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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 19, 1921, Lethbridge, Alberta PAGE TWELVE THE LETHBRDX3E DAILY HERAI J> SATURDAY, MARCH 1921 RAINMAKERS and RAIN (By .1. Patterson, M.A., F.U.S.C., Motcorolosirail Physicist.) Medicine, Motoorolwy "ro r milijei'ts of study and olBernitimi, anil date from U'o VITV curltost at civilization: liy tho llmo Uabyloii had reached thu height of its power these were all crouped under Astrol- ogy and must of the weather proverbs, superstitions and charms had their origin in Ihese fur away times. Fort- imiuoiy most of tho superstitions and medical cl'.arms havo disappeared but the weather prove.'bs still survive. We still have many newspaper! that pub- lish .weuther forecasts based on these t'.v.nr imllinds of prediction, and rain- makers who think that 01.1 Mother Nature gets sij't at times their particular lirand of meinch'.f; one in particul.tr thinks that all she nepds is to have dust thrown in her eyes and she will then function prop- erly. These men may deceive them- selves and some of the people, snit they will not deceive Old Mother Na- ture. She will go on her way perform- her duties regardless of what they may do. and men .'ill have to con- form to her ways, not she to them. No doubt many still think that -Met- eorologists will not adopt their meth- ods through ignorance or jealousy Astronomy am! Meteorologists are st'ienttlU-aHy train- tho oldest ed men and they uilopt scientific meth- ods 10 study tlitf weather. They would bo tin1 to sulopt any mo thud that successful Hi producing rain, if that wore possible .oi- of improving tlie foroeasU. They havo examined all tho methods a'i'l none of thorn will fiiimd Uie test havo reject- ed. Science alms always to discover truth ami refuses to beliovo that things happen by chance, that the workings of Nature are mysterious and past finding out, that she is con- troller! by mysterious that a dependent on the whims of spir- its of good or eril repute. Selene's knows positively that rainfall is abso- lutely Ireyoml the control of man. You will naturally ask what is your proof before we cm be eipcctecl to accept such statement; tho object of this article is to attempt to set forth in simple language the scientists's rea- sons for his assertion. The s-eientific man believes that a" definite set of conditions will always produce the same result. For example you know perfectly well thru if you were to sow a field of, wheat and if it got no moisture of any kind the because thcv are not of tho scientific wouW sprout or it it did it class. No! These are not the "uld soon wither_ and dto .or asu.n Smoke For best retultt, buy in large TO EUROPE From Si. John. X. B. to Liverpool, Glasgow, London, Southampton, Havre, Antwerp Frequent and 'Direct Sailings Empress of Britain, Empress of France, Metasama, Melita, Minne- dosa, Scandinavian, Victorian, Grampian, Sicilian, Pretorian, Corsican, Scotian, Tunisian. TO THE ORIENT Quickest Time Across the Pacific. Fortnightly sailings To Japan. China and the Phillipines. For further particulars apply Local Agent, or THE CANADIAN PACIFIC OCEAN SERVICES, LIMITED 384 Main Street, Winnipeg if the field consisted of pure .without any fertilizer the wheat S'OuM also perish. If any one asked you what would happen under these conditions you would say at once from your krowiedge that these causes would produce crop failure. do we not h.'ve men who can make wheat grow under the above circumstances by j performing hynotic tricks to deceive Mother Nature or by enchantments cause it to spring forth and grow? It is simply that there is no money in it, for everybody would think that the only safe place for such a one was the lunatic asylum, yet it is not a hit more difficult to-do this than it is to assist in producing rain. In the latter j case the rainmakers are simply deal- ins with causes that are not under- stood by those who have not made a study of them. Dry .air consists of, about 79 parts of nitrogen and 21 cf oxygen with a little carbonic acid gas; these amounts are constant the .world over, but in _ addition there is water vapor which is very variable. covers three- quarters of the surface of the globe, and is known in three different forms: Ice, water and vapor or steam. It is always present in two forms at least; if it is very cold we have ice and vapor; if warm it exists as water and vapor, while at times there may be all three. The amount of water vapor in the air is much greater when warm than when cold. This is because there j is a definite amount of vapor that can j exist in the air for each temperature; j thus at zero the air can hold only i 1.1 oz. of vapor, at 32 degrees 4.8 oz. and at GO degrees 12.7 oz. in 1000 cubic la some agency [or replenishing this loss there would lixni coiuo a time when there would IMJ no nioro moisture left thai could bo precipitated us rain and drought would follow over tho whole world. Nature has, however, provided tho means whereby this Ions can bo made sood and that is by oration. No matter how cold It is, tbero is always some evaporation go- ing on from the surface of tho snow and ice, but the amount is very small; the hotter it is the faster the evapora- tion and consequently the great store- houses for replenishing the vapour in the air are the oceans especially in tho tropics. Having