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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 11, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE IETHBRIDGE HERALD Monday, Mciy 11, 1970 Anthony Westell Objective: A Model Nation The question of possible changes within confederation should be con- sidered in the context of mak i n g Canada a united nation and a model nation for the world. That is the tone the Honourable James Richardson set for the important enquiry taking place in Lethbridge this week. An enquiry means that those par- ticipating do not need to take sides a proposal but can explore it with freedom to accept, reject, and amend. Tims with the overriding con- sideration of a united nation that could be a model for the world al- most anything is possible except per- haps acquiescence in the way things are at present. There may be nothing wrong with the present provincial boundaries but there is something wrong in the way they are related in the federation. If there isn't something wrong then the different parts of the country should not so often seem suspicious of one another. The overcoming of what keeps people from feeling Ca- nadian ahead of being provincial or regional should, be uppermost. If this can be accomplished by join- ing provinces or dividing that should be done. Some Canadians naively hoped some bold thinking about such possibilities might have been done in the constitutional con- ferences. Premier W. A. C. Bennett of British Columbia did introduce the idea of a new map of Canada but it was largely treated as a joke. It has become abundantly apparent that no new thinking of that sort is likely to come out of constitutional confer- ences us at present convened because of the political commitments which the participants all elected offi- Fresh thinking can only come out of enquiries such as the one now un- der way in the city. Mr. Richardson propose.d that the impetus given here be carried forward through the estab- lishment of a council. That might well be the upshot of the conference al- though it has not been structured with the idea of proposing or taking any action. Citizens of Lethbridge and district have a unique opportunity to share in an enquiry which could be history making. It could be the beginning of a process of bringing about a recon- federation or of making Canadians more concerned about making the present confederation work to the sat- isfaction of all and as an example to the world. Acting University of Lethbridge President William Beckel noted at the opening session that too often it is necessary to move out of southern Alberta for pertinent discus- sion of political issues but for once people have come here for such a purpose. Full advantage should be ta- ken of this opportunity to get expo- sure to the ideas that will be ex- pressed. Nixon Nixed A rather new note was struck by a commander-in-chief of battling forces when U.S. President Richard Nixon said at his recent press conference that history would have to judge whether the American cause in Viet- nam had been worthwhile. Leaders ordinarily ooze confidence about both the Tightness of their cause and its ultimate successful conclusion. Confidence about either would be hard to corne by in face of the ex- tensive criticism of the cause and the obvious inability to see any evidence of the windup of the war. It behooved the President, therefore, to take a humble stance. Yet this stance, while calculated to cool really does nothing to resolve the problem. To'allow even the slightest doubt about the worth- whileness of the undertaking in South- east Asia adds to the anger and re- sentment over the loss of life and waste of resources. It is difficult to understand how the President can expect to rally the na- tion behind him to continue the war. There may be a majority in suppcxt of the war although that is ques- tionable but the very fact that there is a great rift in the nation over this issue means that no all-out effort can be expected for any final push let alone for a long pull. The President may be right in say- ing that the United States is not in danger of revolution. It is to be de- voutly hoped he has made the cor- rect assessment. But there is no doubt at all that the country is divided and in danger of serious dislocation. Mr. Nixon gave a good performance, at the press conference. It may not have been sufficient, however, to off- set the damage done by the decision to send troops into thing that has escalated the opposi- tion at home as well as the war in Indochina. Ten Provinces To Five? From The Ottawa Journal TTHIS week's meeting at Lethbridge, called to discuss "One Prairie Prov- ince? A Question for faces dreary statistics and far-reaching prob- lems. The meeting, sponsored by the Univer- sity of Lethbridge and the Lethbridge Her- ald, includes senior federal and provincial .ministers and economists, educationists and related authorities. The overriding from fig- ures like