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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 11, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta SATURDAY, MAY 11, 1946 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD PAGE THIRTEEN Grain Growing, Irrigation, Gardening "THE FARMER'S OWN PAGE" Stock Raising, Poultry, Marketing CONSERVATION, ALBERTA'S RICHEST ADVENTURE O_tv ROBSOX1 BLACK, President and General Manager Canadian Forestry Association, Montreal) One of the developments of ihe Quebec Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that must have seemed strange to many was the recurring emphasis upon food and forests. Experienced observers from all countries in the world in- sisted upon oracketing the capaci- ties of each nation and of tte total- ity of nations to grow enough food and grow enough forests ro feed, house and warm the increasing mil- lions of mankind. After all, in both hemispheres, two-thirds of all the trees cut down each year are used to combat hunger and cold. The miseries of the Chinese peasant are not du? to the poverty of his soil. As a matter of fact, he has some of the richest and deepest soils on the earth's surface, but a plot of bare soil is all he has. When he requires a couple of wooden boards, he must command a coolie to carry them 200 miles from some moun- tainous pocket that has escaped a century "of devastation, and they will cost him from 25 to 30 years of his savings from his few acres of land- Penile soil is but one of the con- ditions of human sustenance. In North America less than three acres of land is enough to raise each consumer, but the same sunier requires four acres of forest each jear to supply his minimum! requirements in wood materials. if vou are looking, therefore, for I the critical reason for the affluence j or misery of large sections of the world's peoples you will imd it. often as not m the good or evil balance of mankind's essential re- sources. For example, in Canada 69 acres of forest are vested in the name of each Canadian, but in In- dia the forest suoply is less than one acre for each" person, and in Syria and Palestine it is down to a fifth of an acre. Alberta is just forty years of age pronabiy. than The aver- age of the ages in this room. It is not at all surprising that m a land of brimming opportunity, every man should heed tne impulse to help himself. The pioneer by the very temptation of circumstances is a firm individualist. He thinks bv nimself, works by himself, seizes his chance when it appears. But in the course of generations, men of wis- dom arise who say "We are also a company of people, as well as individuals. My farm is partner to a thousand farms. My children re- flect my neighbor's children. We may be separated by fences but we are partakers one of another." Long before a coinmunitv be- comes 40 years of age, there is a limitation to what any one man can manage. He can't work a quar- ter-section and run the Calganr post office, nor can he onerate a coal mine and handle telegrams between Red Deer and Minneapolis." So he readily assigns these jobs to grouos of companies competent to do them op to this point Canadians have built a. set of social utilities proba- bly good enough for double our population. But right there we seen to have stopped. And too few 1 HE4JL the point at which we stopped loois like the same point where a hun- dred other cmlizatioBs pitcced their tents aiV. never again Use caravan of progress. Whole libraries of history play down the fact, or smother it entirely, that ihe reason why a long chain of na- tions has passed, ircm wealth and power to sterility was that every man was too busy getting ahead to notice the natural resources laJl- ing behind. GREECE DOOMED Greece, for example, teas doomed to die by the self-inflicted poverty of her soil, by the cancerous in- roads of erosion, the death of her rivers and streams. Greece had to die and to this day the welter of her politics is the reflection not of a cantankerous people but of a half- starved people, who cannot scrape a living from a laud thas once "vailed a Garden of Eden. And the Island of Crete. 