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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 5, 1921, Lethbridge, Alberta SATCHDAT. MARCH S. mi THE LETBBMDCIt DAILY HERALLi PAGE NINE OF INTEREST TO THE FARMER! HOW RAINFALL IS CAUSED What Hatfield's Chances Really Amount To BY A L T A 1 R T have been In a mood for rending thli week, and have spent some Interesting hours with meteor- oloiy, or, to itlvo It a less technical but quite as satisfactory a weather-science. Now tliat Hatfield churns the power to change the rain- Jall-records of a country by his ap- paratus, many people are discussinc tho causes o( rain and other pertinent Questions., A considerable number of people claim to have knowledge of these things, and a certain clairvoy- ance by means of which such im- portant'tilings as precipitation can be forecast. One regulates his pre- dictions by the behavior of the wea- ther on certain special days, the 2nd of February being a favorite date, an- other ulaces bis confidence in a down- pour of rain on the ninetieth day after a fog. a third watches the habits and coverings of the animal world for signs, and so on. Then in most dis- tricts there is a Foster proselyte, who vociferates his "I told you so" when predictions are fulfilled, though not beard from when 'the weather obstin- ately refuses to'be foretold, and takes a contrary turn. The most reliable weather prophet is the one who. takes notice of such things as balos. sun- dogs, the action of smoke, the prevail- ing winds, all of which indicate the condition of the atmosphere, and joined to an accumulative ex- perience of years of observation'aro likely to be found useful in at least predicting the probable weather. The truth is that very few, outside of students and instructors of the science; understand the1 basic prin- ciples of the cause of rainfall, and re- lated phenomena. This is not to be wondered at. While meteorology is as old a science as we have, practically nothing is yet known of its primary forces. How they work is largely known, but no more is known of their real character than oi electricity or gravitation. The electrician knows how to employ the mysterious ener- gy, making it give us light, heat and power, but to the question, "What Is he Is silent. Nevertheless, there are simple faels which will explain to the unin- itiated how- rainfall, for instance, ours, and which might as well be in the possession of everyone. The air always contains moisture. This is a. fact obvious to anyone. Under, certain conditions, the air is compelled to give up some of the moisture it con- tains, and we have dew, hoar frost or rain. To understand what this con- dition is, it is only necessary to refer to every-day phenomena observed by all. Hot water will dissolve more of nearly every dissolvable lutstaoce than cold water. Suppose one dis- solves all the saltpetre that water 120 degrees F. will take, and then al- low tho water to cool down again, he will find that some of the saltpetre will crystallize out again, and fall to the bottom of the vessel. In exactly the same way, cold air will dissolve a certain amount of water, and warm air far more. Now suppose that a cerv taiu quantity of warm air has in it all the water it can hold, and that the Tvarm air is cooled by a piece of Ice, or a cold wind. The warm air Is low- in temperatprs and now can no longer hold the moisture it had be- fore. So it must give up ''some, and this it does in the form of'very fine particles of water, clqnd. -we would call it. If the cooling goes on far enough, these fine particles or drops grow larger and larger, until their weight carries them down to tho ground. That is the whole process in the familiar rainstorm. Warm air bearing moisture has been cooled In some way, and the surplus moisture it could no longer carry, has fallen to the ground. Rainfall is never caused in any other way. The air MUST be cooled beyond the point where it wiii hoid all the moisture in it, or rainfall is an Impossibility. The more nearly that the air is filled with moisture, satur- ated as we say, the less drop in tem- peratnre is required. Here on the prairie, the air is seldom filled to 'saturation when It is warm, and hence a considerable drop in temperature is required to cause precipitation. One other factor in the cause of rainfall may ,be mentioned here. A nucleus, or centre, is required lor a raindrop to form around, generally a minute par- ticle of dust. Otherwise the air may be