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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 24, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta Moth IWI THI ttlHBRIDGE 5 David L Balfour Fluoridation controversy unnecessary David BaUour is a second year student at the Univer sity of This ar tiele is a condensation of a paper prepared in connec tion with his predentistry It should prove of interest because of the con t r 11 v c r s y surrounding the past four plebescites in Leth ALTHOUGH fluoridation programs have been ini tiated in over thirty countries around the this subject is still a highly controversial one as it has been since its in ception three decades A fluoridation referendum is now in the wind in and it may spark another one here in With this in mind it is worthwhile reviewing cer tain aspects of this important particularly in the light of recentlycompleted re Some fluoridationre lated studies have been pub lished in the last thirtyfive and it is impractical for anyone to evaluate all of these there ex ist authoritative reviews of these works written by knowl edgeable and respected medi cal and dental For this article I have com bined information from these reviews along with my own assessments of many of the most recent research and have made every effort to distinguish between fact and One point generally over looked is that there do exist a substantial number of basic facts concerning fluoridation which are not seriously dis puted by either of the oppos ing For nei ther side questions the fact that fluoride concentrations of one part per million parts of water do significantly reduce dental It is also an undisputed fact that fluorides highly toxic in cert a i n and have in deed been used as rat p o i s o Adequate bone particularly in older also requires small concentrations of It has recently been shown that trace amounts of fluorides are necessary for reproduction in every species that has been thoroughly tested thus but complete information concern ing human reproduction is not yet it should be noted that fluorides are nat urally present in sea water and almost all fresh Thus we see that although too much fluoride is it is inevitable that we will en counter some and it may indeed be necessary that we do This condition is not uni que to for it has been shown that some other ele ments such as selenium and which are ordinarily highly have been found in trace amounts in the body and appear to be essential to good health It is highly logi cal then that there must exist an optimum concentration of these elements which will give maximum benefit to the body without in the form of fluoride in this sense is no different from other trace except ttal it has been more exten sively studied than The optimum concentration of flu oride has been established at one part million parts of water 1 Millions of people have been drinking water with natural fluoride levels up to and above ihis optimum concentration for many Some natural wa ter sources contain more than Ihe optimum and it has been found that concentrations above two parts per mllion sometimes result in dental which is a light brown staining or mottling of the tooth Although not this mottling is aesthetically and countries such as Italy have chosen to dcfluoridate come of their supplies down to the optimum This has also been done m North America in a feu As carlv as 1S92 a shortage of fluoride in Britains fresh water sources was suspected to be the reason behind the high incidence of tooth cavi ties and Artificial flu oridation was first suggested in the IMOs and the first ac lual proams were initiated in 1943 m the eastern United was Hie tliird city in the world to have a r 11 ficially fluoridated also m I9ti From nf HIP iTsidruts of first areas il wasoon rlosr that the incidence of dental canes in children consuming water contained 1 ppm of flu could he reduced by xtv to seventy per Dean examine the teeth ir diildicn in fue eastern Am nican cities water sup plies had natural content of about 1 and found that 22 per cent of the children examined had perfect and fe other 78 par cent averaged only three cavities Children drinking water with less fluoride were found to average many more cavi ties and other tooth Similar findings have been re peated many times with arti ficially fluoridated One of the first such studies was carried out twentyfive years ago at Grand Michi and In these communities a dramatic reduction in cavities due to the fluoride in the water launched a nationwide fluoridation cam A 19C8 study of the same areas and their control communities revealed a reduc tion of 50 per cent to 63 per cent in cavities in children aged 15 and Another study compared the dental costs fcr 6 to 8 yearold children in these same communities and found that the annual per capita cost was in the fluoridated areas as opposed to in the non fluoridated These figures and many others have consistently proven the usefulness of fluoridated wa ter in preventing and tliis point is seldom argued Often the question is heard Why fluoridate water sup plies when there are other ways of obtaining fluorides for those who want them It is true that there are other meth ods which can be just as effec tive as water if the right conditions How It Next Im going to buy one of so haY9 more time for toe Why teach French By Philipa West from Alberta Teachers Association magazine in Western are we teaching French to children in the elementary grades Is it to help develop in them a knowledge of anoth er language and with it an appreciation of another cul ture Or is it to help develop in our children a knowledge of the language and culture en joyed in the Province of Que bec and other parts of our country It seems we should know why we are teaching If indeed it is to help chil drens understanding and ap preciation of another civilized tongue and then using audiovisual aids which zero in on France specifically is justi fiable and We then teach French and France from its the Eiffel Na poleons the Place de la Nearly every other country which teaches French