Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 6, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta
WtdMtday, May f, THI UTHBRIDGE HERALD 30 Canada NEW STAMP This new postage stamp, honoring Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the explorer and fur trader who completed the first east-west crossing of North Amer- ica in 1793, will go on sale June 25. The design for the is taken from a photograph of a rock in the Pacific where Mackenzie left the inscription: Alex Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, 22nd. July 1793. Influx Of American Professors Raises Widespread Alarm Canadians Fighting To Reduce U.S. Domination By CLIVE COCKING London Observer Service VANCOUVER Life under the shadow of the American co- lussus has meant a constant straggle for Canada to preserve a distinctive national identity. Canadian concern in this struggle has long focused on the extent of American ownership of domestic industry and the de- gree of cultural influence through the mass media. But lately the problem has acquired a troubling new dimension lor Canadians. The massive influx in recent years of American professors to teach in the nation's universi- ties has raised widespread alarm. It has been a frequently debated topic both on and off the campus this past year. Ca- nadian novelist Hugh MacLen- nan (author of The Watch That Ends The Night) has gone so far as to declare that the in- flux represents "a programme for national suicide." And he is not alone in that view. Two professors of English at Ottawa's Carleton Univers i t y, Dr. Robin Mathews and Dr. James brought the is- sue to the fore a year ago when they said that the inflow of for- eign professors had become invasion." They pointed out that from 1961 to the percentage of foreign born professors in Canada had doubled until it stands at 51 per cent of the total. But, more important, they argued that, with Americans forming the majority of such professors, there was a notice- able tendency in Canadian uni- versities for courses and re- search to be too heavily orien- tated towards American ma- terial and concerns, thus de- priving Canadian students in- siRhts into their own culture. Since then the issue has split the Canadian academic com- munity into two factions: the radical nationalists, followers of Professors Mathews and Steele, who would enforce citizenship requirements on university teachers in Canada; and the liberals who either see no prob- lem or believe it will solve it- self naturally and who, in any case, believe the most import- ant thing is for Canada to main- tain free trade in scholars. As with any emotional issue, the debate has ranged from the profoundly serious aspects to the relatively trivial. At pres- ent the controversy centres on the appointment of an Ameri- can professor to a three-man panel responsible for choosing the winners of the Governor- General's prestigious literary awards. Dr. Warren Tallman, Professor of English at the Uni- versity of British Columbia, was attacked as a "cultural imper- ialist" by radicals despite the fact that he has resided in Can- ada for 15 years and shown con- siderable interest hi Canadian literature. The radical nationalists, how- ever, have produced much more powerful ammunition for then- attack. A short tune ago, the British Columbia Graduate Stu- dent Association claimed that hiring practices of Cana d i a n universities disc riminate against native born and edu- c a t e d academics, and that Soviet Union Spreads Its Industry By DEV MURARKA London Observer Service MOSCOW The Baltic re- publics of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia hold a lead in the Soviet Union in the manufac- ture of sophisticated engineer- ing and electronic goods. They also conduct more sophisticated experiments in management of Industry. In many cases the Baltic republics provide the testing ground for new con- cepts in industry before they are applied on a national scale. Part of the reason for all this is that ail the Baltic States have an abundance of very highly skilled manpower, used to the more complex machines and concepts of Western technol- ogy. When the Baltic States were merged with the S o v i e t Union in 1940 they were al- ready in the process of indus- trialization. It-is claimed by So- viet experts that between 1940 and 1969 industrial product ion THIS IS A MUSK-OX AND CALF. THEY ARE PART OF THE ARCTIC WILDLIFE WE'RE IN DANGER OF DESTROYING.