cooled down considerably below the point where it should surrender some ot its moisture without causing rain. Except in unusual cases, given the fall In temperature, rtlnfill will not fill 01, for molt the required particles. Ho thai Hatfield, or any other rain- maker, can only hope to produce pre- cipitation In the natural war, by caus- ing a drop In temperature In air (up- piled with moisture, small decrease if the air ii nearly saturated, a great- er decrease if the air It comparatively dry. Whether It li possible to manu- facture such a thermal change on a, scale large enough to bo more than an experiment, I cannot nay. Every- one orders an ice-cold drink on a warm, humid day, creates a fog, or a rain, on the outside of nil tumbler, and miniature rainfalls can be easily produced In a phyiical laboratory, but the commercial production of rain is another question entirely. What chemicals Hatfield uaes in his experi- ments is a mystery. The chance of chemists and physicists overlooking tome process that would render such a scheme as Hatfleld'i feasible Is almost Infinitesimal. There Is one indirect way of caus- ing cold in the upper air, one of Na- ture's methods, which mutt not ,be overlooked. Air, upon riling, because some of the pretiure of the upper atmoiphere it removed, and by expanding, grows colder, from simple law in phytlei. Bo that If a blast of air were blown from ground level Into cloud at an altitude of 600 feet (roughly two-tblrds of a the drop In temperature it would achieve In riling, about 20 de- F., might be sufficient to com- pel the cloud-laden air to give up enough moltture to cause a heavy rain. This is the way most rainfall on a plain Is cauted: by the ascending currents of air that are cooled In ris- ing. A cyclone, uiing the word la Iti non-popitlar ot whirling ttorm, is nothing but a centre of low press- ure surrounded by a ring of air of higher preimre. Naturally the outtlde air rushes In toward the centre, com- pelling the air la the vortex to rise. The riling vortex often causes rain. Practically all of our ttormt are caus- ed in very way, and are properly called cyclonic storms. The tornado is a small cyclone (trua cyclones are often a hundred milee or more across the centre) of hurricane force, and being like it in nature, li often ac- companied or followed with much rain. Some meteorologist! lay much stress on the importance of a nucleus around which t.ha raindrop may form, and 1 have even heard of a proposal to supply the upper atmosphere with dust sprayed from an aeroplane. Per- haps Hatfield worki on the bails of supplying the air with nuclei by means of fine carbon particles pro. duced by combustion, or tome similar means. It to, hit operations can be disregarded. All the dust that the air will hold is useless without the drop in temperature that ii required. In 1910 and later years, during the severe drought ot the summer, the air was filled with the amoke of B. C. fires, but no rain wag forthcoming. The nuclei are there, and without the ne- cessary drop in temperature ot the moisture-laden air, all the dust in the West will, not giva ug a drop of rain. By some' people It It believed that given the clouds above us, all it is ne< cessary to do is to start the downfall, ana rain will continue .to fall. This is not supported by theory. When water- vapor is converted back Into water, the heat that wat required to vapor- ize it, and which was latent, or hid- den, in it, Is given back to the air. So that while the procest It going on, the air is gaining heat, and very soon, unless the source 0{ cold continue! to supply the necessary lower tempera- ture, the precipitation must stop. So that It will not do merely to send up a wave of cold air and start the rain- fall, cold wave must continue as long as the rain is desired to fall. Hatfield, however, is not taking such long chances as this article would seem to Indicate. The rainfall during the growing months of the last four years has been considerably lower than that of the corresponding months of the preceding fifteen years. Taking the precipitation re- cords for Lethbridge, as printed In the Lethbridge Herald, I have obtained the following statistics: Average rainfall during May, June, July, years 1902-16, 8.27 in. Average rainfall during May, June, July, years 1917-20, 3.47 in. So that we are fire Inches To Retailers PTO be successful in buiineu, retailer should make a suitable bank. ing connection and then derive erery advantage afforded by maintaining really close association. We privileged to'co-operate with puta of Ctiudc, snd such accounts. You, Ion, will find our Mr. Tic. helpful, efficient end w. THE STANDARD BANK OF CANADA TOTAL ASSETS OVER NINETY MILLIONS Brunch: C. H. St. John, Lethbridgc North End Branch: T. K. Lock-nod, Manager. Nev.