Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 4, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta
-Monday, May 4, 1970 THE IETHESID3E HEtALO Speech Handicapped Mail Service By BELL LINGARD Speech Therapist Lethbridgc Health Unit The largest group of excep- tional children found in our schools today are the speech handicapped. Recent figures would place the numbers as high as five per cent of the school age population although 2.5 to 3.5 per cent seems to be the more accepted level. Who are the speech handi- capped and what is the nature of their defect? One rule of thumb definition that appears to answer the question is that any individual's speech may be considered defective if more at- tention is paid to how he speaks than to what he says. In other words any significant detrac- tion from what the speaker is communicating to his commu- nicative effort is considered de- viant. In any concept of defective speech we must consider the listener and the speaker. We must take into account the lis- teners reactions to what he hears and sees while the speak- er is engaged in oral verbal production. From the speakers point of view, he may subjec- tively consider his speech de- fective il he is particularly ap- prehensive or self conscious of small deviations or assumed deviations in his manner of speaking. On an objective level we may consider speech to be defective if any of the following charac- teristics are present to a signifi- cant degree: 1. If it can not be easily heard (assuming normal hearing on the listeners 2. If it is not readily under- standable. 3. If it is not vocably pleas- ant. 4. If specific sound produc- tion (vowel, consonant or diph- thong) is deviant. 5. If the speech production is labored or has neither accented rhythm, stress, quality of tone or changes in pitch. 6. If the production is not appropriate to the speakers age, sex or physical develop- ment. 7. If it is linguistically defi- cient. 8. H the speakers vocal pro- duction is visibly unpleasant. OTHER TYPES What are the types of speech defects? Defective speech may be classified either by type or more practically by categories of speech defective individuals. By type of defect there are commonly four major cate- gories: 1. Defects of articulation or sound production 2: Defects of voice production 3. Defects of speech rhythm (stuttering or 4. Language dysfunction which includes delayed speech and aphasia. If wo categorize on the basis of individuals with speech de- fects we may include the follow- ing categories: 1. Articulation defects includ- ing distortions, omissions or substitutions of the sounds com- prising speech. 2. Defective voice production which includes deviations of voice quality, pitch, loudness, etc. 3. Defective rhythm (stutter- ing and 4. Delay in speech develop- 5. Speech patterns associated with cleft palate. 6. Speech patterns associated with cerebral palsy 7. Language function im- provements associated with cerebral damage 8. Speech patterns associated with defective hearing. There is also a notably high- er proportion of males to fe- males with defective speech. This difference begins to show at the primary grade level and continues throughout the school attendance age levels. There ap- pears to be a number of explan- ations for these differences in incidence. One is that in gen- eral, deviations from "normal" are found in greater number of males. Another explanation lies in rate of proficiency in speech development. It has long been recognked that girls begin to talk earlier and achieve a high- er level of articulation ability sooner than boys. This gap in ability exists lor at least the first ten years of life. The causes of defective speech may be many and va- ried. For convenience, three general categories may be con- sidered: 1. Organic causes. A pbyscal defect may at the outset of a speech difficulty be shown to be the major contributing fac- tor in the individuals speech patterns. 2. Environmental causes. The greatest percentage speech defective children have normal speech mechanisms. Because children learn to vocalize and articulate language by ear, they will learn to speak with any faults that exist in their speech environment unless they have reason to have a negative atti- tude to what they hear. 3. Psychogenic causes. Heac- tion by. children to maladjust- ments in their parents and oth- ers around them may also be cause for defective speech. It is of great importance to assess all of these factors be- fore arriving at a conclusion as to the cause of defective speech in any individual case. This, then is a brief look at defective speech, its nature, in- cidence and causes. Of course much is left unsaid and much is as yet unknown. However, the fact remains that a signifi- cant proportion of our popula- tion is affected by this truly most human of disabilities, and these people warrant our con- cern and best efforts to im- prove their situation. Have you ever wondered what happens to your letters after you put them in a mail box? On a certain schedule a man comes in a truck to pick them up and take them to the Post Office to be sorted. All the mail is put on a big table. Stamps are always placed on the right. Next the letters are bimdled together and put through a machine which cancels the stamps. They are then put into the slots with the name of the state or prov- ince to which the letter is ad- dressed. For example Kalispel, it would be put into the U.S.A. slot. From there they are put in locked bags, with the names of the places where they are going taped to the bag on a tag. The letters for Lethbridge are put in places marked blocks, avenues, and streets. Each mailman has a case. He puts the letters for each house in his service area places. Most of the mail goes in his mail bag and the rest is put in about two other bags which arc deliv- ered by truck to several metal boxes. These are called drop boxes. When the mailman needs more mail he comes to them to get it. PARCELS When parcels are mailed they are brought in and sorted into Audio-Visual Aids THE PLACE OF THE "Writ- ten Language" in The "Voix et Images de France" Program. By NICOLAS PATSON Winston Churchill A considerable body of evi- dence has been amassed by lin- guists in support of tire claim that language is primarily a matter of speech. To the extent that writing is a sys- tem of representing the sound system of a language, the writ- ten code presupposes the prior existence