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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 19, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta TuMday, March It, W4-THE LETHMIDQJ HERALD-8 Reorientation of urban life needed 1 More than two centuries ago, Oliver Goldsmith mourned the loss of village life and rural joys in his native Ireland. The simplicity and charm of a genuine community has been destroyed by the enclosures and tyrannical landlordism which paved the way for the ruthless industrialism which followed. Everyone (who read the poem in a volume when poems were still presented as gifts or in one of those old school readers, excellent in tone and 'purpose) knows the lines: "Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, A breath can make them as a breath has made, But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, When once destroyed, can never be supplied." The destruction of a peasantry had, of course, already begun long before Goldsmith wrote. Thomas More refers to "sheep eating men" in his classic Utopia, and some historians trace the real beginnings of industrial capitalism back to the time of Chaucer, when, as is evident from Langlands Piers Plowman and The Canterbury Tales, the old Paulian dictum: "Radix Malorum est cupiditas." was being largely ignored as a guide to personal goals and, increasingly, as a principle of social and economic life. Thus, money goals and usury came to dominate the life of Western Europe, the process making its effects felt in England perhaps more than in most other places. More and more, the old, wise' principle that ownership and control of property is a limited, not an absolute right, (at the heart of Aquinas' philosophy of economics) was being abandoned. Profit came to the centre, and the common good receded to the background. Profit (buying in the cheapest market and selling in the dearest) came to be almost the only acknowledged end of enterprise. Profit became a god. Opinions may differ about the significance of the reformation in promoting capitalism, but, whether, accept either Weber or Tawney, it has to be admitted that, with Calvinism, the already widespread ethic of money-making was given an added fillip by the puritan sense of wealth being the mark of the Lord's esteem for work and enterprise. And the drastic change in the whole socio-economic system of England brought about by the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry Eighth prepared the way for the drift to large urban centres and the later enclosures which accelerated this process. Apart from other factors involved in that vast change usually called "the industrial one vital element was the large pool of cheap labor provided by the uprooting of populations from the soil. Goldsmith saw the scenes of misery created by ruthless enclosures, and a later writer, William Cobbett, described in detail the effects of the enclosures on the English countryside, yet depicting vividly and with documentary realism, the remaining virtues still to be enjoyed in so many towns and villages. With dramatic speed after the inventions, such as the and the steam- engine, and because the rich already had the upper hand, England and its conquered communities in the so-called British Isles, was soon plunged into the dark and grime of the hideous industrial age; an age which meant fabulous wealth for the tew. prosperity for a minority and bestial slavery for the ragged wretches who worked from dawn to dusk in the mines and factories. Thus, the peasant, who had known poverty but who enjoy- ed health and peace and the charm of nature in his former life, was transformed into the starvation wage slave of the slums. Coketown had arrived, and for many long years, workers struggled for decent wages and conditions, while various forms of socialism were born. Many were cut down, many were flogged and imprisoned, many were simply allowed to slave away for a few shillings and'to end their lives as they began; in the rotten and filthy slums in which they were born. In the midst of all this exploitation there arose a doctrine of progress, a notion that as technological change occurred and applications of science to human problems became more sophisticated (at first for the sake of more efficient production and eventually in a wider human context) mankind would be led onward and upward. The By Peter Hunt, local writer theory of evolution, especially as interpreted by Huxley and Spencer, lay behind this notion of inevitable progress, and, in this respect, Karl Marx, the chief founder of modern communism, shared a progressivist view of human affairs in common with the very system and people he. attacked. The courageous looked forward to "better" things through a struggle for survival and a constant exploitation