-DiyIon Branch: H. M, Goldbjr, Manmer. Stirling Branch: G. J. Manager. Coalhurtt Branch L. G. Thomas, Manager. Coaldale Branch i T. L. Halpln. Manager. Burdett Branch: C. T. McKJnnon, Manager. par year abort In our last (our jrow- Ini seasons as compared with the, tlttMn-year period. Again, I calculated the rainlaJi of ITUIIP of four coiuwcutlTA jrwri within the Tears 1942 and und found tho re- sult tu bo as follows: Loweit four-year consecutive per- iod between 1902 and 1918 yielded a total of 22.33 in. in the months ofi May, June, July Average four-year consecutive por- ed between 1902 and 191U yielded a .otal ot 29.37 In. In the months May, I June, July. But the four-year period ending 1920 only yielded a total of 13.90 In. I ess than half the precipitation of, :he average four-year consecutive )eriod between the years 1902 and 1916. Thus it will be easily seen that the chances are strongly in favor of high- er precipitation during the crowing months ot the next year or two, unless It IB proved that averages are unre- liable as factors iu 'forecasting, lint Hcures uhow that such phenomena as the annual rainfall tend to remain fairly stationary; for example, the average rainfall for each group ot ten years is likely to differ only slightly from the hundred year aver- age. The average rainfall of this dis- trict Is fnund by calculation to be not quite 16 in. per year for the number of years that have passed since ob- servations have been made. Again we have the probability of higher rainfall soon, for the last four yeara have only yielded 11.47 inches ot rain on au average. It is, therefore, Quite probable that the. coming year will enjoy a rainier growing season than the last four years have brought, and should this] come to pass, many will faithfully be- lieve in Hatfield to the end ot their days. But he will no more succeed in producing rainfall by Jugglery (if in- deed his operations are aptly describ- ed by such a word) than the ancient alchemists succeeded in transmuting metals by magic. Transmutation is a modern scientific possibility, however and if the notorious rain-maker dis- A Start in the Right Direction The temptation to spend money in your pocket ii greater than when your money is in a savings account in the bank. That margin of temptation may mark the difference between an opportunity to go into husine.'j) later on. or of working for wages with nothing saved and, noth- ing ahead, at the end of your working years, Why not open a sav. ingn account in The Bank of Nora Scotia to-day? Your account will ba welcomed and you will have made a start in the right direction. THE BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA B. M. Macleod Manager Lethbridge varieties under the test at Central experimental Farm. Borne of these are decidedly poor and urn kept urgely as an Illustration of wbat in- types be expected Iu the jrdlnary Western Rye of commerce. Khori, however, are strikingly high- producing as hay plants and will, It Is safe to say. easily outYiold the Western liye now available. During lie course of the breeding manr ob- servations buarlng on the nractlcal value of tho various varieties have ieen made, perhaps one of the most mportant onus being that certain varieties develop a much larger mount of aftermath utter cutting than do others, a fact which of course greatly increases their agricultural value. During tho next few years compara- tive tests of a large number of new varieties are planned for throughout Canada, particularly in the prairie provinces, and as soon an the results them are considered to be con- clusive the best varieties will be re- produced on a large scale and made available to (ho public, M. O. Malte, JJominion Agrostologlst. necessary data for the estimation of what this would predict in the pre- cipitation records of the next few years; in fact, I question if records have been kept long enough in Alber- ta to determine this. It may interest some to know why the period should be an irrelevant number like thirty- covers some way of causing rain, it five years. The answer is that our will be by the same scientific method j weather ,s in close sympathy with