as a second language uses France as its reference Dutch chil dren exchange dwelling places with their French counterparts to promote knowledge of French speech and ways of Is this what were after Jn Western Canada Or are we teaching French in an effort to knit our vast country togeth er If this is our primary why are we teaching directly from France and not from la belle Quebec In my part of Western Can French is taught to ele mentary grades as if Quebec did not exist No reference is to brave explorers such as Car who were first to open up this c o u n I r Little acknowl edgment is given to resomce fvl French fur tradeis who paddled and portaged their way up hazardous mak ing friends with the first Cana the One may argue that early French history is taught in so cial and thats But as most of us are n of explorers from many parts of and specific knowledge of French exploits is Irff larcHv I rhnnrr If were belatedly rryinE in do our part lo knit Canada to shouldnt we least have half of our French lessons emanating from Quebec Im talking about televised lessons Consider the modem French life flourishing on each side of the lower St the great the paper Ihe mines and the his toric beauty of the walled City of Quebec with its steep streets and horsedrawn car its fine old church es and historic Arts in the province of Quebec are blossoming Les Feux Follets went to Expo 70 All these are burgeon ing with yet we pretend none of them exists so far as French teaching in Western Canada is It may be argued that the French spoken in Quebec is not the real For that neither is the English spoken in Western Canada the real English1 If a about to embark on learning were to say to I couldnt possibly learn to speak English in Canada I have to leara English in En youd consider him to be suffering from cultural A articu 1 a enlightened speaking English with a Cana dian accent is welcome all over the His un English accent may even prove an In my the same is true of a CanadianFrench Beau tiful CanadianFrench is as ac ceptable as beautiful Cana says an aspiring bilin but I want to speak with a true Parisian Has he heard that un til recently the best French was reputedly spoken in Gren and now its Neuchatel On behalf of our groaning of whom am t urge the elementary curricu lum planners French spe cialists to search their souls and discover why we are teach ing Then the planners might ask themselves exactly what is to be gained from teaching Parisian as opposed to Canadian to pupils in our multicultural onethird of whose population speaks Canadian French Are we neglecting to consider something such as the wealth of our FrenchCanadian heritage Jo They Say Combat is a stressful situa tion which affects peoples feel ings or emotions We are stressed minute we live and combat is no Arnold Johnson an Army the My Lai murder as we shall these other methods are po tentially and are likely to be less effi cient than water Fluoride tablets or drops are available from many and health and they can be as effective as fluoridated The prob lem here is a people prob It is difficult to get parent and child co ordinating steadily for the first thirteen years on fluoride tablets or Intermittent exposure is not Topi cal application of fluoride by a dentist is less troublesome be cause it needs to be done only two or three times per But topical application must also be done fairly and is again more expensive than fluoridating the Fluoridated and toothpastes have also been shown to re duce tooth but these methods are not as efficient as water fluoridation and are un reliable because of the likeli hood of intermittent It should be pointed that water fluorida tion is not feasible in many parts of the the main reason being the absence of central water For in the United States about fortysix million people 23 per cent of the total pop ulation lack a central water These people draw their water from springs and wells as it is needed and con sume it untreated in any Since the most inexpensive and effective method of pre venting dental cavities gen eral water fluoridation is im possible in such some alternative is the only So far the two most effec tive alternate means have been topical and the fluoridation of school water This latter method is almost as effective as general water although more it has the disadvantage that it miss es completely the formation of the primary teeth in and its beneficial effect on bones is missed by older per In the last ten years a great part of the research on flu orides has centred around their effects on bones and the gen eral health of other body sys About 90 per cent of tire fluoride absorbed by the blood is ultimately deposited in the hard tissues including the All bones contain flu orides in varying The effects which fluorides have on bones closely parallel those observed in the Daniel has found evi dence of much more deafness from diseases of the carbones in low fluoride and a whole range of bone and oth er diseases is less intense when fluoridated water is con For calcifica tion of the aorta has been found to be much more preval ent in low flucride than in areas with natural or flu oridated 1 ppm fluoride in wa Recently fluorides have been used as therapy in va rious bone and is thought to be necessary for normal calcification of the skeleton in The excretion of fluoride by the kidney exposes this organ to a risk of damage if the kid ney is not functioning normal as in chronic uremic pa there are beneficial effects from suitable 1 o w fluoride concen The only detrimental effects are observer when flu oridated water or unflu oridated water containing a high natural concentration of fluoride is used in conjunction with artificial kidney ma chines But because hospitals and most use distilled water or defluoridate their wa ter by inexpensive this need not be a problem I mentioned the low cost of fluoridation in re lation tn other methods of flu oriels and perhaps the following figures will illus Irate The cost of fluorida ting a central water sstem ranges between S cents and 10 cents per person per year af ter