of the physical environment. Eventually, after years of struggle, and to some extent with the support of the Christian churches, belated though it was, ordinary people won better wages and conditions, though affluence did not become the lot of a large minority in industrial economies. And even today, "hidden" poverty exists everywhere, for a living wage is often not forthcoming to many, and the price of affluence is often a sacrifice of family-life, because both partners have to work, moreover, most large cities have their slums and ghettoes, the inhabitants of which are locked into a hopeless situation by inheritance of low wages, poor schooling and bad housing; or even worse, unemployment. The "new" middle class enjoy consumer abundance, though often at the price of dependence on credit or double employment, and their willingness to pay exorbitant prices for land and housing, greatly inflated in recent years, makes the chances of the truly poor even worse. As Harvey Lithwick, the well-known Canadian urban sociologist, points out, Book review the two pressures of "urban renewal" which constantly destroys older neighborhoods in the core of cities (as is happening now in London to the obliteration of Cockney culture) and the high cost of land in the suburbs brought about by speculation and middle-class access to the choice sites, bring about "continual isolation of the poor" "frustration and hopelessness and growing unrest in the large urban centres." Urban development makes the poor "worse off because of the space dilemma." Meanwhile, the environmental problems expand and multiply, as cancerous industry prisons earth, air and water, and exploitation of the land brings into towering condominiums, vertical space being so much more profitable for pe developers who exercise every pressure they can to demolish even new housing which occupied land they covet. Some cities have a mixture of old slums, black and cramped, and new slums, antiseptic, impersonal and non-communal. Sterility and alienation result. And cities grow and grow while villages and towns die and die. Flying over the prairies is educational; so much space wasted, so many ghost towns or dying centres, while the larger cities mushroom. The progressivist view of 1 human affairs, based as it is the notion of evolution, persisted until it became the core of much modern thought. It is difficult to shake. Even the First World War and the depression did not shake it seriously. Perhaps the Second World War did to some extent, but decades after Hitler, talk about progress has been prevalent, and the great inflationary and wasteful expansionism of the past 15 years has been justified by its apologists by appeals to progress and technological advancement. And centralism has proceeded apace, with the chief goal usually interpreted as equiva- lent to happiness and human welfare despite the obvious symptoms of decay and misery in the mass-methods of dealing with human beings in large units, whether in factories, schools, or public administration. Mechanistic modes of living have become predominant. Only now, when the threat of shortages pierces the shell of hypnotic obsession with consumption and status, might the people of our western world begin to see the illusory nature of conventional goals, and the burden of superstition, which has done so much to blind them to the absurdities of imagining that the unrestrained greed of financial magnates and industrial empires could ever be a sound mainspring of human economic well being, may lift from their minds. And the vision which may return will not be that of a Marxist regime, which is imbued with technological, progressivism and is even less free than our own, but one in which ordinary people may take charge of their own economic destinies and see goals higher and nobler than those which have distracted them from a truly adventurous way of life. Book reviews Can change come without rebels? Lengthy history of Civil War "The Legend of John Brown" by Richard 0. Boyer. (Random House of Canada Ltd., 627 pages, In a book almost as lengthy as the Civil War itself, author Boyer subjects John Brown, the man Who really started the Civil War rolling, to microscopic examination. When finished, the reader, besides being thoroughly exhausted from the 627 page trek, will understand Brown DON'T MISS IT! SINGER ZIG-ZAG Machine for only im '99 Complete carrying case Reg. This budget-priced machine sews zig-zag, buttonholes, darns, appliques... and gives you all the wonderful basic Singer features... plus Singer reliability. A SALE-A-THON The fabulous TOUCH off i SMcn" Traces sea mj Jhe new Imrts and 1 r e 1 c Mgb Ticssmodnet. easier -Inclusive Post) Button Bobbin ends bobbin tumbling- Bail! inbultoriholet cabinets Don 1 nail-ACT NOW11 The Popular