that enables modern industry to 8H wbich An Interesting question to tllo; who follow the investigations of ther science, is the search of a perioil- j ic wave in weather conditions. After long compilation records, and com- parison of ttata compiled, a cycle of thirty-five years has been discovered. In the simplest words, weather tends to follow a certain course, beginning again when the end ot the cycle has been reached, and following a similar (though not identical) course for the next thirty-five years. I have not tins time as the weather: thirty-five years. So that while the theory ot the moon'3 influence on our weather has been exploded by the scientists, and we no longer regulute our sowing by the phases of the moon, the time may come when the sun-spots, invisible to the unaided eye, will be consulted for our weather probs. und constitute our meteorological advisor on such mat- ters as the advisibility of taking a raincoat with us, or ot harvesting our cropi on Soil Expert Tells How Soil Drifting Is Combatted There Early Spring Tillage, Summer- fallow in Long Narrow Strips, Best Preventives the oumal, thai where can grown with reasonable It In ami Is even lens re- munerative busltioas to Introduce sweet clover M. O. Malte. Dominion Agrostologlbt. VAUXHALL BUSY AS SPRING STARTS BUILDING Our Own Corret-pondRnO VAUXHALU Marrh S. Mr. ami Mrs. C'. Owens havo returned after vis- iting in and around Knehant. Mr. and Mrs, U. A. Rounds have arrived with their household ef- fects and will reside with their son. The meat market is in process of building and in tho meantime tlio butcher delivers meat so wo aro right in lino with oilier cities. Judging by tiie activities around our railroad yard a our "Calif orniit" weather bus awakened the farmers to realize the fact that spring is nenr. The last frain brought in a carload each of horses, farm implements and oats, all oC which are being hauled out to the different farms. We are awakened these mornings to the classical music .of. hammer and uiw on the bluclumltt. alio a restaurant, both of which In ciMirso of erttctlon. Our ttpntnl urorur vnd hunlwHro merchant Ii doiny a ruuhing buslines, V. Koundi, ia tniu- Huctitis builneM at Travera and Lii- moii'I for a few days. r. vy PHttliUin and J. Baiu of Tmv- m, uro In town looking over tlir; imtinn and intend starting hi business hero. erations on his farm. With the lira ited experience that I have, concern ing soil conditions in your section o the country, I dare say that you can ____ produce very effective conditions by In February, Secretary James Rose following the practice of tilling your of the Board ot Trade wrote E. 0. 60il, exceedingly early and then iu- Holland, president of the State Col- stead of using a spike tooth harrow lege of Agriculture. Pullman, Wash- for subsequent tillage work, such iin- ington, with reference to Washington's plsment should be entirely eliminated experience with soil drifting. .Pres. spring tooth harrow substituted. Holland turned the letter over to Prof. The spring tooth harrow will tend to Slevers, head ot the department of keep your surface soil loose and kill soils, for answer, and the following such weeds as may tend to grow, but letter was the result: I at the same time it will not break up February IS, 1921. the clods previously referred to. Mr. James S. Rose, I dare say that you realize also that Sec Lethbridge Board of Trade. much of the damage .that is done by Lethbridge, Albertn, Canada. blowing soil is not the result ot a neg- My dear Sir: lect on the part of the farmer'that is Your letter of recent date request-' damaged but oftentimes the condition Ing the Information concerning the is produced by the soil blowing onto management of soil, has been one farm from another that has bee.n referred to me for reply. poorly'managed. Such a condition of We have not available at this sta- course, can only be controlled by tlon, any publications or bulletins proper co-operatiou and this is often- dealing with the management of this times not possible. soil type, but nevertheless we have Yours very truly, had considerable experience in at- f. J. SIEVES, tempting to solve this problem in con- nection with ,the Experiment Station Professor of Soils. work conducted on one of our dry ff .3, land sub-stations at Und. Washing- ton, as well as on ranch of the terri-, ton' included in the Columbia Basin region. This soil Is of a flue samlv loam type and is exceedingly difficult to handle. Our best