of speech. The audio-visual units (1-32) provide students with constant opportunity to develop their fa- cility in understanding the spo- ken language and progressively increase the range of their ex- pressive abilities in that lan- guage. At Unit 6, dictation ex- ercises are introduced and con- tinued, one for each unit. The dictations introduce the system of French orthography and pro. vide extensive practice in the rudiments of wilting. In each dictation there is (1) a list of graphemes letters or letter groups) for example: a, on, -che that constitute the point of concentration of the dicta- tion, (2) key words (words con- taining sound symbol rela- tionships) which serve as mod- els for subsequent spellings and (3) a class of words which rep- sent orthographical irregular- ities and a small number of idio m a t i c expressions which are learned as orthographic units. It should be noted that all these are known to the students in the spoken language before tbey are introduced in the dic- tations; consequently meaming presents no problem. The stu- dents will also understand the dictation sentences which are based on elements of the spo- ken language already acquired. The procedures are- as fol- lows: (1) are elicited orally in a sentence and pro- nounced by the students (2) then they are written by the teacher (3) read by the students (4) written by the students (5) read again by the stu- dents. When these steps have been completed the teacher dictates sentences that contain the sound-symbol correspondences just presented. The dictations provide the Teachers Teachers in the morning, Teachers at night, Teachers in the afternoon, It just isn't right. Walking around the school room. Sitting in a chair, Can't say anything. Or someone pulls your hair. Talking to your neighbor, Fixing up her hair, Then the teacher calls you up, To sit in (lie corner chair. Let's face it, School isn't fun, I don't like it, Does anyone? Ann Handsaeme students with systematic cor- respondences between the spo- ken language and the written code; and once the code is bro- ken, grading reading texts are introduced at Unit 10. When the reading of narra- tive texts is begun the students possess: (1) practice in manipulating certain basic grammatical structures. (2) a limited vocabulary con- sisting of basic words (3) a significant number phoneme-grapheme correspon- dences. (4) practice in passing from sound to symbol and from sym- bol to meaning through sound There are three levels of reading texts: the first consists of narratives based on the situ- ations and structures of the audio-visual units. Tlie second consists of more elaborated and longer narra- tives with a new story line. The third represents a con- siderable departure from the audio visual units; the con- struction is more complex re- flecting the written language style. Finally when written corn-po- sition is introduced, the s t u- dents already have a consider- able control of the spoken forms of tire language and they also possess appreciable control of the spelling. The Reading Texts have exposed them to written narrative models within their range. These constitute a solid basis from which to introduce progressively written composi- tion. different areas. A roller is used to cancel the stamps, and they are addressed. The parcels for Lethbridge are put wilh the cat- alogues in a special place. EXTRA THINGS 1. There are 125 street mail- boxes in Lethbricge, which are usually cleared twice a day. 2. There are about 30 mail- men altogether ar.d about SO staff members at the main Post Office. 3. The P.O. keeps a record ol how many letters come to the P.O. each day. 4. The newest stomp -which has been issued is black with the picture of the queen all in white. 5. The P.O. handles abcut 000 letters a day, letters come in and letters go out. G. The Federal Government owns the P.O. 7. The Treasury Board pays the employees and hires the jan- itors. Repairs to the Lethbridge P.O. are paid by the govern- ment. 8. P.O. business increases or decreases depending upon the seasons and the number of peo- ple entering or leaving the city. New postmen are hired from the Canada Manpowei Centre. Telephone Tour The people in our group and our teacher were shown through Hie telphone building by Mrs. Burgess, The business office is at the front of the building. It serves 900 to customers a day. Money paid at the Letlibridge office is sent to Edmonton. If a person has trouble with their telephone they an call a service representative. There are about 114 people who do that type of work. There are about tele- phone accounts in the city and surrounding districts. The Lethbridge office handles between and infor- mation calls a day, about long distance calls which re- quire the help of an operator and between and di- rect distance dialing calls. There is a special room which is called a Service Order Writ- ing room. The people who work there, take lists for a new telephone directory. People who are mov- ing away have their names tak- en off the list. People who move into the city or the dis- trict have their names added to it. Some people want telephones but do not want people to know what their number is. They pay more money for this service. It is called an unlisted number. There are two kinds of un- listed numbers. One kind is not listed in the directory but can be given to certain people. The oilier kind is kept in a special directory called the Henderson Directory. Even if an emer- gency telephone call came for someone listed on this directory the operator would have to call a police car to deliver the mes- sage. There are about 25 to 30 Isle- phone operators on the switch board at one time. A p p r o x- imately 20 part time girls can be called ill to relieve sick peo- ple or for unexpected rush per- iods. During the night, from about midnight, to a.m. one oper- ator can handle the telephone calls. ArcsheriQ. LONELY COWBOY DoTroali Fcrrclra, Deb- bie French, and Leonard son. Grade five, Westminster School. Why we made it? Because we thought it would look nice in our room. How we made it! We made it out of weed. We sawed the wood. We built it because we just put some boards together and found it looked like a man and so we added a few more pieces and found that we had made a cow- boy. We put a hat and face on it. It is a sculpture. We called it the lonely cowboy. The whole class was doing wood sculpture when we thought of making a Lonely Cowboy.