initial Using the upper 10 cent figure it has been calculated that it would cost 13 million dollars to flu oridate all remaining public wafer supplies in lie Unit r d which would save 700 million dollars per car in dentists fees for fillings along with millions nf tooth artirrThe nf nnr dental fillinc will thr flu nndation expense m one pi son for sixty years The cost of a fluoridation unit depends on its which in turn depends on the volume of water to be The scning On Canadas first fluori dated cost only five hun dred a small unit runs from about 000 to with the largest ones in the neighborhood of The cost of school wa ter fluoridation equip ment ranges from to 000 and the cost of chemicals approximately 20 cents per student per as compared 10 810 cents per person per year for an entire Fluoridating water at home is quite a lot of and costs from to por child per year after As for poisoning oneself by drink ing fluoridated water at 1 a person would have to drink about 42 gallons or a bath tubful of water at one sitting to become slightly sick from too much To get very sick to ingest about one gram of fluoride a person would to drink more than three bathtubfuls or 276 gallons of water in a short In the last decade there has been a distinct shift in the at tack on which places the emphasis more on the legality of this measure rather than questioning us safety or No couit decisions has ever been handed down in this country or even that fluoridation might be Of those who have gone to court against fluoridaticn only a handful have been and these cases have been won on procedural The United States Su preme Court has continually refused to review fluondation cases and appeals on the grounds that they do not con stitute an important federal As fewer and fewer cases are being won in the lower courts as precedents are Fluoridation has now become mandatory in seven and antifluoridationists have never won a court case in twelve In Canada most provinces give fluorida tion authority to city but New Brunswick has vrisely allocated this control to its community boards of Another past objection to flu oridation is that it is an in fringement on individual reli gious The courts have replied to charges con cerning religious liberty in statements such as the follow ing Liberty implies the ab sence of arbitrary not immunity reasonable regulations and prohibitions imposed in the interest of tha Another charge occasionally leveled against fluoridation is that by fluoridating public wa ter supplies the municipality is either adulterating foods or practicing medicine when it is n o t authorized to do so Frequently such charges in clude evidence given by a den doctor or Thus people are led to believe that the medical and dental professions are split down the middle on this This split simply does not Flu oridation is not or the administration of a rem it is a preventive measure like im and The number of doctors and dentists opposing fluoridation on scientific grounds is actual ly about equal to those who object to these other welles tablished preventive As of more than million Canadians were us ing optimally fluoridated wa This is 31 per cent of the total and 45 per cent of the population that has piped In the and fluon riation is aided by provincial grants and The West remains largely un Although theie are more than eight million people with nonfluoridated wa ter in there were only 19 plebescites in This is highly regrettable because Canada has at present only one dentist for every peo What is perhaps as alarming ss the foregoing is Ihe fact that Canada is well off bv the standards of nrany coun Surprisingly the States with onefifth of the worlds dentists is in very bad A 1962 re port stated that only about onesixth of the needed dental work was actually being In a host of other such as China and there may only be one dentist for eiy inoooo people There is clearlv s need for global flu ff drinking water natural fluoride The final decismn on fluon in Canada will be made directly by the It is to be hoped that this decision will be based on the proven usefulness of fluorides in re ducing and other den tal ns well as the to tal absence of harmful side Charity begins From I he VUnniplE Jire i LDViMU a Liberal member of the Ontario has whipped off an angrv telegram to Ottawa protesting Mitchell Sharps Clam junket tluough Africa at a time of hifih unem ployment at If the necessity of foieign aid to under Jeres Mrrf d w M1 x MCW cf oupumica no m the Santa Hans N according tn clear Tor Mr anncaicod on March 12 we aie m support a poM developed countnes is Sarexpansion project in an legioi nf gents argument LS There will be The bum invoked tf not little hope for poor countries if economic ally advanced states follow the practice of turning off the assistance tap whenever they feel the pressure of domestic prob lems if this is 10 be the the time for aid will always be at some indefi nite point in the for in a country like there are always legitimate needs and worthy projects competing with each other for scarce resources But it is a fact that only 21 million cannot support the The farther we scatter our aid the less effective they are likely to In the beginning ue concentrated our efforts in the Colombo afterwards extending them to certain other areas such as the Caribbean in which we have a natural m lust under S2 3 and the undertak ing is militant tn tlie area But Central and for dut matter all o Latin America has traditionally been a region of particular I S If Ni why not Parasiaj Mr Sargents criticism is much to bread and should be It is thai questions weie asked about foreign aid Wheie nre we gnui and why What are the of selection Ot taw a sometimes gives the impression thai it makes policy by tossing darts at revoh ing globes Unless aid is disci it may not accomplish much abroad but it is likely to sour public opinion at homo and there omc evidence that this is Thomas Edmund Dcwcv Iimii The IT is in New York that Thomas E Dewey will be best remembered as an progressive governor of the state for three as a even dyna mic district