results have been obtained by tilling these soils exceed- A A A A BREEDING WORK WITH WESTERN RYE SWEET CLOVER IN THE WEST 5 (ExpeYimental Farms Note.) When the sweet clover question, some years ago, began to gain promin- ence in the eyes of the farming pub- lic, the Division of Forage plants of the Dominion Experimental Farms' System expressed Its views on the value of sweet clover in a pamphlet entitled "Sweet Truth." This pamphlet took the stand that where alfalfa could bo raised success- fully, sweet clover could not be grown to any better advantage. It pointed out the value of sweet clover as a soil improver and its usefulness for poor types ot land but it also drew attention to some of Its draw- backs. On the whole, it maintained a guarded attitude, and quite naturally so, for reliable data bearing on the true value of sweet clover were then so few that they could not possibly be used as conclusive evidence by any self-respecting and publicly-employed investigator. Since then, information based on observations bearing on its general usefulness throughout Canada, par- ticularly for such districts in which alfalfa had proved either a failure or a crop of doubtful merits, has been collected. On the basis of these ob- servations we are forced to say that what we said, in 1916, in our pamphlet on sweet clover, has proven to be serially correct. As far as the West IB concerned, we therefore must maintain that on land wtere alfalfa can be grown to advan- tage, sweet clover has no place as a forage crop. On certain poor types of land, however, and in the districts of the West in which the scarcity of the moisture supply does not allow alfalfa to develop to satisfaction, the growing of sweet clover may prove more re- munerative than the growing of al- falfa. As an illustration may he mention- ed results of experiments carried out during several years at the Experi- mental Station at Scott. Sask. At this Station, where the crops during the past few years have suffered se- verely through lack of sufficient moisture, it has been found that alfal- fa can not be relied upon as a remun- erative crop as far as tonnage of the hay produced is concerned in dry seasons particularly. In comparison with sweet clover, alfalfa has proven to be decidedly in- ferior. Even in years of "plentiful" rainfall only one hay crop of alfalfa can be taken or, at least, has so far been taken, whereas, even in lean years, two crops of sweet clover may be expected. Under the conditions at Scott, sweet clover produces about twice as much hay as does alfalfa. As a result ot these findings it has been decided to substitute sweet clover for the previously used alfalfa in the gen- eral farm rotations, ot course us a trial experiment to start with. There are several districts iu the West similar to that of Scott as far as tho moisture supply is concerned where, no doubt, sweet clover will produce better crops than any other leguminous forage plant and in theso districts its use may be recommended. Our opinion is, however, as stated at BELIEVE BOOZE IS KUN OVER BORDER BY PLANE, MANITOBA WINNIPEG, Mar. An airplane. believed to be the link an In- ternational (tang of bootleggers, is re- purtcd to he making frequent night trips from a place a fow milwa south of Winnipeg to a destination in l.'nitral States, according to a story published in a local newspaper today. The story says the "plane apparent- ly picks up its cargo from a shallow land depression six or eight miles west of the station ot St. Agatuo, about -10 miles south ot Winnipeg. Fire destroyed the bis frame barn at the Sheldon hotel, Goderich. Chance and Saving The man who complains that he never had a chance, also never had a Bank Account. He spent everything he made. But the man higher up, and the man on top, developed the saving habit early. The man with money in the Bank does not scold fortune; he takes advantage of opportunity. A Sayinn Account started with The Merchants Bank is UH first round up the ladder of succeaa. MCRCHANTS BANK Head Office: Montreal. OF CANA.DA Established 1884. 