these: The prairie population increase between the 1961-84 average and the year 1969 was 7.4 per cent. Saskatchewan gained only 2.8 per cent in those five years. In the same period Ontario gained 16 per cent. Low- est of all the provinces was Nova Scotia, up only 2.1 per cent. In 1869 average weekly wages and sal- aries in industry were in Mani- toba. in Saskatchewan and in Albfcili. Jn Ontario the average was in Nova Scotia, With good markets and prices, the av- erage prairie grower would have antici- pated about an acre from wheat this year. Instead he is offered ?6 an acre to turn wheat land into summer fallow or if he turns il to perennial forage. The loss of income will be very large so far as this year's crop is concerned and the sale of stored wheat is uncer- tain, there being enough on hand to sup- ply four years' normal exports. The prairie provinces share with the Maritdmes a sense of misfortune or at least regional disparity. The prairie rate of unemployment jump- ed from 3.7 per cent of the work force in March, 1969, to 5.2 per cent in the same month this year. In the Maritimes the rate was 10.8, unchanged from a year ago. In Ontario it was only 4.6 per cent. There is a tendency in the more pros- perous areas of Canada to look upon the Atlantic provinces or prairie complaint as tiresome blackmail. This is sometimes tiresome intolerance. Why should those areas not be coir.plaining- their society and economy? A Maritime Union Study headed by Dr. J. J. Dcutsch (no dreamer, he) heard evi- dence Uiat provincial civil service costs could be cut as much as 40 per cent if the three provinces agreed on union. (New- foundland, too, might join the club.) Pos- sibly the conference at Lctbbridge will hear comparable talk. In each case the prov- inces (PEI or Saskatchewan) would fear losing themselves in the union. But econ- omic privation or the unreasonable cost of maintaining provincial independence may eventually lead to such tidying up the ten-province nation into five: British Columbia, the Prairies, Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes. Savings in administra- tive costs would be felt too by the fed- eral government, and conceivably five provinces of more equal size, population and prosperity would simplify the tasks of Confederation and unity. It is not easy now to assess the wis- dom, practicality or likelihood of such a development, but talks such as those in the Maritimes and this week in Leth- bridge are useful adventures into new thinking. The paradox is that while these matters ought not to be rushed, it would be a thousand pities if the present series of constitutional conferences finally accom- plished necessary changes only to have then to re-argue the whole thing again to reduce from ten to five. Is it possible that the two operations should and could be accomplished at the one time: reducing ten provinces to five and bringing the'constitution into the jet and nuclear age? A nation cannot be pre- served these days to the slow march mu- sic of pornp and circumstance, nor with too costly a heed to bygone sentiment and borders made by ox-cart and sailing ship. Political Pressures Erode Oil Policy Back Sealers By Doug Walker rpHE Wadsteins and the Walkers sit in the back pews at church. We sit near the rear even when we aren't late. This is not because McKillop United Church people are seated alphabetically front to we could have a choice of seats farther to the front if we wished. I don't know why the Wadsteins prefer the back location but our reason is that Elspeth considers it a good vantage point from which to look around to see who is present. Personally I consider it a poor position for that purpose, not being able to recognize people by their hats or back of their heads. When 1 seo the preacher sizing up the house from his lookout beside the pulpit I'm tempted to suggest that ha invite Els- peth along occasionally so that she can have a really good view. I'd even sit well forward so that she could keep an eye on she should know by now that I'IK pretty well behaved in church. (Second of four articles) rpHE business principle at A the bottom of Canada's na- tional oil policy has been to sell dear and buy cheap. We sold last year bar- rels a day of crude oil and pe- troleum products from the western provinces into the U.S. at an average price of a barrel (35 We bought barrels a day mainly from Venezuela and the Middle East into East- em Canada at an average of a barrel. It's been a cosy arrangement for nine years since the Con- servative government drew a line down the Ottawa Valley and enforced a gentleman's agreement without legal force that Canadian oil would be used on the west, foreign oil on the east. Western producers have en- joyed the world's top prices in the United States and a protect- ed market from Ontario to Brit- ish Columbia. Quebec and the Atlantic prov- inces have enjoyed the cheaper prices of foreign fuel for their autos, homes and industries. But now the