5.000 years ago the cradle of an amazing civiliza- tion, the most advanced of its age. a land O- ninety cmes. And today, two-thirds a stony waste, in good part because the mighty forests of cedar and cvoress have gone and the winter rains flood quick to the sea, leaving the soil sterile and profitless. Or let us glance at Syria, two thousand years ago. a firmly- miluary and agricultural state. men have wrested a living for just ne lifetime out of whatever lies t hand, so up acd down the world, and nght here in Alberta, icea are Doming hands to make certain lat in carving out one successful -ecade do not wreck the founda- of a cenuiry afterwards. We hav> gone far with the wrecking process. la one eastern province the government has taken more settlers off the land in the 40 years than they have placea on the soil in that period. Forty ears of trying to make a bad fanu out of a good forest, and la ihe end Worse than zero, they mined he forests the squatted on. burned a Song's ransom of neighboring tim- ber, acd got out of it a delapidated of human floaters. In another province they opened millions of acres of high, light soil, densely wooded, every acre of it acting as the watershed of souther- j-flowing rivers. A few generations passed. The water levels fell thirty eet. The populations dwindled by _______cities have the skeletons of a hundred and twentv big towns, with some of the grandest stone architecture in no population, excent a handful of nomad herd- ers. What has happened? You know about the nine inches of soil on the earth's surface that feeds the world's population. In Syria they went sixty inches below that ton nine inches. A final master- piece of erosion, leaving a nation and its people beyond hope o: resurrection. And then" there is and Tunisia and Palestine. You recall iloses' great prospec- tus: "A land of wheat and barley a land of brooks of water spring- ing out of valleys and hills. Thou shalt not lack anything in it." Lybia used to be the Roman world's gram-growing Saskatchewan and today has loined the Sahara desert, never human historv to an- WELDING FOR PORTABLE or SHOP WELDING Phone 3899 Richards Welding 323-3rd St. S. Lethbridge :y per cent. The rivers, released 'rom iheir natural controls of deep woodlands now gouge the valley ands and send a. rampage of de- struction through the town at the rivers mouth where repair bills have reached in a single season. EXPLOITATION In Canada, we surely have done cur bit of exploitins. We have slap- ped in the face the ordinances of Kature. We have, since Confedera- tion, burned five times as manv trees in this Dominion as hare been rut by all the lumbermen who ever took axe to our forests. We have even burped uo in forest fires more human live'- than ever were lost to savage tomahawks or rifies. Taking Canaca as a whole, in the last fifteen vears we have turned to charcoal and ashes -500 million cubic feet each year of the public- cwned domain of woodlands: and. Lhe townships that passed through this fire-gutting process will si; idly by. contributing little or nothing to wages or emplovment for all the years it takes the youngest baby TEST FOR NEW LEASE SYSTEM It looks as if the new system of grazing leases on a royalty basis in the short grass section of south- eastern Alberta may be in for a real test this season. It will be interesting to see how it works out in practice. Readers will remember that some four years ago the Anderson report suggested a system of leasing grazing lands on a royalty basis, the leasing fee to be determined by the carrying capacity of any lease in a given season, and on the average price of beef cattle from July to December of that year. If the lease would carry one head of mature cattle to 40 acres and the price of grass beef was 10 cents a pound, the average gain was figured at 250 pounds for the year, the royalty at 10 per cent, and so the grass was worth so much per acre. This spring, however, following three relatively dry years in that area, the grass cover has become so 1 depleted that the carrying capacity must be reduced j if the grass is not to be ruined. Much of the area will! carry only one head to 60 acres this year if enough' cover is to be left to enable the grass to come back quickly. That will mean that the lease rate will drop one-third, or from about six cents an acre to about four if the price of beef cattle remains the same. It will be up to the department of lands to work out with participating ranchers what the new carry- ing capacity will be if the dry weather in the short grass country continues. And. if the new leasing system is be accepted and bring the kind of co- operation needed to give the grass a chance to come back, the ranchers will have to be shown that it works to their advantage when dry periods come along. opics this "srritsag this has all the earmarks, oi a cry April -A as dry, itinc? aruj fair- ly warm and laost of the seed- njg was done then. The first ireek of May was cry. We had a bis more moisture this year ifaaii average, but the top- soil is cry and in most areas except possibly the foot- hills shere some snow acd raia fell in the late days of April. The outlook has r.ot been en- couragiEg. Of course, as we've seen dry months el May followed "oy very wet Junes ace Julys and that's Then the crop is really made. We've seen lots of years of plenty of early ram and then had the crops burn up because i; was dry