STRETCH-STITCH e Wat Res- You Save 'jfoaifl (tisMiihes JilTielcti plus 23f. and blind ShWes sell IhTcadmjlal'eiip lever twin needle sewnc- snapw ptesser left. Available N DVT11 THE SINGER SWEETHEART Specially priced at 169 I portable packed wflti Singer lealoies sews zi j rag. slwigM and blind SM ches breezes IhioBgli newy demrn, and todays slrdtfi fabrics priced1 HURRY" VACUUMS! Your Choice SINGER SILVER Canister Vacuum Cleaner w 1m yrfl Powerful Savings! SINGER Upright Vacuum Cleaner Gel BOTH lor ontjr v f.mf less rn ji Sure world ,o sew SINGER SEWING CENTRES APPROVED DEALERS Collagt Shopping Mall Phone 327 2243 Opoti Pally fc30 a.m. to 6 p.m. 4 Fri. till 9 p.m. and his times, his Harper's Ferry Raid and the men associated with him in that attack. The thin form of the 150 pound Brown casts a giant shadow, across American history and this amazingly detailed account of his life shows the complexities of the man. Brown came along in an era when the north was in dire need of a leader to right the vicious attacks perpetrated by the southern "Border Ruffians" and others. So turbulent were the times that even duly elected and respected southerner politicians like Prestone S. Brooks could commit atrocities such as his brutal bludgeoning of Senator Charles Summers (north) with a cane in the Senate Chamber itself. Brown, the opportunist, took advantage of the deep Where music flourishes "Tanglewood" by James R. Holland (Barre PiMisken, K The story of Tanglewood, the music centre which evolved on the spacious Tappan estate on a hill overlooking Lake Mahkeenac in the Berkshire mountains of southwestern Massachusetts, is beautifully told through photography and footnotes hi this attractive book, sure to please music lovers. It was in 1936 Mrs. Gorham Brooks and her aunt, Miss Mary Aspinwall Tappan presented the Boston Symphony Orchestra with this very welcome Christmas pre'sent the Tappan family's Berkshire estate, Tanglewood. In the summer of 1937. six concerts were presented under the baton of Dr. Serge Koussevitzfcy. in a hastily constructed tent on the grounds, but when fierce winds destroyed this temporary structure a music shed was constructed with the Fifth Berkshire Symphonic Festival held in these new quarters on August 4.1938. In 1940 the Berkshire Music Centre, built on the grounds, was officially opened the summer academy designed to give advanced music students and fully accomplished young musicians an opportunity to perfect their technique by working with the best professional people in their respective fields From its beginning, the Centre attracted the finest talent to its teaching staff including Aaron Copland, Gregor Piatigorsky. Hugh Ross, Robert Shaw, Isaac Stern and others. The list of well-known former Tanglewood students reads like a musical Who's Who. Leonard Bernstein was the first Tanglewood conducting fellow to emerge as a giant in the musical world. Roughly 10 per cent the musicians in major American Symphony orchestras, are Tanglewood alumni. The reader will appreciate the fact such a music centre exists one that provides music students with the opportunity to train in such beautiful surroundings. Every musician will want a copy of this book. The photography is outstanding. CHRIS STEWART Books in brief "A Womu b Tfee Sky" by James Hailey (Aadre Dwtscfc, The main characters in this book, two old ladies Mrs. Kavanagh and Mrs. Biddulph have been moved from sub- standard housing to a high rise apartment block. Their intense dislike of the new home, inflicted on them by well-meaning social workers, is graphically portrayed. When the wind blows and the electricity fails, their confusion and hopelessness changes to fear and then panic leading to the final tragic conclusion of the storv. MIKE PRATT "Protest, Violence and Social Change" by R. P. Bowles, J. L. Hanley, B. W. Hodgins G. A. Rawlyk (Prentice-Hall of Canada Ltd., 209 This is one of a tenes on Canada issues and options dealing with opinions and examples of civil disobedience, revolts, riots, radical and moderate demonstrations and alienation in our society. It takes into consideration the often justified grievances of students, Indians, Black Canadians, the radical Left, the FLQ, and the poor in Canada, even violence in sport. There are no easy answers given to any of the problems and issues raised. If anything, it may provoke additional'questions. However, the book does fulfil its purpose and that is to make the reader think and to seriously consider all points of view. At times, I felt a little impatient, wondering why it is necessary to spell out so many options when the obvious one seems to be staring us in the face. What liberal thinking person could, for instance, disagree with Prime Minister Trudeau's speech to the Liberal party in Vancouver on August "It