- Are we going to ruin the Arctic? We probably will if the short- term prize of oil and mineral wealth outweighs the damage done to the environment. Mining can ruin the delicate balance of northern nature.. Precious wildlife, the ways of native people and the soil itself are in danger. Find out what's at stake and how we can save it! In your Lethbridge Herald Weekend, in Lithuania increased 25-fold. One important problem in So- viet industry is where to put new factories. The planners have been urging that concen- tration of industry in bigger ci- ties must be discouraged. In- stead, they are in favor ol smaller plants in small towns which have a reserve of labor. In their view this will reduce heavy overheads, but they also have sociological factors in mind. New industries, provided they are carefully planned, will help to regenerate provinc i a 1 life and cheek the pressure to drift to the bigger cities, which are overcrowded and have ious housing and other social problems. It seems that quietly but suc- cessfully Lithuania has been ex- perimenting along these lines for some years. Till 1958 the construction of industry was concentrated in the three ma- jor cities of Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipeda. They accounted for nearly 61 per cent of industrial EATON'S A Gift For Mother.. Chantilly Pleose Mother on "Her Day" with the delicate fra- grance of Chantilly and meet "Miss Chantilly" who will be in the cosmetic deportment with a perfumed invitation card for you. And with every purchase of 4.00 or more of Chantilly you will receive a }Vj our.ce bottle of Chantilly Eau De Toilette without charge. Mother will be delighted with a gift of. Chantilly. Eau de Toilette Spray Mist. Vh oi.. Each............. Toilet Water. 2 oz. Each Dusting Powder. 5 oz. Each Body Cream Dispenser. Each Perfume. 4 oz. with Stick Perfume. Vt oz. Each Travel Kit. Each........ Cream Sachet. V4 oz. Each liquid Skin Sachet. 4 V, oz. Each.................... O.UU Cotmetlti, Main Fleer Mother's Day Is May WtJi! luy Line 323-8811 For Adv.rriwd Good.. Call 317.ISS1 Far Information. Shop Eaton's Thursday and Friday From 9 'Til 9. labour and 66 per cent of gross industrial output in the repub- lic. This meant, however, that other smaller towns of Lithu- ania had little share in the in- dustrial prosperity. It also ac- centuated the pressure of mi- gration to the three cities. The unique feature of Baltic urban life is that most of the cities have no more than inhabitants. The problem was how to regenerate these small town communities, provide jobs for surplus labor there and yet maintain a rapid growth rate in industrialization. PERSPECTIVE PLAN A perspective plan for a per- iod up to 1980 was drawn up with emphasis on proper re- gional distribution and location of new industries. It was cal- culated that by 1980 the popula- tion level of these small towns will be to people. At the top of this plan was a ban on building new industries in Vilnius and Kaunas. Even ex- pansion of existing plants was to be undertaken only with the permission of the Republic's Council of Ministers. The first step was to switch manufacture of simple items from the bigger factories to smaller towns. The old factories were not left idle but their existing plants machinery and production switched to more complex items. The total share of the three big cities in industrial produc- tion has now declined to 55 per cent from 61 per cent. The plan- ners are confident that in the next 10 years it will decline even more. There has been a corresponding decline in labour previously engaged in house- hold chores, from in 1958 to in 1968. Yet the planners consider it only a be- ginning in the industrialization of small towns. In the engineering industry, it is becoming imperative to man- ufacture one or two basic mod- els of a given machine and for this purpose specialized ma- chine tools should be made at small and medium plants rath- er than at gigantic factories. The planners believe the siting of a plant which requires about 600 to 700 workers in a small town is almost ideal. The aim should be to improve the struc- ture of industry and to stop set- ting up new plants for compo- site production. Research, de- signing and other technological help should be made available to small entrprises by tlie big- ger insti t u t i o n s, and it is thought the solution may be to have one large centre for these purposes for a number of small- er factories. Territorial planning and eco- nomic effectiveness of siting the productive forces should be speeded up as much as pos- sible, say the planners, indicat- ing at feast one aspect cf the future structure of Soviet in- dustry. SOBER REMEDY LONDON (OP) Drivers who drink, but want to stay in- Side the legal blood alcohol limit, should take a shot of yo- ghurt before taking to the