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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 21, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta 44 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Wedneiday, March 21, 1973 Abortion more widely accepted than ever By DAVID AULICHT LONDON (Renter) The worldwide trend to wider legal- ization o! abortion cuts across divisions of ideology and eco- nomic development. Traditionally, women in the vast majority of countries were forbidden by law to have abor- tions unless there were extraor- dinary reasons, such as a clear threat to their lives or health. The tide of change has risen to a point where the four most populous In- dia, the Soviet Union and the United recognize fairly wide grounds for abor- tion, .allhough with varying lim- its. And the trend still seems lo be growing in a number of other countries. But government and health authorities clearly do not re- gard liberalization of abortion as a solution in itself. In China, with the biggest population in the world, con fraception is much more fa vored than abortion. Con traceptive piills or injections are waUnble from hospitals and from the health workers known ns "barefoot doctors' in rural areas. Chinese health authorities re- fuse abortion after the 12th week of pregnancy unless the mother's life is endangered. GIVEN ON DEMAND In India, the next most popu- lous country, a liberalized abor- tion law came- into force last April after almost eight years of debate. While some of its clauses are ambiguous, it is widely seen as virtually provid- ing for abortion on demand. More than women have had legal abortions since the law took tiny figure compared with the government estimate of about four million abortions performed in the coimtry each year, the vast ma- jority illegally. In Japan, under a "eugenic protection law" adopted in 1948 abortions rose to a peak ol about 1.2 million officially re- ported in 1855, then gradually diminished to a reported tota' of about in 1971. In Rusia, the first major eas- ng of abortion rules conic in 1920, three yenrs after the revo- .ution. In 1936 the Russians drastically tightened the rules again, limiting abortion to eases justified by health problems. But in 1955 they went back to a more liberal approach, under which any woman who demands abortion is entitled to it unless there are medical reasons against it. OPERATIONS FREE In much of Eastern Europe It is relatively easy for women to have abortions, often free of charge, allhough there arc cer- tain legal restrictions. In the West, the movement to- ward freer abortion has steadily gained momentum. The U.S. Supreme Court decision liber- alizing abortion this year went further in leaving the decision to individual conscience than most Western countries have, but there had already been z long and gradual movement to wards broadening the grounds or abortion in other countries. In Canada, the criminal code now allows abortions to protect ;lic life or health of a woman if the abortion is approved by a committee and if the operation is performed in an accredited hospital. Tiny Iceland set an example in 1U35 by including grounds now seen as including financial and domes- tic considerations. Sweden, Denmark and Fin- land laler widened their laws to consider the conditions of woman's life in evaluating the dangers to her health of having a child. LAW STILL DEBATED Arguments are still raging In Britain over a liberalization of abortion law in 1907, allowing consideration of the physical Or mental health of the pregnant woman or her family, and per- mitting her environment to he taken into account. Typically for countries which liberalize their laws, the num- ber of legal abortions in Britain rose to from a year although there arc no figures for the "backslrcet" abortions which were widespread before. Also typically, the number of reported deaths from abortion has been cut by half to about 30 a year. In both West Germany and Austria, the governments favor introducing legislation which would allow women to choose abortion in the first three months of pregnancy. Both countries row have laws re- stricting abortion fo cases where the woman's life is in danger. Even in Italy, where laws on moral issues normally show effects of Vatican Influence, a bill to legalize abortion has been introduced by a Socialist member of parliament. In much of Africa, the Middle East and Latin America, reli- gion and tradition strongly op- pose any easing ft abortion laws, which often limit it to cases where it is necessary to save a woman's life, and some- times make no provision at all for it. Laws in Latin America gener- ally ban or limit abortions stringently to cases of medical need, and sometimes rape or other special circumstances. COWBOY CHARLIE. Being a greenhorn on his first roundup Was quite an