is perhaps true that it is difficult when you are in a minority to have your point-of- view accepted, but the fact that you are in a minority means that the majority of Canadians think otherwise. They may be wrong, they may be misinformed, but this is the way they think I think the majority has a right to defend itself and if the laws are wrong, they must be changed. But as long as there is freedom of speech in this country, and as long as a man is free to talk to his neighbor, and to write what he wants, and to form assemblies, and to form up parties and groups, and spread the gospel as he sees it, there is no place for organized violence, or for violent dissent..." However, you g6t in the fears and genuine grievances of the different minority groups who, in spite of freedom of speech, have achieved few if any of their aims to eradicate discrimination, you begin to realize the necessity for intelligent involvement on the part of the whole of our society. Finally, even if the reader abhors and re- jects all kinds of violence, the last section of this book on historical experience of revolts in Canada, still raises the question- Would any social changes, or Canada as a nation, ever have come into existence without the rebels of the past who have become today's heroes? Protest, Violence, and Social Change is to be highly recommended not only to students of sociology and politics and everybody who takes an interest in Canadian life but also to all adult study groups and debating societies. The many questions raised are bound to stimulate discussions and. hopefully, some answers that are long overdue. Such involvement may well help us to develop into the kind of society only the privileged think we have already, while the minorities and dispossessed of our .world realize only too well that we are far from being the Utopia Canada of all nations has the human and material resources to become. EVA BREWSTER British Columbia politics feeling shared by others, and was daring enough to take advantage of them. Among the foremost abolishionists of the day were Dr. Samuel Grindley Howe, the founder of the nation's first, school for the blind, Perkins Institute, and the Kentucky knife fighter, Cassius Marcellus Clay (the man Cassius Clay- Muhammad Ali, the former world heavyweight boxing champion, claims kinship Brown was a complex man. He was stern, yet loving, deeply religious yet a bit of a scoundrel in business. His life was full of tragedies as he saw his first wife and many of his children succumb to disease and accident. Despite the length of this work it is only the first of a two-book biography history of Brown. It is a writing the author has been working on since 1955. GARRY ALLISON "Politics in Paradise" by Pat McGeer (Peter Martin Associates, 232 Pat McGeer, as have many other writers, proves that the misdemeanors of a political party in power don't shock the majority of people into taking action at the polls until it is too' late. Canadians need not sit back and smirk at the plight of their neighbors to the south who have been politically embarassed by the Watergate affair for they too have likely made the same mistake. In fact, the almost unrealistic tolerance of people for their political leader's mistakes may never have been more prevalent than in British Columbia during the reign of W. A. C. Bennett. British Columbia voters even turned the other cheek when Socreds were caught reaching in the people's pockets for personal gain. Pat McGeer, scientist and politician, has documented 232 pages of the political indecencies that took place in British Columbia during the 20 years Bennett held power. McGeer's work should be read and treasured by voters throughout this nation as an example of how consistent loyalty at the polls to one political party can destroy the democratic political institution. If tradition and loyalty exceed the public's concern for the political process, a political power can develop that scorns everything and anything that confronts it including the law. Some of the actions of the former premier and a few of his cabinet members makes Watergate seem like a boy's marble game. Author McGeer reveals the peculiar land deals and "rip-off" activities of "Flying Phil" Gagliardi in such detail that even the most avid Gagliardi supporter would have to admit the former highways minister did not always abide -by the 10 commandments he preached on Sundays. The voters bought the Bennett plea and twice re-elected the controversial Gagliardi after they were aware of his misdeeds. The Bennett government also had the knack of appointing directors and presidents to government operated corporations and trust companies who were more interested in lining their own pockets than serving the people of the province. More than one of these