road, experts at Chelsea Science Col- lege report. During tests car- ried out for a British pub own- ers' group, they found that yo- ghurt can reduce levels of alco- 10! in the blood by about 65 per i cent. A meal can reduce alco- hol by around 70 per cent. I young Canadians are now hav- ing difficulty in obtaining posi- tions in their own universities. In a brief presented to the an- nual meeting of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, the graduates said that advanced degrees were awarded by Canadian universi- ties in 19C7 but of the 2.611 teachers hired by Canadian uni- versities in 19G8, only 362 were Canadians. Of the remainder, were American, 514 were British and 722 came from oth- er countries. There is little doubt here that evidence of such disparity can be found in most Canadian uni- versities, particularly the new- er ones. But what most alarms Canadians is that foreign pro- fessors, especially Americans, are concentrated in the social science and humanities depart- ments, the vital areas for trans- mission of culture. It is pointed out that Toronto's York Univer- sity has 15 Americans in its so- ciology department and only one Canadian; Americans hold 44 per cent of the University of Calgary political science posi- tions; McMaster University has only one Canadian in its politi- cal science department; and at Simon Fraser University only three of 24 history teachers, 10 of 34 economics "teachers and four of 23 political science and anthropology teachers are Ca- nadian. But the greatest objection, ac- cording to observers, lies in the fact that American professors too often are either ignorant of the differences in the Canadian culture or make no effort to recognize these in their work. Dr. Walter Young, head of the political science department at the University of British Co- lumbia explains: "Canadian uni- versities are deficient in Cana- dian content not by design, but by virtue of the fact that the people giving many of the courses cannot draw on Cana- dian experience because they are not Canadian. More over, American scholars natural- ly bring their research interests from the U.S., so there is a pau- city of research in Canadian subjects. And students, there- fore, don't have the same in- centive to pursue interests that are basically Canadian." American professors have flocked to Canada as much to escape their nation's internal strife as to grasp career op- portunities. And it is widely rec- ognized here that, over the past few decades, without Ameri- cans and other foreign profes- sors, Canadian univers i t i e s would not have been able to maintain standards and expand as rapidly as they have done. But now they are no longer needed in such great numbers as Canadian graduate schools now produce enough academics to fill posts in most fields. This was the basis of British Columbia graduate students' charge of discrimination in uni- ver s i t y appointments. They roundly criticized university ad- ministrations for relying on the "old boy" network in their hir- ing, under which depart m e nt heads tend to concentrate their search for new staff at their old universities, rather than adver- tising vacancies widely. Such a system, the students argued, works against young Canadian academics. As a solution, Professors Mathews and Steele have urg- ed the passage of immediate legislation reserving all univer- sity administrative posts for Ca- nadian citizens and further "hortatory" legislation urging universities to develop depart- ments with a two-thirds Cana- dian majority. Their proposals have yet to receive the back- ing of official academic bodies. Professor Mathews puts this down to the "colonial mental- ity" of Canadian academics, pointing out that the problem is virtually unique to Canada and that almost every other country has some form of citi- zenship restriction in university staffing. On their part, his op- ponents reject the proposals as smacking too much of "Mc- Carthyism." In spite of this, the campaign to "Canadianize" the universi- ties appears to be growing. Three universities have recent- ly taken independent measures to reduce foreign staff. Perhaps more significant, student groups at universities in Quebec, On- tario and British Columbia have swung behind the move- ment and begun exerting pres- sure on university administra- tions. LTake 2 Aspirin Tablets 2. Sit down for a few minutes 3. Close your eyes and rest ASPIRIN HELPS YOU FEEL BETTER IN MINUTES! FASTREIICF HEADACHES COLDS Aspirin Is the Registered Trade Mark of The Bayer Company, Limited, Aurora, Ontario ON'S Half-Price! 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