arrangement is crumbling. Market forces and political pressures are eroding the policy and the oil interests are finding it harder and hard- er to behave like gentlemen. Cheap foreign gas is trickling a c r o s s the Ottawa River line into Ontario to undercut Cana- dian prices. And Canadian oil is .surging across the border into the United States, disrupting the controlled markets and poli- tical alliances. The governments in Ottawa and Washington strive to build new dikes against the black tide. Canadian oil millionaires, left-wing nationalists and Presi- dent Richard Nixon find them- selves in a strange alliance to persuade Ottawa' to change its policy. The. federal cabinet, the ma- jor oil companies, Quebec and Eastern Canada, with some help from New England politi- cians including the Kennedy clan, defend the present posi- tion. Conflicting interest s often conceal the scramble for dol- lars behind patriotic slogans. International oil giants see Canada as just one counter in their world-wide manoeuvres. The rising political power of consumers in Canada and the United Slates opposes both in- dustry monpolists and govern- ments. The pressures on Ottawa, in fact, are becoming so complex as to rival the legendary oil politics in Washington, D.C. But as the federal cabinet prepares for negotiations with the United States on continen- tal energy resources, it must seek to sort out the pressures, balance them off and find a new national policy on which to base its bargaining. The market forces disrupting [he established patterns are perhaps the hardest to master and contain, but they work both for and against Canada's dollar interests. Canadian oil is not cheap. It cannot compete with Hie vast pools in the Middle East, or even with the crude from Vene- zuela. The prosperity of the Al- you stop saying 'at last they'll quit calling it MY war' and go to sleep bcrta industry, and the incen- tives to invest billions of dol- lars in exploration, depends on having a protected market. Part of that market has been in Ontario, west of the Ottawa Valley line. But cheap foreign gas has been leaking across the line from the east in increas- ing volume, cutting prices at the pump and putting severe pressure on competitors. Montreal brokers buy the gas direct from Europe, the Carib- bean or from the end of pro- duction runs in eastern Cana- dian refineries, and ship it into Ontario at cents-a-gallon cheap- er than the western product. During 1968, the leakage across the line was bar- rels a day. Last year it rose to barrels. In January and February, before the ice broke for the shipping season, trucks were bringing in barrels a day. Western producers fear the trickle will become a flood later this year, as competition breaks down the barriers. For one reason, capacity to refine western oil in Ontario has hardly kept pace with de- mand. Public concern about pollution holds back construc- tion, and companies may hesi- tate to invest up to million in a new plant in the face of foreign competition. Westerners are concerned also that new refineries being built in the eastern provinces, often wjth multi-million dollar grants in development aid from Ottawa, will produce more fuel than they can sell, and will be- gin to pour it into Ontario. The Alberta government and the major oil companies are urging Ottawa to hold the val- ley line at all costs, and one of the policy issues tor the federal government is whether to put legal force behind the gentle- men's agreement. For the western Canadian oil industry, the reverse "situation is true in dealings across the U.S. border line. Canada enlarged its foothold in the wealthy U.S. market in 1967 by.making a secret deal with Washington. In return for a presidential permit to loop the interprovincial pipeline from Alberta into the booming Chicago area, Ottawa agreed to try to impose voluntary con- trols on Canadian oil flowing into the United States, so as not to disrupt the U.S. industry. The exchange of diplomatic notes fixed the target for Ca- nadian oil exports to ithe Uni- ted States, east of the R o c k y Mountains (west remained an open market) at barrels a day in 1968, barrels in 1969 and barrels in 1970. It looked like a pretty good deal in 1967, and the National Energy Board administered the policy of voluntary restraint by moral suasion and arm twisting of the western producers ti> keep them reasonably within bounds. But Canadian oil sells for 40 to 70 cents a barrel cheaper than U.S. oil in the northern states. And as U.S. refineries increased their demand for the attractive Canadian product, restraints began to break down under competitive pressures. In January and February this year, exports jumped to barrels a day almost the lim- it of pipeline capacity and more than barrels above the agreed levels. Canada was no longer keep- ing its part of the 1967 bargain. The U.S. government came un- der protest and pressure from its own oil producers and, im- portantly, from Venezuela