from June 20 on. So fhere is noth- ing to get alarmed about just vet- However, there is a good deal of anxiety Let us nope this first post-war year is not like 1919. the first jear after the First Great War was over. That was the most disastrous year in the history of Southern Alberta. If this year should be dry over the Great Plains of North America it would be a disaster for the whole world for never nas the world so close to global famine. LETHBRIDGE EXPERIMENTAL FARM WEEKLY LETTER BACTERIAL, WILT OF ALFALFA ly bark. In a healthy Dunng the last, five bac- j plant this area is creasy white. It tena! wit of alfalfa, has greatly" is here that the bacteria multiply increased in Southern Alberta. The and obstruct the water movement, disease nas ben found in. every irri- At a number of universities and gation of alfalfa 3 years or' experiment stations in the United older examined in the irrigation States plans breeders and patholo- trict of inss province. It was first gssts are attemptins to develop al- repcrted in 1339 only 2 years after lalfa varieties suitaole to their area it was nouced in Montana artd sines thai are resistant to this disease. In 1940 11 has spread throughout our: Canada this work is being under- Irngated areas s taken at the Lethondge 3xperi- Bactena! wilt is caused by the mental Station hi co-operation with growth and developments of" bac- the Dominion Plant Pathology teria in the living celss of the plant., Laboratory at Sdnionton. I particularly in the Bacterial wtlt spreads very rapid- tissues of the roots. The bacteria ly wttn :mgaticn water. To safe- t enter the plant through -arounds and guard against this care should be I are earned through tha plant by taken to prevent waste water from water as it saoves from the roccs to' diseasec fields spreading new the leaves. As the in- stands. The disease is also- earned crease they obstruct the vessels on the mower knife particularly slowing the movement of water thus whea the alfalfa :s wet- If an slowlr choking the plar.t. diseased field has been cut the knife the plant wilts and dies should be disiniected before moving V Belt DRIVES A Size yz inch. to 10 in. 20 to 100 in. B Size inch. to 19 in. 30 to 100 iii. We also design and sup- ply multiple belt drives. Stocks now fairly complete. MCKENZIE Electric Ltd. PHONE 3637 and phone orders given prompt attention. mankind's cry for food. has all this to do with Canada, with Alberta? We bhnd ourselves if we think for one mo- ment that the laws of Nature af- fecting soil and waters and forests have altered one iota in a million years. I have seen the story of Lybia well developed within the past twelve months m an Ontani Valley, and there are full-grown samples of Syria checkered all over the Canadian map. Natural law works exactly the same in the Peace River country as in China It will build a high-grade deser- with the same smiling face as i will design a. paradise. All tha Kature waits for is the decision o human trustee. When he thrust, the lever either to the right or the left. Kature steps in with enough engineering equipment to do a mas- terly for a hell or a heaven. Another reason why the story of ancient lands has much to do with Canada is that most of them were simon-pure exploiters. They built greatness upon the eartfa_ bat they put no greatness into tne earth. The glories of the Cedars of Le- banon clothed the mountain ranges of North Africa, but when those forests fell to madhouse exploita- tion, the lynch-pin dropped out of the whole agricultural economy. The cebns of mountainsides heaped down upon the valley farms. population migrated. Those ancient' people carried forward the business of living much as we do in Can- ada but they finallv missed out. as we can miss out. the one great law i of survival Soils and forests and j waters are perishable possessions, but they are also renewable posses- sions. They give way to degenera- tion, but they double their neld by regeneration. They can dwindle or they can wax fat. Take a look at j "Brooks, dry and profit- less prairie tundra that leaped to 1 prosperity because someone turned on the water and someone turned This isn't natioti- is subtraction. Is it auv wonder that my good friend. Dr Lowdermilk, vrith a deeo knowledge of 25 coun- tries behind him. could stand be- fore Calgary audiences and say: "In ignorance and wastefuleness. man- kiad has strode across the face of the earth for vears. reaping more than he has planted, and de- stroying what he bas not made. In occupying new lands, man has skimined off the cream and left tnm for the generation to corue. Man tends to destroy the source of his existence. Thus far we have no guarantee that civilization will bring about the suicide of civiliza- tion without the atomic bomb" Perhsps one of the