Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - May 2, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
42 THE LETHBR1DGE HERALD Wednesday May 2, College foundering Pestaiozzi College, once hai'ed as the successor to and improvement on Toronto's Rochdale, is now engaged in a legal foreclosure oUion brought by its major creditor, the federal Central Mortgage and Housing Ccrp. The college, named after an 18th cen- tury Swiss educationist, was modeled on ihe principle of making students responsible for their own education. SIMPSONS 2-Pi Polyeiter and colon seersucker tops, fortrel shorts. Colours brown, blues, green, in various checks and plaids. You bet it is, when you're wear- ing a terrific little smock and shorts set that's so prettily plaid- ed and plained. This little beauty is buf one of a great new family of maternity play- wear. Come in soon and meet them all! Hand-washable. Asst. prints and colors. Some with white, some with matching shorts. Sizes 8-16 in the group. "CHARGE IT" On Your All Purpose Account STORE HOURS. Open daily from 930 a.m. to 530 p.m Thursday and Friday a.m. io 9.00 p.m. Centra Village Mall Telephone 528-9231. V of L beliamor study suggests: MachiavelJFs bag might have been hockey If Machiavelli were alive today he might have made a great NHL defenseman. That's the conclusion one comes to by reading a recent- ly completed study by Uni- versity of Lethbrfdge psycho- logy professor Gordon Russell. Professor Russell has drawn a number of conclusions about the attitudes and performance of hockey players, from a study of the behavior of members of the Alberta Highwood Hockey League during their 1971-72 sea- son. The now defunct league included six amateur teams from Calgary, Okotoks, High River, Vulcan and Nanton. The players came from all walks of life, ranging in age from 15 to 33 years. Sports such as hockey place a high premium on ag- gressive behavior.'' says Pro- fessor Russell, "and it is the aggressive player who gets all the goals, assists and glory.'1 In his study, he found that the player with the propensity to conduct hlnifself in a Machia- vellian manner skillful at manipulation, opportunistic and deceptively aggressive was usually a defenseman. For those not up on (heir history, N i c c o 1 o Machiavelli was the 16th century amoral Florentine diplomat whose book "The Prince'', is still quoted today as a blueprint for "fool- ing all of the people all of the His name, as Mr. Russell says in Ms study, has become synonymous with "guile, deceit and the manipulation of others in one's own self-interest''. In recent years, the work of Dr. Richard Christie of Colum- bia University has focused on the development of a theoreti- cal understanding of the Mach- iavellian personality and its measurement. That personality is generally described as showing a lack of affection for others, a low commitment to ideals and an ability to manipulate others without compunction. INDICTMENT OF If that sounds like an indict- ment of the game of hockey, particularly as played by de- fenseman. Professor Russell explains it otherwise: "Although the defensemen studied appeared to be more he says, "they did not exhibit excessive ag- gression when compared with other players, such as for- Mr. Russell admits that such a finding does not seem to fol- low logically from the behav- ior one would attribute to de- feiKemen. "But he adds, "the defenseman may be more skill- ed in hiding his aggression from gams officials. He may excel at the manipulative aspect of the game, predicting the other player's movement and thus out-manoeuvering Mm.'' Mr. Russell decided to study the AHHL players' actions dur- ing their hockey season as a test of the validity of previous laboratory studies for Machia- vellianism. He wanted to see Sf the correlation between ag- aggression and personality- types would hold up in a real life situation. "Ice hockey as played in Can- ada is a sport in which one can engage in virtually a full range of verbal and physical ag- gression without fear of socie- tal writes Mr. Russell in his research paper. "As a real life setting in which aggression is sanctioned in- deed, enthusiastically encour- aged it stand in marked con- trast with the contrived events and uncertain status cf aggres- s'.ve responses in laboratory in- vestigations." Previous studies, says Pro- fessor Russell, have indicated that aggression is attributed to a personality high in Machia- vellian characteristics that is, to "high Mach" personali- ties. In addition, individuals with a belief in external control that is, people who tend to think that fate or destiny, rather than their own action, determines future events lend to act more aggressively than do those who have confidence in their own abilities to handle life. Professor Russet's study supported the hypotheses that individuals scoring high on Machiavellianism, or those wfto function in terms of an exter- nal locus of control, conduct themselves more aggressively. He found that high Mach players tend to argue with re- ferees, challenge authority and display actual physical aggres- sion to other players. Oddly enough, the people who believe in external control are not passive as one might ex- pect, but aggressive on the ice. It is people with external attitudes who assist in scoring goals. And the scramblig effort that goes into a setting up a goal seems to require more aggres- sion than does the actual scor- ing. "There is a high correlation between the positlion played and the number of goals and as- sists says the psy- chologist. "It is usually the forwards who get both the as- sists and the goals. "It would continues Professor Russell, "that people who have an internal locus of control don't need to be aggressive, don't dtisplay a high Mach personality. They may feel they can control their lives 'AT-'.at resorting to vio- lence or physical force. "On the other hand, the ex- ternals, the hligh Machs, believe they aren't in control and may feel a greater need to challenge authority and exert force to bring about events." RELUCTANT TO MORALIZE Although he is reluctant to moralize on the implications of his research, Professor Rus- sell will admit, "generally, what is true cf the players in the Highwood League is prob- ably true of the NHL or WHL." "In the game of hockey, the actual situation on the ice is such that aggression pays off in terms of goals and he says. "I would suspect and others have stated that all levels of hockey have be- come more aggressive in the past ten years. And perhaps this is a reflection of the chang- ing attitude and values of so- ciety as a whole." Professor Russell's study of the hockey teams' behavior is to be published in a psycholo- gical journal later this year. Further research in the same area is being conducted by a senior U of L psychology stu- dent, Bruce Drewry who is doing ann analysis of hockey league records in an attempt to determine whether aggres- sive behavior builds under the pressure of close competition, as a game unfolds or as the season progresses. In the near future. Professor Russell hopes to further delve into the nature and manifesta- tions of aggression when writes a book on that subject. Dears Save Supramatic Shock Absorbers a-Guaranteed for miles! These heavy-duty shock absorbers ensure better riding control and safety than regular equipment shocks. 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