which" feared it was losing sales to Canadian oil. While oil is im- portant to Canada, it is vital to the Venezuelan economy. Washington asked Ottawa to reimpose voluntary controls. Ottawa replied that it was un- realistic to try to cut off the U.S. refiners' demand. The truth was that if anyone was going to impose controls, Ottawa did not want to do the difficult job. It much preferred to see Washington handing out the ration slips and fighting off the protests. Washington sent Under-Secre- tary of State for Economic Af- fairs Phil Tresize-the veteran diplomatic negotiator who worked out the auto free trade pact with Ottawa, and there were weeks of ne- gotiations to try to fix an agreed level of Canadian oil sales. Nixon wanted to cut back to the original agreement of 000 barrels a day in 1970. Ot- tawa said the quota would have to be at least to meet U.S. demand and make an agreement workable. Nixon finally made the uni- lateral decision to hold imports from Canada at barrels a day through this year. In Canada, this was widely interpreted by nationalists as economic blackmail to try to force Canada into an unfavor- able continental market deal. The Canadian government, knowing that it was doing far better under the Nixon quota than it deserved under the 1967 agreement, nevertheless took the hyproeritical position that mandatory U.S. controls were contrary to the spirit and style of earlier voluntary agree- ments. In fact, Nixon's policy was reasonably satisfactory to all the interests concerned, as a temporary device until a long- term policy can be worked out. (Toronto Star Syndicate) Joseph Kraft Contradictory Arrangements For Widening The War WASHINGTON Principal figures .in the administra- tion are now planting all kinds of stories to justify the latest widening of the war. And not surprisingly, these "explana- tions" range from fear the Communists would make Cam- bodia an invincible redoubt to hopes of dealing them a hard blow that would force serious peace negotiations. For, as these contradictory arguments suggest, the real crisis has been in Washington, not Southeast Asia. This coun- try floundered into Cambodia because of the weakness of men who knew much better. Letters To The Editor Consider, first, Secretary of Defence Melvin Laird. He is a politico of rare intelligence and resource. He is the chief archi- tect of the Vietnamization pol- icy for steadily scaling down this country's role in the war. And he has reinforced that scaling down by a defence bud- get that tended to militate against other alternatives. But Mr. Laird is a politician pure. He has never done any- thing else himself, and he is pleased to think that politics is the master of all subjects. He based his scheme for scaling down the fighting entirely on the political needs of this coun- try. Otherwise he left all the Vindicating LBJ? Two years ago throughout the U n i t e d States and the world were very criti- cal of President Johnson. "L. B. J., how many' children did you kill today" was a popu- lar slogan. The recent actions by President Nixon expanding the war in Vietnam has made President Johnson look good in comparison. P r e s i dent Johnson stopped the bombing of North Vietnam which lead to the beginning of peace talks between U.S.A. and North Vietnam. Nixon has started bombing North Viet- nam again. Tt fi possible. that the North Vietnam delegation will now walk out of the ne- gotiations. By not appointing a replace- ment for Mr. Lodge at the peace negotiations, Nixon ac- tually sabotaged these negotia- tions. In spite of the location of Cambodia and Laos, Johnson did not interfere with these countries. Nixon not only, over- threw the legitimate govern- ment of Cambodia through the CIA, but also ordered troops into that country, without even request from the puppet re- gime in Cambodia. I am sure Mr. Nixon will go down in history as a president who through his interventionat and war mongering activities tried to remove the stigma from the name of his predeces- sor. SANTOKH S. ANANT, Ph.D. Lethbridge. Tourist Attraction? Anyone who has recently driven about two miles east of Lethbridge and happened to glance on tho north side of Highway No. 3, will probably turn right around and go back. Why? A pile of wrecked cars! How would you feel as a tourist driving into a city in which one of the main industries is tour- ism, and be welcomed by a junkyard? This is also a com- mon example of pollution, This distasteful eyesore should not be tolerated by the people living in Lethbridge or the area surrounding. We know something can be dono about this! So why not give our tour- ists a lovely welcome with clean fields and at the same time curb the problem of pollu- tion. H. I. BAKER SCHOOL, Grade 7 Social Studies Class. Coaldale, strategic matters to the armed services. Far from gathering round his own office a group of independent strategy analysts, he vested these functions in a corps of right-wing clowns un- der Assistant