most graphic illustrations lies at oar verj door here in the Palbser Hotel. The Sast Slope watershed forest of the Rock- ies is the most important single stnp of forest treasure in the whole Do- minion. And the reason is that it governs the flow of virtually every river that waters the Western Dlams. It is a cjtadel guarding the 'ramparts of the West's richest pos- irrigation, her hydro- J Servant of Agriculture Lethbridge Experimental Station Cereals, particularly wheat, will alwavs be an important crop in J Southern Alberta and new phases j of experimental work with cereals are always before us The vary- ing conditions of soil and climate in Scuuiem Alberta are found at, the District Experiment Sub-Sta- tions. Therefore, these stations 1 are ideal for variety testing and j fertilizer trials and a certain j amount of this has already j been done. Out of these variety tests come lor most suited to each dis- j tact and the of sub-1 J sauons grow the variSLies that i bean found suitable to their dis-, tricts. Fertilizer tests in- j formation of direct economic vaiue j to the farmers. Tests made to date i indicate that increases in yield can- not be expected from the applica- tion of fertilizer in the area east of Lethbncge. Along the foothills fertilizers have given more prom- ise. These fertilizer tests become in- We hope South Alberta farmers will take advantage of all the weather breaks which may come this season to grow as much food as they can. Livestock feed reserves are low and will have to be supple- mented in every way possible. The sovrine of crops for green- late in the season if the drv weather shoula give way to wet during the summer would help a let. The sowing of cover crop for fall pasture would help, too, la that event. The first noticeable effect on the to a voung healthy stand. iFormal- i alfalfa LS a gracual of the dehyde. i pint to 15 gallons water plant and velionrjcg of the leaves will disinfect the mower If As the disease progresses the leav 1 an old diseased field has been plowed j are small and the stems short and up the roots should be to the plant has a stunted appear- j completely decay before reseeding j If the plant is dug up at this the field 10 alfalfa. The precau- j stage and a cross section of the uons will not prevent the disease j roo; made just oelou- the crowu a but thev will serve to slow down. I dark ring will be found immediate- the spread of it. electric the water levels of I creasmgly important as the mam- the ranchers' wells, and the stabili- j tenance of soil fertility is a prob- lem that is becoming more promi- nent. Associated with the mam- tenance of fertility is the ouesuon (District Experiment Sub-Stations) of increasing the fibre content of the deoleted soil, parucojanj for control. The effect of district. After completing high tv of Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba- But those watershed forests are in a state of subtraction. The Dominion government's records for the ten years 1930-40 show an average debit of acres of an-______ ______ _ _ nual fire damage .and it ought to j crested wneatgrass on the soil is be thirtv thousand acres added being studied at the Xoolefora Sta- rather than lost. No one should i tion. A limited amount of wont load the blame for this on Alberta with other forage crops has been alone. It has been a Dominion- j started at other stations Provincial responsibility, a dread- in order that more attention can pensive piece of procras- be given to the worse with Ccieals and forage crops on the Suo- Stations. F M. (Frank) Chapman, age Ths world desperately ceecs food and it is worth taking every worth while chance to produce it. hand ly when ous orocesses skill" and knowledge. resard to spray painting, which may be carried out at much lower cost of labor tnzin brush- oamuns work, some farmers wno are also good mechanics have built their own paint spray outfits, com- plete with" comoressor paiat tank, air tank, and spray gun. Incidentally, there is consider- able correspondence between farm- ers and the Architect's office con- cerning farm building problems arid in recent vears thousands of blue- prints of b'uilding plans have been issued to farmer applicants. Water Hemlock Deadly Poison Dr. Talbot. provincial veterinar- ian, warns cattle owners against the danger of "Water Hemlock, pois- oning. The trouble usually occurs at this time of year when a short- good fresh grass tempts mouth. convulsions. dif f i c u 11 breathing, increased pulse, paralysis and often death. The symptoms develop so rapidly that little oppor- tunity a given for admfcustrauoa of drugs unless the" are right ac hand. Treatment; usaallr consists of giv-insr the animal large quan- tities of milk, raw linseed oil. melt- ed lard or even bacon grease. IT readily obtainable, a solution of one drain of potassium permanganate aluminum, sui- F- M- CHAPMAN fuly expensive piece tinatson, with the Dominion, doubt- less able to carry the larger portion of the cost. Solution of that long- standing tangle is one of the proba- planted fssh fry in Lake Newell they're taking 400.000 pounds of whitefish to market out of a former coulee PROFITABLE FORESTRY I know a man who planted a sand dune with red pine seedlings 24 years ago. The sand dune wasn't worth a dime an acre. Now he's selling the sand dune in the form of power poles to the Hjdro Com- mission at eight dollars apiece. Old Mother Earth, we must admit, was the inventor of compound interest. 