell on the Jews. One may criti- cize Cromwell and his Puritans but they did pursue an enlightened policy toward the Jews whom they viewed as the ancient people of God, permitting them freedom of worship and their own cemetery, and rec- ognizing their enormous value to English commerce. Holand too provided a sano tuary for the Jews and was vastly reward- ed by Jewish trade, capital, and the found- ing of overseas companies. Diaspora is all the more dreadful since the tone is so ob- jective and unemotional. One realizes that this is what human na- ture is like, stupid, intolerant, and unspeak- ably brutal. It has happened before, it can happen again. Tolerance and justice can never be taken for granted. Darin" Iho la.'t war I preached a sermon on Uie vast crn- tribution the Jews had mcde to civilization. 1'hone calls and Idlers of vituperation poured in. I have never written an article or preached a sermon on Ihe need for lot crance and juslice in dealing with minority or religious groups without the bitterest criticism. At one time 1 preached a se- ries of sermons, some of which were print- ed, on what I liked about different religious groups deliberately omitting the points of difference between us and I received and still do receive letters from all over tho western world of angry condcmra'.ion. Diaspora is dedicated "to all v ho r> the truth at heart." On the froiiii.-.pie'-'1 the prayer of Pope John XX11I, a brief penitential prayer composed shortly before his death, "We now acknowledge thai for many many centuries blindness has cover- ed our eyes so that we no longer sco the beauly of Thy chosen people and no longer recognize in iU face the features of n'ir first-born brother. We acknowledge Dial Iho mark of Cain is upon our brow. For crn- turies Abel lay low in blood and tears he- cause wo forgot Thy lovo. Forgive us tho curse thai we wrongfully pronounced upon Ihe name of the Jews. Forgive us that we crucified Thee in the flesh for tho second time. For wn knew not what we did." "Phispnrn. Tlio Pnsl-Rihliral Hislory of Mil' .lews" by Worrier KcllcrAH-nrfourl, Brace and World, ;