Secretary War- ren Nutter. So w h e n the military served up the plan for widening the war, he did not have available the critical analysis that armed Secretaries Clark Clifford and Robert McNamara against the services. Mr. Laird was naked to his enemies. He seems not to have questioned the plan on military grounds at all. And he was lucky, as his retrospective special pleading now makes plain, to have headed off pro- posals for an amphibious opera- tion against North Vietnam. Then there is Secretary of State William Rogers. He is a man of strong judgment and good common sense. He knows that nothing which happened on the ground in Cambodia could seriously affect the security of the United States. And he want- ed very badly to contain war. But Mr. Rogers took office with little knowledge of for- eign affairs. He has not done the work required for a grasp of detailed problems. Rather, he has tended to delegate to subordinates. And that meant, in the present case, to Under Secretary U. Alexis Johnson. As everybody but Mr. Rogers seems to know, however, Mr. Johnson has always been the Pentagon's man in the State Department. His idea of plan- ning for a problem is to work out contingency arrangements for use of military force. He doesn't begin to know what it means to work out a large pol- icy. So when the crunch came, State had no major course of diplomatic actions to propose. It had nothing. Still another case in point is the case of Henry Kissinger, policy adviser. Dr. Kissinger understands that the best way out of the war is through a ne- gotiated settlement. He is not under the illusion, as so many of the military and their tri- bunes in the press seem to be, that enemy headquarters in Cambodia is a military instal- lation a Fort Leavenworth. Nor does he share the connect- ed illusion that enemy supply lines can be seriously damaged by bombing operations or bor- der raids. But Dr. Kissinger is the kind of fellow who thinks in terms of big production. He needs to build a cathedral of theory to discover the first article of his faith. He approaches practical problems through highly ab- stract models supposed to en- compass all possibilities. Early on, he got hooked on the view that a judicious application of force would push the other side to negotiate. He has not yet re- assembled all the pieces in a way that makes it possible for him to change his mind. So he let the Cambodian projects go by without truly intensive analysis as a judicious ap- plication of force. And now he is stuck with the story that it will promote a negotiated set- tlement. To be sure, these advisers did not make the final decision themselves. The president did that. And the weakness that made him so eager to accept the military's proposals was apparent in.his speech. Who else would compare the pres- ent action witli the historic deeds of Roosevelt, Eisenhow- er, and Kennedy? But Mr. Nixon's unavowed self-doubts his inner convic- tion that people wanted, as he put it in a moment of highest candor, to kick him is an old story. Nobody ever thought he would be a strong president, able to stand up alone to the pressures of the military. What is sad, and what truly explains what has hap- pened recently, is that his chief foreign policy advisers have failed him. And unless they be- gin to shape up, to act in ac- cord with their serious respon- sibilities, then the widening of the war will continue and the patch ahead will be very bad indeed. (Field Enterprises, Inc.) LOOKING BACKWARD THROUGH THE HERALD millers have ceived word that wheat has been advanced another 35 cents per bushel to by order of the wheat board. Calgary and Fer- nie Railway Company will te- gin laying steel _for the com- pletion of the line. When com- pleted the line will open up vir- gin territory together with tap- ping the Turner Valley oil fields and the Elk Valley coal deposits. first large- scale attack of the war against France's Maginot Line was launched simultaneously with the invasion of the Low Coun- tries. railways are send- ing more equipment into Win- nipeg to help with the evacua- tion of women, children and old people as flood waters continue' to inundate sections of the city. 1960 coins are costing the transit system from to a day, as nickels and dimes can be dropped directly into the fare box. Canadian banks' arc discounting Ameri- can silver at four per cent plus two per cent for handling. Herald 504 7th SI. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Published 1905 1934, by Hon. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mall Registration Number 0012 Member of The Canadian Press and the Canadian Dally Ncwspupw Association and the Audit Bureau of Circulation! CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor and Publisher .THOMAS II. ADAMS, General Manactr JOE BALLA WILLIAM HAY Managing Editor Assoclalo Editor ROY F. MILES DOUGLAS K. WALKEI Advertising Manager Editorial Pago Editor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;