government appointees were later found guilty, in courts of law, on various charges of mis-handling public funds. There were also many other misdeeds by some members of the Socred cabinets. And then there was the property speculation scandal involving Bennett's sons. The individual greed of a few cabinet ministers, the careless spending of provincial funds, the involvement of the government with shady characters and the destruction of the environment when first made public, were always denied by Bennett. When enough evidence was mounted by opposition members and the press to force the truth, debate in the legislature on the issue in ques- tion was usually cut short by the powerful majority government. Come election time Bennett often avoided the issues and accusations by operating an anti socialism campaign. He got away with it because the people of B.C. were enjoying the prosperity of an age in which a tremendous economic upswing took place throughout North America. "Politics in Paradise" provides a lesson for all persons fortunate enough to live in a country where the freedom of choice of government is still a reality. The government should not only be judged on how much money it is putting in the people's pockets but also on the amount of money its members are putting in their own pockets. And with Bill Bennett successfully obtaining the leadership of the Social Credit party in British Columbia last year it is even more important that the B.C. public read.the written word of Pat McGeer. When British Columbia voters look to an alternative to the New Democratic Party, now in power in the province, during the next provincial election the activities of W. A. C. Bennett's sons should not be overlooked. JIM GRANT Treatment for alcoholics "I'U Quit Tomorrow" by Venn E. Ma- son (Harper and Howe Publishers fl.25, 1M pages, distributed by Fitthenry ft WUtesife Ltd.) Alcoholism is a fatal disease. It is a killer and we live in a society that nurtures it. Whether drinking is referred to as the "cocktail hour" or more euphemistically the "social hour" alcohol is an ever-present factor for all of us. But alcoholism can be arrested and the patient recovered. Not cured, but recovered, says Vernon Johnson, a recovered alcoholic, who for the past 10 years has been doing research on. and working with, alcoholics. During this time a breakthrough method for treating the disease has been developed. He believes that the "crisis" that the alcoholic and his friends have been trying to avoid is in fact the turning point from addiction or 'dependency" to recovery. Johnson works on the premise that the whole person must be approached with muUi disciplinary action on various levels: physical, mental, psychological and spiritual- Because alcoholism is totally consuming of its victim, if one of these areas of treatment is neglected, recovery is threatened and relapse is probable, if not certain. The alcoholic is not going to have any insight about his condition, and'since his disease makes it so difficult to approach him. it is crucial that the persons close to him understand the nature of the problem. For they must take the initiative if the illness is to be arrested. One of the chief goals of this book is to explain why this is so and bow to do it Almost any doctor will admit that alcoholism is one of the toughest illnesses to treat, and that positive results have never been very substantial. The method described in I'll Quit Tomorrow has reversed this pattern: three out of four of these patients have recovered. But abstinence is not the only goal: the Johnson therapy aims at restoring the ego strength of the alcoholic which is the only way permanent recovery can be assured. The program began in 1962 as an experiment in the field of alcoholism. As the value of the research was seen, the Johnson Institute was organized- It is a non-profit organization with two basic goals: to design specific programs for alcoholics through applied research and to educate the public in methods of intervention. The multi disciplinary approach was the result of this work, along with the realization that alcoholics should be treated in our general hospitals as are other sick people. So began the program at St. Mary's Hospital in Minneapolis, where an entire floor is in its fifth year of operation Newer programs have opened in other parts of Minnesota and Nebraska I'll Quit Tomorrow is a comprehensive and detailed account of this work complete with copies of the materials used in both training and treatment It is not only a book for alcoholics. It is for their families and friends It is an important book for any business to have where 3 drinking problem exists on any level. It is a book for anyone who knows someone who's an alcoholic and wants to help. _____ CHRIS STEWART ;