located the reser- voirs tho question artels how is the water transported from tho fountain head, .where is the pipe lino that can have so many ramifications aft to spread itself over the inhabited world; the pipe lines arc the winds and he who can control the winds can control the rain. Then what controls the winds? You know that you can pump water from a well If the sucker is leas than 33 feet from the top of the water but if it is at a greater height it will not bring up tlie water because the air will not force the water up in the pump higher than 33 feet. The pres- sure of the air will thus support a column of -water 33 feet high, and this tells us that as the air can just bal- ance a column of water 33 feet high tho weight of the air in a column of air extending right up to the top of. the atmosphere and of the same cross section as that of the water in the pump must be the same as the weight of a column of water 33 feet high. This weight is about 15 Ibs. to the square inch cross section at sea level. In other words air has weight the same as any other substance, as iron or wood. This is called the pressure of the air and it is because of this pressure that birds and air planes can remain in the air by flying through it. It Is also due to this that winds exist and transport the moisture from place to place. When the pres- sure is measured at different places over the surface of the Globe it found that it varies from place to place; in some regions it is highor than at other places and this causea a flow tf air from the place whjre the pressure ia high to the place where it is low, just as the water in a runs down hill and not up T irom the higher pressure head to the low- er. Again the greater the fall a river has the faster it will flow and in places where the fall is very great it may he a raging torrent while if the river has. very little fall the current will then be very slow and sluggish: just so with the air; if the full of pressure is great the winds will be very strong, while if the fall of pres- sure is very little the winds will be gentle or there may be a calm. By putting the pressure at'different places on a map of the region it is found that these places of high, and low pressures have very definite forma llmo wet, white to the went the weather li and the art ofton very strong from tho Weal or Northwest with rapidly falling tem- perature. It it movemcnti of then -lows" they are called that bring tho rain and mow. Whether a will air during the pas- sage ot a low on its position with respect to the centre of the low. The k a short statement ot how the rmln la brought to the ylac? and now comw the great question: how ii the vapour to bo condensed into nln? According to Mme reports the rain- maker maintains that there are not enough dull or electrified particles in tie air on which the moisture can condense, and it more were added Jt would produce more condensation, and thus give mow rain or else some rain when none would otherwise fall. would have luppoied that all the can- nonading, 'all the various xawi of every description and nil the electri- fied particles produced by high explos- ive that were thrown Into the air during great battles on the West- ern Front during the War would sure- ly havo produced effect if any- thing and yet there is not the slightest indication that they had any effect whatever in producing rain. There i> an Idea that the vapour In the air cannot return to the liquid condition unleas there are dust or electrified particles present on v.'hich the.vapour can condense to form drops. Now this ii a very interesting question and deserves consideration for it Ii true that particles are ot material assistance in enabling the vapour to condense. It was first shown by Ailcen of Edinburgh that if you took a quantity of saturated air and expanded it suddenly in a cloud chara her to produce cooling, that a dense cloud was formed; and it the sam are quite enthusiastic over the pros pect for do they not see time afte time about the sunset hour the dark herxvy rain laden clouds appear ove; the foothills of Southern Alberta, am all expect the long looked for rain a last but only to have their hopes van lib. with the passing cloud. It now some cooling gas could only addei to bring down the rain the district would he saved. For instance, a room full of steam would it not be possible to release a gal with cooling properties in It which would cause immediate condensation ot tha itoam? Then why not attempt It on a larger vcale and release a liberal quantity of It In a. heavy cloud urea, and It iM.nonable we should get rain M SERIES 21 BIG-SDC companion only with the very bett Tha performance of the BIG-SDC may be equalled by! a few is excelled by none. There is a delightful harmony in the sflent, steady pull of its 60-horsepower detachable-head motor, at either -low or high speed. If you pay more than the price of the" BIG-SDC you may buy more weight, but it is impossible to. get finerf materials than are used in the BIG-SIX. Its light weight the use of the highest quality mate- contribute in making the BIG-SDC the greatest seven-passenger automobile value on today. Take a demonstration 'ride in the it. yourself if you you will know why Studebaker is the most popular car in Cerf Tir. EquiprW GRAHAM MOTOR CO. M4 6TH ST. SOUTH. LETHBRIDGE. THIS IS A STUDEBAKER YEAR ;