1 la a lake area of Quebec, two biolo- 1 gists took five years to prove beyond ia doubt that a clteao and simple scheme of fertilizing the vegetation conference at Ottawa. What does all this lead to? We can't put Alberta ahead and we can't put Canada ahead by a pro- cess of diluting the natural re- sources. We have reached today a clearly marked crossroads. We can incorporate the soils and waters and wood lands of Alberta into one joint conservation enterprise, with every farmer, beet grower, rancher, every man witn an irrigation ditch, every hydro-electric nower man. every coal and oit man a voluntary shareholder and with the sole ob- ject to keep the natural resources on at least an even keel for the on the trees. They're shooting 40.- generations still to inhabit this 000 geese a year, and because they land. We can do that: or we can shuf- fle along, every man for himself, no man his brother's keeper, each of us operating for his span of life without conscience for his neigh- bor's grandson; and il the irriga- tion ditches con't fill we can call in Bammaker Hatfield. SWEDEN'S EXAMPLE What's needed to place Alberta permanently under tne sky-blue flag of conservation? The same thing tnat Sweden uses to accom- plish one of the world's outstanding jobs in natural resource manage- ment. Of course, Sweden isn't like Alberta; it has two-thirds of its area under forests as against. Al- of lake-bottoms will change a fish- berta's 60.000 square miles, and for- ing water of half-pound trout to a steady crop of two and three- pounders Tals of compound in- terest or the enormous fecundity of Xalure once we study her book of instructions and play the game by her eternal and ber-fivoient rules Now. since uo and down the world. MR. FARMER We give 24-hour service on any make of small gas engine..., See us soon about converting your "washing machine from electric to vice versa. PROMPT, GUARANTEED REPAIRS TO ALL MAKES OF WASHERS Lethbridge Appliances MAYTAG SALES AND SERVICE 317 Eighth Street S. Phone 4456 est induftry is Sweden's chief pur- suit. But the one thing that Swe- den has achieved is a state of mird determination that no man no of men. shall do school in the city he attended the Olds Agricultural School. Then followed about four years at the Lethoncge Experimental Station where he worked in the cereals and forage crop division. His interest in the work resulted in his de- cision to acquire further knowledge and he entered the Ontario Agri- cultural College. Guelph. On gra- recently returned from over- cultural College. Guep. n gra- service with the R.C.A.F. nas duatma: m 1941 ne joined the seas service been adaed to the staff of the Lethbridge Experimental Station. Mr. Chapman was born in Leth- bridge aacf raised on a farm ia Hie R.C.A.F. and after four years ser- vice returned to the staff of the Lethbridge Experimental Station in A.t least have the nucleus of j good weather in early 't for men to rallj to. Our Al- in the fall helps towards best re- teerta division of the Canadian For- suits. estrc- Association, formed last jear. If the building is to be painted renfesents thirtv men of vision ana for the first time, there is an open spirit who seek to encourage choice of the paint to be used, but conservation ideals throughout this in repainting, unless the old paint province. They are not technical has been completely removed with experts, except a few. They repre- a painters blow-torch or paint re- sent wide-eved recognition of the truth that Alberta has every right to live a long tune and needs a Hemlock either destroy plants in the vicinity, and j with this weed believe that regular Estroy them as they ap- salting of the stock helcs considEr- pear or fence them off so" that j ably in reducing the danger, they are not accessible to the stock, j The only safe way to ensure ore- Water Hemlock glows m sloughs vention of loss from Water Hem- and low places in pastures, and j lock poisoning is to keep the cattle along streams and irrigation, ditch-, away from the weed. es. If vou don't know this weed j ask your weed inspector or mumci- When properly handled. flax is pal neldman to describe or show j not hard oa ihe soil, contrary ro you a specimen. the opinion which grew up in the The symptoms of Water Hemlock i early days of nax production on the poisoning are frothing at the prairies, experts say.