1XTHBMDGE BRANCH. CALGARY STOCK YARDS BRANCH, Soli-Anoer Uoami open Tulutan U4 Fiubltt. ingly early in the spring, in fact, so early that the soil is hardly in the best condition for the preparation of a suit- able seed bed. Through this early tirlage, however, we succeed in creat- ing a comparatively lumpy or cloddy condition of the surface of the laud. These lumps or clods have a tendency to offer a very decided resistance to the air circulation with the result that the velocity of the wind will be check- ed to a considerable degree. Thus, cutting the velocity down to a rate it has much less carrying-power n fei tirely PI a late date In the season, which prac- tice oftentimes becomes necessary, due to the lack of a thorough distribu- tion of labor on the farm, then we, have a problem that is almost impossible to combat. Theoretically, one means of reliev- ing the situation, is to summer-fallow1 the fields in comparatively long, nar- row strips, running at right angles to the general direction of the prevailing winds. These strips nre then alter- nated between a crop and a summer fallow, and the crop field will offer sufficient resistance to the wind to check it BO that it will have very little carrying power wheri it reaches the strip that Is not protected, by a grow- ing crop. In-actual practice, the farmer has not taken to this system very kindly because of the fact that it interferes somewhat rill (eneral tillage uy- (Exepcrimental Farms Note.) It has ions been well known that there exist in nature a large number ot different forms of Western Rye grass. Some of them, it had been ob- served, apparently possessod higher merits from a hay-producing stand- point than the ordinary Rye grass available through the trade and, us a consequence, the question of de- 'veloping new varieties of outstanding qualities was taken up by the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa. The task appeared to be very promising from the beginning on account of the could be accomplished in a short time. This assumption, however, soon prov- ed to be erroneous for it did not take long before it became evident that there is no cultivated grass of which distinct and valuable varieties can be produced more easily. The Western Rye grass, It was ob- served, behaved like wheat in the matter of reproduction; that is to say, the various forms breed normal- ly true to type. This means from a practical point of view.'that any form found in the wild state can bu devel- oped Into a perfectly uniform variety without the slightest trouble. Them under normal conditions no cross- ings taking place between the differ- ent forms und under the eircumstan- the Western Rye grass breeder can work with a large number n! varieties simultaneously. At present Uwre are some one hundred and forty 1 The Farmer's Opportunity There is today a ready market lor everything you can produce. Cultivate your land to the limit. In- crease your production und your profits. A portion or your inolita deposited today hi our Savings Department will have far greater purchas- ing power in the future. The Royal Bank of Canada Total Lethbridge E. MucKiy, manager. EXPORT TRADE Manufacturers contemplating the exten- sion of trade in foreign countries are offered the assistance which this Bank's world-wide business connection makes possible. The experience and facilities of a depart- ment of the Bank devoted wholly to foreign business are at your command, THE CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE PAID-UP CAPITAL RESERVE FUND LETHBBIDGE BRANCHVK. .W. Reikie, Manager. n 11 n I n H to A YEAR FOR LIFE A CANADIAN GOVERNMENT ANMTY PKeflBB IT better life investment available No better Kcurity obtainable Cannot be seized or levied upon for any eauw be replaced if hxt, stolen or dertroyW affected by trade depreakm from Dominion Income Tax No medical examination required Anyone over the age erf 5 yeara resident or dooridkd ift may purchase. Any two persons may purchase jointly. Employers purchase for their school for llicir teachers conffrefations for their ministers. Apply ts your poitmcattr; or intendent of Annuitwt, Ottawa, for new State age Utt birtbdty- free, to S. T, BMtaifo, Sdptr- t ud other dwind. BRITISH CANADIAN TRUST COT HEAD OFFICE, CONYBEARE BLOCK LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA AUTHORIZED TO ACT AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, ASSIGNEE, GUARDIAN, TRUSTEE GENERAL FINANCIAL AGENTS AUTHORIZED TRUSTEE UNDER BANK- RUPTCY ACT It Costs Nothing to obtain our advice, based on twenty-five years of experience, in the distribution of your estate under your will. Wciinvite confidential inquiries in any matter pertaining to the administration oC Estates. TRUSTS and GUARANTEE Company, Limited 2UO 8TH AVE. W., CALGARY ALBERTA. LETHBRIDGE OFFICE, BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING, J. W. McNicol, Inspector. ;