as a distinguished lawyer in the years after his retirement from public office and public politics at the early age of As a national politi he will be worst remembered for the two losing candidacies for the and especially the last catastrophic cam paign against President Truman in Yet neither remembrance will do justice to the enormous influence he exerted on the history of his times by the manner in which he did or did not exercise political On no less than three oc casions he had as to say as any man in two instances and in advertently in another about who would become President of the United It is probably safe to for that Richard Nixon would not be Presi dent today had it not been for the role played by both in the choice of Nixon for the second spot on the Eisenhower ticket in and in the re tention of Nixon on the after the uproar over the famous poli tical fund which had been collected on lus It was Dewey who guided the young Senator Nixon through that parti cular political crisis in his And li was Dewey who stuck by him when most of the Eisenhower high command was ready to let him withdraw as the rice pi esidential which would almost certainly have put a stop to his political A case can similarly be made that had it not been for the slick professional sup port of Governor Dewey and his forces for General the GOP convention ashingUii Insf of 1952 might well turned in the old Robert who had stood up for the party and fought its battles during its hard 20 years of opposition to Democratic It was the Dewey crowd that engineered the socalled fair play manoeuvre that turned the tide against Taft even that Eisenhower edge was a narrow one And of there is no getting around the hard fact that Governor Dewey had as much as anybody to do with the triumph of Harry Truman in 1948 It was easy enough to say after the fact that the silky noncomba tive Dewey campaign was a It of a mistake founded on a miscalculation which pretty nearly every body but Truman shared there was a contagion about the way in which wrong assumptions reinforced themselves until mobody in the Dewey entourage bothered to examine what the reality might be be cause the polls and the pols and the press had already agreed on Still it was his show and it will always be said that he misplayed it in part because was in his nature to be and cold and there fore out of lie was too too effi too the argument Yet he was extraordinarily conpetent vou could not dismiss or discount bis qual ifications for the He did his party no disgrace m and he rendered it long with modesty and good hu after departing from the public To remember him mosi vividly in defeat is to overlook the fact that he was a val uable public servant in New York for nrany years a man who made a considerable difference ui the political his torv of his Overreaction uindse Krom The Financial Post DAYS highlevel unemployment has much discussion of Canadas immigration New Democrat leader for in is highly critical of the federal government for advertising Canada abioad as a land of great opportunity when some people in Canada are immigrants finding it hard to get a job are bound to be deeply if not badly Canadas implicit responsibility for providing new comeis with is only par tially eased by the lag between the time immigrants discuss these matters with Im migration department officers abioad and the time they arrive in Canada Tle should be kept in some In matters of immigra as in other aspects of economic man overreaction to passing circum stances can he even more damaging than traderreaction 1 The advertising abroad of specific job opportunities was discontinued some months The program indicating Can ada as a place that welcomes immigrants continues Immigration has declined consider from a total of 133971 in to last with a high pioportion of these who did come accounted for by per sons not joining the labor such wives and children of immigrants already Most immigrants come not for imme diate gain but for a chance at a better life over tiio long In ttefe is a variety of programs to help newcom ers on if troubles do Who would benefit if all wouldbe set tlers were actively discouraged from com ing because of temporary difficulties in the economy With suitable cautioning on the part of immigration why not the decisionmakirg up to the immi grant Obuously this LS not the moment to flood the labor market with if resi dent Canadians as well as the immi grants are o get a fail At the same the Canadian his an enor mous potential for powih U vould be un wise not to keep the name of Canada well forwird in the minds of potential immi There is no point m surrendering the field to countries with vigorous immi gration sucn as punishment Iroin Quebec Lc PHE birth in Quebec of terrorist action and the craven activities of the FLQ brought out from the shadow the hi deous image of the gallows The ignoble death of Pierre Lanorte has paved the way for numerous demands for the reestahhsh ment of capital punishment A few davs newspapers published which the antiahohtioniMs did mil to usf m in attempt in shf abolition m ihf i mowed hrr4 nf niuirlrr this fould obvinush xrrv piirnibt uig if a simple statistical arpuncnl be used to establish the influence of the abolition or maintenance of capital punish ment on the presumed or of our homicide But it is well known that the in is based on more profound facts It is no longer the ape when the 1 r w of retaliation was invoked or when justicn SPl ll n VCH uas dominated l geance If capital purushintiit were eien in cur itiit really necessary lie cause of us exemplary ami intimidating if it weio and efficient in the face of who want to 1ioie to it would then IK In i witti z nri nnr rn atlrmpt nraifici lod In h ir IT t 111 in Ina cnohiinn nf Irni of punishment thr iMiiral rloctrin of amendment 11 cf ild onK with difficulty resohe itself tn such a backward move ment To be logical with iL niiist on the contrary continue lo believe that the absence of capital punishment will have a more cfffciuo offer if a moie application ol tiie provided for by our nmuiial LS ;