____________ i THE FARM CALLS _ pamtei __ ___ _ mover down to the bare wood, the paint usea must be of the same kind used the first time Changing the type of paint in succeeding coats frequently results in trouble. Be sure to use a. good quality paint, advises Mr Graves. Good ready-made mixed paints are easily obtainable, and for tne farmer who prefers to mix his own paint and is familiar with the job. the necessary materials are still to be had. White lead in paste form is one of the ___best v.-hite pigments used for out- our side white. Red oxide is frequently for bams and outbuildings, toward the new frontier opened to Linseed oil has for many years been them by soil conservation, and management plan for soils, waters forests, thct will look as good eighty years hence as now. Our Alberta chairman is the manager of the Alberta Wheat Pool, Mr. S. D. Purdy. Western Canada today believes that her great frontiers lie yet ahead. To speak of closed frontiers Is to admSt an atropmed imagina- water control, and forest manage- ment: and all geographical boun- daries are thrown back by the liber- ating power of this new outlook. The West is on the march to new horizons, and when a people thinks that wav. frontiers are no more. A Teiy great man. H. G. Wells, might easilv have been an Albertan of his mental residence be- j the standard substance in for outside In using raw linseed oil for making paint, a proportion of japan drier ir.usi, be added to the mixture prepared _ Dualities and usually does not, re- quire the addition of a drier. Tur- pentine is the best thinner of oil Boiled linseed oil is a oil with better drjmg the soil, or the forests, _. waters that will weaken the ad state of mind might easilv have been an Albertan I P2-nus t no man. no because of his mental residence be- w-wal.y sold a o anj ihing to i tween the mountains of prophecy i "Quid, and to a gallon cf raw sts. or the j and the plains of realistic fact. And paint not more than three iken the ad-1 frnm a mountain ton he said- i PEJ cent of drier shoula a oil hree to be and ior tneir Jong lines of succes- his playground Fjon beyond our vision. Let's listen to John Ruskin's trav of saving if -God has enen us 'the eanh for i our Ihe. It is a great entair. It _ belongs as much to those who come Farm after us as to us. and ..e have no T drill nght bj anything ue do cr neglect to co to involve them in anneces- j Although some persons mai favor say penalties or :o deprive them the fall rather than the spring for 01 benefits uhich are theirs by painting farm busldmga. F. W. right.' But there s a catch to that j Graces, Architect, Central Espcn- i i Swedish plan I spoke of. doesn t j mental Farm, Ottawa, points oui depend on a command of the cen- that there is usually a oppor- government, with threats It is tunify to carry out the v.ork in the common table. These ordinary men are the jealous guardians of the I county Interest and the national interest and It would mean ostra- cism for any man to insist upon his personal profit where the pub- machinery and other jobs in pre- paration for the year's crops have been done. The surface to be painted should be absolutely dry. and after rain, fog or aew should oe gnen time !ic goods stands in question That's to dr. before commencing or con- the state of mind I referred to tinning to paint During cold i Arer.'t we looking for something j damp weather, paints harden more I like that in Alberta? i slowly than in v.arm so that AUTO WHEEL REPAIRS and DISTRIBUTORS Yon can now change your TRACTOR FROM STEEL TO RUBBER We can supply WIDE-BASE RIMS WHEELS (for longer tire mileage) Together With Expert Service. Also Truck Wheels Rims, Pass- enger Wheels. Trailer Axles and Tractor Rims. ARENDS 608 FIRST ST. EAST M4702 V.V.V.V -V.V.V.V v.v.v.v v.v.v.v ft .v.v.v.% vXvXv .sv.v.v. .V.'.V.V. v.v.v.v v.v.v.v vXvXv XvXvX v.v.v.v XvXvX .v.v.v.% .v.v.v.% mm mm FARMS .offer Canadians a chance and a challenge! They offer a chance for IMMEDIATE JOBS -STEADY JOBS too. They also offer jobs for experienced farm workers for mechanically trained workers and any of hers able to help seasonally. Then, there is the challenge to fight off starvation threatening many nations. JOIN IN THE FIGHT AGAINST HUNGER JOBS ARI AVAILABLE IN YOUR DISTRICT Hi Apply today for work on the farm to YOUR NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICE PROVINCIAL AGRICULTURAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR HUMPHREY MITCHELL Minuter of Labour A. MacNAMARA Deputy Minister SPAPJLRRRCH ;