experience for a 16-year-old boy from England in the days when tho Canadian svcst was stfIL wild. The I R. D. Symons explains in an excerpt from his book. Where The Wagon Led Ibis Saturday. IN YOUR IFTHBRIDGE HERALD WEEKEND MAGAZINE Mine face., processing plant frozen En winter, ihe mine face (top) the At- habasca Oil Sands is hard, breaks inlo chunks when worked and shows the marks of the buckelwheel excava" tors used by Great Canadian Oil Sands Lid. In the summer ihe sands are softer and easily worked. The company cle- tonutes explosives in rhe sands to facilitate mining. The bitumen process plant of Ihe company is at botlom. Extraction (Concluded from Page 38) preached li) several ways in- cluding the USB of oil-eating microlxs, but "so far we ha- ven't had much success." Methods The council, which spends ormually on sands re- search, is also looking at the I u i d i 1 e el bed" process, which calls (or heating the sand in a dry, closed system and effectively distilling the oil out of it. The council is concentrating on tiie in-sitii process and has a simulator, creates conditions similar to those deep in trie sands. Amoco Canada Petroleum Ltd.. a subsidiary of Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) is one ot the chief researchers into .the in- situ method and has worked about 15 .ITS with an under- ground combustion system. In this method, five veils are drilled in a pattern. Air is forced down the centre well until the formation ignites through internal combustion. The heat makes Ihe oil flow and the pressure (lov.-n (he centre well forces it to the production wells. Water can also be injected to form steam or an inert gas can be used lo control Ihe (ire. Injected SticU Canada Lid. has been studying a steam injection system which uses a similar p.attern of wells, using steam rather than combustion. The sand layer is so viscous the steam not flow through, so it must first be fractured to establish commu- nication between the centre and production wells. Then tho steam is forced through, melting tho bitumen and carrying it lo the surface. the steam injection and combustion methods re- quire an overburden of about :VX> feet to contain the enor- mous pressures without (is- curing to the surface. This leaves a section of the sand ttith more than 200 feet of overburden and less than 500 (eel still out of reach but this too is being considered. The injection pf solvents, such as naptha, in a similar pattern of wells would require lower pressures. The problem is that the solvent might not always be contained in the (ormation and might eventu- ally reach the water system. A-blast Mr. Carrigy was a member of Ihe provincial government committee that decided in the late 1950s it would lie safe lo use a device to (rce the oil from the sands. The proposal of Atlantic Richfield Canada Ltd. was to detonate the device just below tho sands with the blast heat- ing tho sands so they could be pumped. The idea was abandoned largely because of the interna- tional moratorium on nuclear testing, Mr. Carrigy said. A proposal was also made to detonate a nuclear device deep in the earth to tap geoth- ermal heat. This would create a large cavern which could be filled with water to produce steam for a steam injection method of extraction. But Mr. Carrigy observed: Why not use the steam for power generation ftt that point and forget about the sands? Uncertain future (Concluded from Page 30) The company is operating on a lease of acres about 20 miles down the Athabasca River, north of Fort Mc- Muray. Most of the production 1g sold to refineries in Eastern Canada and the U.S. midwest. Some is processed by Sun Oil, the parent firm, at ils refin- ery in Sarnia Ont. Saves3 The-Comfort-Shirt-try this dress shirt with the extra comfort pf knit probably never want an ordinary shirt again. Specially priced for three days only. Short sleeve Long sleeve [99 Reg. 7 liis tremer.dous saving is the comfortabla way lo gel inlo The-Comfort-Shirt. And wa say comfort... we mean Jt. Thesa knilled dress shirts are cut from a 5Wo 50% cotton blend that gives lotS of comfort and great looks, Machine wash and tumble dry. Ttisy never need ironing. 4" long collar. Plaquet front. NecK sizes: Neatly patterned colours: While, Blue, Tan, Maize, a-Long sleeve model1. Average sleeve lengths. Reg. b-Short sleeve model. Summer comfort." Reg. c-Savc Polyester lies. 4" widths, Latest patterns. Blue, Brown, Gold, Burgundy or Green. Reg. 52.99 Men's Furnishings .this is bimpspns- best value Available) from coast to coast In Canada through all Simpsons-Sears stores, this very specfat offer Is the slnceresl effort Simpsons-Sears can make to bring yau merchandise that combines fine quaWy with His lowest possibls price. STORE HOURS: Open daily from a.m. to p.m.; Thurs. and Fri. a.m. to p.m. Centre Village Mall Telephone 328-9231 ;